Barilla SpA

Parma, Italy

Barilla SpA

Parma, Italy
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Lattanzio V.M.T.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production | Gatta S.D.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production | Suman M.,Barilla SpA | Visconti A.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2011

A sensitive and robust liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2), ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins in cereal-based foods. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile/water (84:16, v/v) and cleaned up through a polymeric solid-phase extraction column. Detection and quantification of the nine mycotoxins were performed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS), using fully 13C-isotope-labelled mycotoxins as internal standards. The method was validated in-house for five different cereal processed products, namely barley, oat and durum wheat flours, rye- and wheat-based crisp bread. Recoveries and repeatability of the whole analytical procedure were evaluated at contamination levels encompassing the EU maximum permitted levels for each tested mycotoxin. Recoveries ranged from 89 to 108% for deoxynivalenol, from 73 to 114% for aflatoxins, from 85 to 114% for T-2 and HT-2 toxins, from 64 to 97% for zearalenone, from 74 to 102% for ochratoxin A. Relative standard deviations were less than 16% for all tested mycotoxins and matrices. Limits of detection (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) ranged from 0.1 to 59.2 μg/kg. The trueness of the results obtained by the proposed method was demonstrated by analysis of reference materials for aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone. The use of inexpensive clean-up cartridges and the increasing availability of less expensive LC/MS/MS instrumentation strengthen the potential of the proposed method for its effective application for reliable routine analysis to assess compliance of tested cereal products with current regulation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Anese M.,University of Udine | Valoppi F.,University of Udine | Calligaris S.,University of Udine | Lagazio C.,University of Genoa | And 3 more authors.
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2016

Unconventional formulation and baking conditions were exploited for obtaining omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enriched biscuits. A monoglyceride-flaxseed oil–water gel was used to obtain biscuits which had physical and chemical properties analogous to those of a control sample prepared with palm oil. To reduce fat oxidation and acrylamide and furan formation, the dough was baked at different temperature, time and pressure (i.e. varying from 101.33 to 0.15 kPa) conditions according to a central composite design. Baking at high temperature and reduced pressure allowed to obtain biscuits with acceptable water content and colour, while minimizing omega-3 fatty acids oxidation and acrylamide and furan formation. The biscuits best responding to these characteristics were obtained by applying the combination 174 °C-3.99 kPa-45 min. The low pressure generated inside the oven likely exerted a stripping effect towards acrylamide and furan as well as oxygen thus preventing toxicants to accumulate and lipid oxidation to occur. This study highlighted that the use of monoglyceride-flaxseed oil–water gel combined with baking under reduced pressure is potentially applicable at the industrial level to obtain nutritionally enhanced biscuits, while simultaneously preventing the occurrence of degradation reactions and toxic molecules formation. Due to the worldwide diffusion of cereal-based foods, including sweet biscuits, this formulation and process strategy could have a great economic impact. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Bedini A.,University of Parma | Zanolli V.,Buchi Italia Srl | Zanardi S.,Barilla SpA | Bersellini U.,Barilla SpA | And 2 more authors.
Food Analytical Methods | Year: 2013

The food industry has a direct interest into bitter-tasting substances either for the identification of negative off-flavors or for the monitoring of a desired organoleptic quality. A rapid technique, based on Fourier transform-near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy and able to detect taste molecular markers in bakery commodities, was developed, focusing the attention on biscuits category. Xanthines (caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline) and polyphenols (catechins and epicathechins), considered as mainly responsible for the bitter-taste of coffee\cocoa\chocolate based products, were firstly checked using a confirmatory liquid chromatography (LC)-ESI\mass spectrometry (MS)-MS procedure after hot methanol-water extraction. Correspondent data were used for the calibration of the FT-NIR through PLS regression. Values of the standard errors of prediction (lower than 10 %) were comparable to the values of the standard errors of cross-validation. Coefficients of determination indicated a good predictive power in the calibration model (R2 xanthines = 0. 97, R2 polyphenols = 0. 96) and a satisfying discriminating power among different contents in the validation models (R2 xanthines = 0. 96, R2 polyphenols = 0. 96). A testing phase on the generated model was executed by a comparison of LC-MS and sensory panel data with FT-NIR responses recorded on unknown biscuits: differences between found and predicted levels were generally below 5 % and the best predictability was achievable in chocolate-based biscuits. This methodology is able to work directly on solid products, has the potential to be expanded on other categories of gustative molecular markers (like sugars) and can be conceived as applicable for a routine control of a standardized bitter taste quality in a real industrial production. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


De Dominicis E.,Merieux Nutriscience Company | Commissati I.,Merieux Nutriscience Company | Gritti E.,Merieux Nutriscience Company | Catellani D.,Barilla SpA | Suman M.,Barilla SpA
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2015

