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Mantova, Italy

Lattanzio V.M.T.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production | Gatta S.D.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production | Suman M.,Barilla SpA | Visconti A.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry

A sensitive and robust liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2), ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins in cereal-based foods. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile/water (84:16, v/v) and cleaned up through a polymeric solid-phase extraction column. Detection and quantification of the nine mycotoxins were performed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS), using fully 13C-isotope-labelled mycotoxins as internal standards. The method was validated in-house for five different cereal processed products, namely barley, oat and durum wheat flours, rye- and wheat-based crisp bread. Recoveries and repeatability of the whole analytical procedure were evaluated at contamination levels encompassing the EU maximum permitted levels for each tested mycotoxin. Recoveries ranged from 89 to 108% for deoxynivalenol, from 73 to 114% for aflatoxins, from 85 to 114% for T-2 and HT-2 toxins, from 64 to 97% for zearalenone, from 74 to 102% for ochratoxin A. Relative standard deviations were less than 16% for all tested mycotoxins and matrices. Limits of detection (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) ranged from 0.1 to 59.2 μg/kg. The trueness of the results obtained by the proposed method was demonstrated by analysis of reference materials for aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone. The use of inexpensive clean-up cartridges and the increasing availability of less expensive LC/MS/MS instrumentation strengthen the potential of the proposed method for its effective application for reliable routine analysis to assess compliance of tested cereal products with current regulation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Pigani L.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Seeber R.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Bedini A.,University of Parma | Dalcanale E.,University of Parma | Suman M.,Barilla SpA
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering

The food industry is continuously looking for reliable methods useful to standardize different control parameters and has a direct interest into bittera tasting substances, either for the identification of negative offa flavors or for the monitoring of a desired organoleptic quality. The exploitation of dedicated panel tests for sensory purposes is useful, but it suffers from limitations related to subjectivity, reproducibility, and number of analysis per day (Profile Attribute Analysis). On the contrary, sophisticated analytical solutions, such as HPLC, need trained personnel and are often too expensive or time consuming. The target of the present research work is the development of alternative techniques potentially able to detect taste molecular markers in bakery commodities, with particular attention to polyphenol detection. In particular, two different analytical approaches were developed and compared to a reference LC-MS protocol in order to detect the polyphenol concentration inside real food matrices like biscuits: FT-NIR and electroanalytical methods. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Anese M.,University of Udine | Suman M.,Barilla SpA
Food Research International

Furan and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are heterocyclic compounds that are formed in a variety of heat-treated commercial foods. In 1995, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified furan as "possibly carcinogenic to humans". HMF was supposed to induce genotoxic and mutagenic effects in bacterial and human cells and promote colon cancer in rats. As this gave rise for concern, more researches have been carried out in order to study the metabolism and toxicity, as well as elucidate the mechanistic pathways of these important food-related compounds. In this review we analyzed the strategies that are suggested in the literature to mitigate furan and HMF levels in food, focusing on the most innovative and potentially exploitable at industrial level. In particular, the mitigation strategies have been classified either as preventive or removal interventions. The former allow furan and HMF concentrations to be kept as low as possible during heating; the latter are aimed to move away or decompose the already formed undesired molecules. Despite the great number of papers dealing with the influence of composition and process variables on furan and HMF formation, only a few efficient ways of mitigation of these molecules have been described as potentially exploitable at the industrial level. These are preventive strategies based on changes in formulation (e.g. ammonium bicarbonate, phosphate, β-carotene substitution, and/or ascorbic acid addition in combination with amino acids, sugars, and lipids) and reduction of the thermal impact (i.e. conventional-dielectric combined heating), as well as post-process removal interventions of the already formed furan and HMF from the finished product by means of vacuum treatments. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Pigani L.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Seeber R.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Bedini A.,University of Parma | Dalcanale E.,University of Parma | Suman M.,Barilla SpA
Food Analytical Methods

The food industry has a direct interest to bitter-tasting substances, either for the identification of negative off-flavors or for the monitoring of organoleptic quality. Polyphenols (such as catechins and epicathechins) are among the main molecular components responsible for the bitter taste of coffee/cocoa/chocolate-based products. The electrochemical detection of epicatechin through adsorptive stripping voltammetry on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-modified Pt electrodes has been investigated. The accumulation conditions were defined in order to record repeatable and reproducible electrochemical signals. Calibration plots were built in the 0.2-2.5 ppm concentration range of epicatechin in phosphate buffer solutions, pH 7. Preliminary tests in aqueous extraction solutions of biscuits containing different percentages of cocoa were performed; they confirmed, in principle, the effectiveness of the device and of the procedure proposed for the epicatechin determination by simple extraction from complex food matrices. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Anese M.,University of Udine | Suman M.,Barilla SpA | Nicoli M.C.,University of Udine
Food Chemistry

The possibility to remove acrylamide from foods by exploiting its chemical physical properties was studied. Commercial biscuits and potato chips were subjected to vacuum treatments at different combinations of pressure, temperature and time. Results showed that acrylamide removal was achieved only in samples previously hydrated at water activity values higher than 0.83, and that, a maximum of acrylamide removal was obtained between 5 and 15 min of vacuum treatment at 6.67 Pa and 60 °C. By applying these process conditions, it was possible to remove 43% and 18% acrylamide from the biscuits and the potato chips, respectively. It was hypothesised that the vacuum treatment could favour acrylamide formation by promoting the decarboxylation of the Schiff base, a key intermediate of acrylamide formation. Although further research is needed to find out for each food category the process conditions that can maximise acrylamide removal while minimising its formation as well as to evaluate the effects on the sensory properties, this technology would represent a promising and alternative strategy to mitigation interventions aimed at reducing acrylamide levels in foods. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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