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South Perth, Australia

Renton M.,University of Western Australia | Renton M.,CSIRO | Diggle A.,Baron Hay Ct | Manalil S.,University of Western Australia | Powles S.,University of Western Australia
Journal of Theoretical Biology | Year: 2011

Evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds is a growing problem across the world, and it has been suggested that low herbicide rates may be contributing to this problem. An individual-based simulation model that represents weed population dynamics and the evolution of polygenic herbicide resistance was constructed and used to investigate whether using lower herbicide rates or standard rates at reduced efficacy could reduce the sustainability of cropping systems by causing faster increases in weed population density as herbicide resistance develops. A number of different possible genetic bases for resistance were considered, including monogenic resistance and polygenic resistance conferred by several genes. The results show that cutting herbicide rates does not affect the rate at which weed densities reach critical levels when resistance is conferred exclusively by a single dominant gene. In some polygenic situations, cutting herbicide rates substantially reduces sustainability, due to a combination of faster increase in resistance gene frequency and reduced kill rates in all genotypes, while in other polygenic situations the effect is small. Differences in sustainability depend on combined strength of the resistance genes, variability in phenotypic susceptibility and rate delivered, level of control due to alternative measures, and degree of genetic dominance and epistasis. In the situation where resistance can be conferred by both a single dominant major gene or a number of co-dominant minor genes in combination, the difference made by low rates depends on the relative initial frequency of the major and minor genes. These results show that careful consideration of herbicide rate and understanding the genetic basis of resistance are important aspects of weed management. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Crawford A.C.,Baron Hay Ct | Crawford A.C.,Murdoch University | Francki M.G.,Baron Hay Ct | Francki M.G.,Murdoch University
Molecular Genetics and Genomics | Year: 2013

Knowledge of molecular and genetic mechanisms controlling wheat grain quality characteristics is significant for improving flour for end-product functionality. Flour bcolour is an important quality trait for breeding wheat varieties to produce grain for specific market requirements. The degree of flour yellowness is due to the accumulation of carotenoids in grain, particularly lutein. Flour bis under polygenic control and quantitative trait loci (QTL) have frequently been reported on chromosome 7AL. Analysis of carotenoid genes showed that phytoene synthase (PSY) co-located to the QTL on 7AL but other genes at this locus are also thought to contribute flour bcolour variation. This study used the wheat genome survey sequence and identified the chromosomal location of all wheat carotenoid genes, but none other than PSY were located on 7AL and, therefore, other genes may control flour bcolour variation including oxidative genes that degrade carotenoids. An investigation of EST bin mapped to 7AL identified a gene encoding a catalase enzyme (Cat3-A1) that was phylogenetically related to other plant class III enzymes, co-located to the QTL for flour bcolour variation on 7AL in three mapping populations and expressed during seed development. Therefore, Cat3-A1 was functionally associated with flour bcolour variation. Catalase acts upon hydrogen peroxide as a substrate and it was postulated that Cat3-A1 alleles control varying degrees of bleaching action on lutein in developing wheat grain. Markers for Cat3-A1 developed in this study can be used in conjunction with other candidate gene markers including phytoene synthase and lycopene-ε-cylase to develop a molecular signature for selecting lines with specific flour bcolour values in wheat breeding. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Broughton S.,Baron Hay Ct | Zhou G.,Baron Hay Ct | Teakle N.L.,Edith Cowan University | Teakle N.L.,University of Western Australia | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2015