In addition to ‘traditional’ multi-residue and multi-contaminant multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometric techniques devoted to quantifying a list of targeted compounds, the global food industry requires non-targeted methods capable of detecting other possible potentially hazardous compounds. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography combined with a single-stage Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer (UHPLC-HRMS Exactive™-Orbitrap Technology) was successfully exploited for the complete selective and quantitative determination of 33 target compounds within three major cross categories (pesticides, antibiotics and mycotoxins) in bakery matrices (specifically milk, wheat flour and mini-cakes). Resolution was set at 50 000 full width at half maximum (FWHM) to achieve the right compromise between an adequate scan speed and selectivity, allowing for the limitations related to the necessary generic sample preparation approach. An exact mass with tolerance of 5 ppm and minimum peak threshold of 10 000 units were fixed as the main identification conditions, including retention time and isotopic pattern as additional criteria devoted to greatly reducing the risk of false-positive findings. The full validation for all the target analytes was performed: linearity, intermediate repeatability and recovery (28 analytes within 70–120%) were positively assessed; furthermore, limits of quantification between 5 and 100 µg kg−1 (with most of the analytes having a limit of detection below 6 µg kg−1) indicate good performance, which is compatible with almost all the regulatory needs. Naturally contaminated and fortified mini-cakes, prepared through combined use of industrial and pilot plant production lines, were analysed at two different concentration levels, obtaining good overall quantitative results and providing preliminary indications of the potential of full-scan HRMS cluster analysis. The effectiveness of this analytical approach was also tested in terms of the formulation of hypotheses for the identification of other analytes not initially targeted which can have toxicological implications (e.g. 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside), opening a window on retrospective investigation perspectives in food safety laboratories. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Pigani L.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Seeber R.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Bedini A.,University of Parma | Dalcanale E.,University of Parma | Suman M.,Barilla SpA
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering | Year: 2014

The food industry is continuously looking for reliable methods useful to standardize different control parameters and has a direct interest into bittera tasting substances, either for the identification of negative offa flavors or for the monitoring of a desired organoleptic quality. The exploitation of dedicated panel tests for sensory purposes is useful, but it suffers from limitations related to subjectivity, reproducibility, and number of analysis per day (Profile Attribute Analysis). On the contrary, sophisticated analytical solutions, such as HPLC, need trained personnel and are often too expensive or time consuming. The target of the present research work is the development of alternative techniques potentially able to detect taste molecular markers in bakery commodities, with particular attention to polyphenol detection. In particular, two different analytical approaches were developed and compared to a reference LC-MS protocol in order to detect the polyphenol concentration inside real food matrices like biscuits: FT-NIR and electroanalytical methods. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Anese M.,University of Udine | Suman M.,Barilla SpA
Food Research International | Year: 2013

Furan and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are heterocyclic compounds that are formed in a variety of heat-treated commercial foods. In 1995, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified furan as "possibly carcinogenic to humans". HMF was supposed to induce genotoxic and mutagenic effects in bacterial and human cells and promote colon cancer in rats. As this gave rise for concern, more researches have been carried out in order to study the metabolism and toxicity, as well as elucidate the mechanistic pathways of these important food-related compounds. In this review we analyzed the strategies that are suggested in the literature to mitigate furan and HMF levels in food, focusing on the most innovative and potentially exploitable at industrial level. In particular, the mitigation strategies have been classified either as preventive or removal interventions. The former allow furan and HMF concentrations to be kept as low as possible during heating; the latter are aimed to move away or decompose the already formed undesired molecules. Despite the great number of papers dealing with the influence of composition and process variables on furan and HMF formation, only a few efficient ways of mitigation of these molecules have been described as potentially exploitable at the industrial level. These are preventive strategies based on changes in formulation (e.g. ammonium bicarbonate, phosphate, β-carotene substitution, and/or ascorbic acid addition in combination with amino acids, sugars, and lipids) and reduction of the thermal impact (i.e. conventional-dielectric combined heating), as well as post-process removal interventions of the already formed furan and HMF from the finished product by means of vacuum treatments. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Diamanti J.,Marche Polytechnic University | Balducci F.,Marche Polytechnic University | Di Vittori L.,Marche Polytechnic University | Capocasa F.,Marche Polytechnic University | And 5 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2016

The key to obtain high quality processed products with improved appeal for the consumer and/or added value for new market sectors is to use raw materials with high sensorial and nutritional traits. Fruit puree is commonly treated by thermal pasteurisation, although the major limitation of this treatment is the effect on the stability of the nutrients and those compounds related to aroma and colour. Flasks of processed fruit products were stored in dark at 4°C (fridge) and at 25°C (ambient). Fruit and puree sensorial (soluble solid content, pH, colorimetric index) and polyphenols nutritional parameters (total antioxidant capacity, phenol and anthocyanin contents) were analyzes before and immediately after processing (time 0) and after 30, 60, 120, 180 days of ambient and fridge storage. The data demonstrate that the genotypes with specific phytochemical compositions (high ACY and TPH content) showed greater stability for fruit colour and phenolic composition. Two cultivars ('Romina' and 'Syria') and 2 new breeding selections (An1 and An7) showed higher stability even after 6 months of ambient storage, which represents the worst storage conditions for such a product. Puree of the same genotypes and of 'Romina' showed the highest stability at fridge storage.


