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Nannaparaju M.,Barking Havering and Redbridge NHS Trust | Oragui E.,Barking Havering and Redbridge NHS Trust | Khan W.S.,University College London
Journal of Stem Cells | Year: 2012

The traditional methods of treating musculoskeletal injuries and disorders are not completely effective and have several limitations. Tissue engineering involves using the principles of biology, chemistry and engineering to design a 'neotissue' that augments a malfunctioning in vivo tissue. The main requirements for functional engineered tissue include reparative cellular components that proliferate on a scaffold grown within a bioreactor that provides specific biochemical and physical signals to regulate cell differentiation and tissue assembly. In this review we provide an overview of the biology of common musculoskeletal tissue and discuss their common pathologies. We also describe the commonly used stem cells, scaffolds and bioreactors and evaluate their role in issue engineering. © 2012 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.


Oragui E.,Barking Havering and Redbridge NHS Trust | Sachinis N.,Barking Havering and Redbridge NHS Trust | Hope N.,Middlesex University | Khan W.S.,University College London | Adesida A.,University of Alberta
Journal of Stem Cells | Year: 2012

Tendon injuries are common and due to their limited capacity for self-healing, the biomechanical and functional properties of healed tendon are usually inferior to normal tissue. Tissue engineering offers the hope of regenerating tendon tissue with the same biomechanical properties of the native undamaged tissue by augmenting the regenerative process of in vivo tissue or producing a functional tissue in vitro that can be implanted into the defective tendon site. Current research on tendon tissue engineering has focused on the role of stem cell and tendon derived cell therapy, scaffolds, chemical and physical stimulation and gene-therapeutic approaches. In this review we review the important functional anatomy and pathomechanics of tendon injury and discuss the current advances in tendon tissue engineering. © 2012 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

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