Tolerance to waterlogging is an important breeding objective for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.); however, it is a complex quantitative trait. It is difficult to screen large numbers of lines in the field due to environmental variability, and it is also challenging to screen large numbers in controlled conditions if yield data are to be collected. The direct measurement of traits that contribute to waterlogging tolerance, such as aerenchyma development in roots, may offer advantages especially if molecular markers can be developed to screen breeding populations. A doubled haploid population from a cross between Franklin and YuYaoXiangTian Erleng was screened for adventitious root porosity (gas-filled volume per unit root volume) as an indicator of aerenchyma formation. A single QTL for root porosity was identified on chromosome 4H which explained 35.7 and 39.0 % of phenotypic variation in aerated and oxygen-deficient conditions, respectively. The nearest marker was EBmac0701. This QTL is located in the same chromosomal region that contributed to tolerance when the same population was screened in an earlier independent soil waterlogging experiment. Comparative mapping revealed that this QTL is syntenic with the Qaer1.02-3 QTL in maize and the Sub1A-1 gene in rice, which are associated with aerenchyma formation (maize) and submergence tolerance (rice), respectively. This is the first report of a QTL for root porosity in barley which elucidates a major mechanism of waterlogging tolerance. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Li D.A.,Baron Hay Ct | Li D.A.,Murdoch University | Walker E.,Baron Hay Ct | Walker E.,Murdoch University | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Genomics | Year: 2015

Carotenoids (especially lutein) are known to be the pigment source for flour b* colour in bread wheat. Flour b* colour variation is controlled by a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on wheat chromosome 7AL and one gene from the carotenoid pathway, phytoene synthase, was functionally associated with the QTL on 7AL in some, but not all, wheat genotypes. A SNP marker within a sequence similar to catalase (Cat3-A1snp) derived from full-length (FL) cDNA (AK332460), however, was consistently associated with the QTL on 7AL and implicated in regulating hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to control carotenoid accumulation affecting flour b* colour. The number of catalase genes on chromosome 7AL was investigated in this study to identify which gene may be implicated in flour b* variation and two were identified through interrogation of the draft wheat genome survey sequence consisting of five exons and a further two members having eight exons identified through comparative analysis with the single catalase gene on rice chromosome 6, PCR amplification and sequencing. It was evident that the catalase genes on chromosome 7A had duplicated and diverged during evolution relative to its counterpart on rice chromosome 6. The detection of transcripts in seeds, the co-location with Cat3-A1snp marker and maximised alignment of FL-cDNA (AK332460) with cognate genomic sequence indicated that TaCat3-A1 was the member of the catalase gene family associated with flour b* colour variation. Re-sequencing identified three alleles from three wheat varieties, TaCat3-A1a, TaCat3-A1b and TaCat3-A1c, and their predicted protein identified differences in peroxisomal targeting signal tri-peptide domain in the carboxyl terminal end providing new insights into their potential role in regulating cellular H2O2 that contribute to flour b* colour variation. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Francki M.G.,Baron Hay Ct | Francki M.G.,Murdoch University | Shankar M.,Baron Hay Ct | Walker E.,Baron Hay Ct | And 4 more authors.
Phytopathology | Year: 2011

Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB) is a significant disease in some wheat-growing regions of the world. Resistance in wheat to Stagonospora nodorum is complex, whereby genes for seedling, flag leaf, and glume resistance are independent. The aims of this study were to identify alternative genes for flag leaf resistance, to compare and contrast with known quantitative trait loci (QTL) for SNB resistance, and to determine the potential role of host-specific toxins for SNB QTL. Novel QTL for flag leaf resistance were identified on chromosome 2AS inherited from winter wheat parent 'P92201D5' and chromosome 1BS from spring wheat parent 'EGA Blanco'. The chromosomal map position of markers associated with QTL on 1BS and 2AS indicated that they were unlikely to be associated with known host-toxin insensitivity loci. A QTL on chromosome 5BL inherited from EGA Blanco had highly significant association with markers fcp001 and fcp620 based on disease evaluation in 2007 and, therefore, is likely to be associated with Tsn 1-ToxA insensitivity for flag leaf resistance. However, fcp001 and fcp620 were not associated with a QTL detected based on disease evaluation in 2008, indicating two linked QTL for flag leaf resistance with multiple genes residing on 5BL. This study identified novel QTL and their effects in controlling flag leaf SNB resistance. © 2011 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

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