Manzocco L.,University of Udine | Maifreni M.,University of Udine | Anese M.,University of Udine | Munari M.,University of Udine | And 4 more authors.
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2014

This study investigated the effect of pulsed light (up to 26.25 J/cm2) on the inactivation of Salmonella enterica and on the eventual occurrence of undesirable changes in the quality of fresh egg pasta just after preparation and during storage at 4 °C. When S. enterica was inoculated on egg pasta surface, a light dose of 0.70 J/cm2 sufficed to lower counts by 2.5 log units while 3.50 J/cm2 were required for a 3.3 log unit reduction (below detection limit). For S. enterica inoculated in the dough, a light dose of 3.50 J/cm2 lowered counts by only 1.0 log unit while 17.50 J/cm2 were required for a 3.3 log unit reduction, due to the limited light penetration through egg pasta. At a dose of 1.75 J/cm2, pulsed light induced no significant changes in egg pasta appearance, oxidation state and sensory properties. At higher doses, off-flavour formation was detected. Independently of the dose applied, pulsed light did not induce furan formation and promoted an increase in the oxidative stability of egg pasta lipids as well as pigment bleaching during storage. The latter was attributed to the formation of photo-induced non-enzymatic browning products. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Anese M.,University of Udine | Suman M.,Barilla SpA | Nicoli M.C.,University of Udine
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The possibility to remove acrylamide from foods by exploiting its chemical physical properties was studied. Commercial biscuits and potato chips were subjected to vacuum treatments at different combinations of pressure, temperature and time. Results showed that acrylamide removal was achieved only in samples previously hydrated at water activity values higher than 0.83, and that, a maximum of acrylamide removal was obtained between 5 and 15 min of vacuum treatment at 6.67 Pa and 60 °C. By applying these process conditions, it was possible to remove 43% and 18% acrylamide from the biscuits and the potato chips, respectively. It was hypothesised that the vacuum treatment could favour acrylamide formation by promoting the decarboxylation of the Schiff base, a key intermediate of acrylamide formation. Although further research is needed to find out for each food category the process conditions that can maximise acrylamide removal while minimising its formation as well as to evaluate the effects on the sensory properties, this technology would represent a promising and alternative strategy to mitigation interventions aimed at reducing acrylamide levels in foods. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Merieux Nutriscience Company and Barilla SpA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment | Year: 2015

In addition to traditional multi-residue and multi-contaminant multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometric techniques devoted to quantifying a list of targeted compounds, the global food industry requires non-targeted methods capable of detecting other possible potentially hazardous compounds. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography combined with a single-stage Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer (UHPLC-HRMS Exactive-Orbitrap Technology) was successfully exploited for the complete selective and quantitative determination of 33 target compounds within three major cross categories (pesticides, antibiotics and mycotoxins) in bakery matrices (specifically milk, wheat flour and mini-cakes). Resolution was set at 50 000 full width at half maximum (FWHM) to achieve the right compromise between an adequate scan speed and selectivity, allowing for the limitations related to the necessary generic sample preparation approach. An exact mass with tolerance of 5 ppm and minimum peak threshold of 10 000 units were fixed as the main identification conditions, including retention time and isotopic pattern as additional criteria devoted to greatly reducing the risk of false-positive findings. The full validation for all the target analytes was performed: linearity, intermediate repeatability and recovery (28 analytes within 70-120%) were positively assessed; furthermore, limits of quantification between 5 and 100 g kg(-1) (with most of the analytes having a limit of detection below 6 g kg(-1)) indicate good performance, which is compatible with almost all the regulatory needs. Naturally contaminated and fortified mini-cakes, prepared through combined use of industrial and pilot plant production lines, were analysed at two different concentration levels, obtaining good overall quantitative results and providing preliminary indications of the potential of full-scan HRMS cluster analysis. The effectiveness of this analytical approach was also tested in terms of the formulation of hypotheses for the identification of other analytes not initially targeted which can have toxicological implications (e.g. 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside), opening a window on retrospective investigation perspectives in food safety laboratories.

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