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Parma, Italy

Delcour J.A.,Catholic University of Leuven | Rouau X.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Courtin C.M.,Catholic University of Leuven | Poutanen K.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Ranieri R.,Barilla Inc.
Trends in Food Science and Technology

As part of a general trend, the grain processing industry faces the challenge to produce new ingredients and foods with added value for consumer health. In this context, the EU 6th Framework Integrated Project HEALTHGRAIN, as part of its overall goal to provide the scientific basis for increasing the intake of health-promoting compounds in whole grains or their fractions, developed new technologies for cereal ingredient and food manufacture. We here report on the outcome of this work, with a main emphasis on wheat processing. It included revisiting dry milling and exploration of wet enzyme-based fractionation processes as well as fermentation in order to produce food ingredients and/or foods with increased levels of health relevant components and structural features delivering good sensory properties. A novel wheat grain fractionation diagram was developed for incorporating bioactive compounds in flour and removing the parts of the grain detrimental for technological quality and safety. Processing eliminated the pericarp by initial pearling to leave only the crease material attached to the kernel, the resultant grain was milled to eliminate the bran crease material, and the white flour was remixed with the pearling fraction to incorporate as much as possible of the aleurone layer material into the flour. A process for isolating aleurone from wheat bran starts with size reduction of bran particles to favour tissue separation. The aleurone tissue is then mechanically separated from the other seed coats by using impact or shearing forces. After these fragmentations, the resultant blend is mechanically separated. Further purification of aleurone cells can be achieved using electrostatic separation to yield a powder containing about 90% aleurone which has high antioxidant activity and contains significant levels of vitamins, minerals, phytosterols, lignans and other phenolic substances. The size distribution of the particles ground to ultra-fine size was narrower for cryogenic grinding than for ambient grinding. Further work dealt with wet processing. The abundance of arabinoxylan (AX) in bran offered excellent possibilities for manufacturing AX oligosaccharides (AXOS), which meet the criteria for prebiotics. Xylanases release AXOS from AX with a yield which was negatively correlated with the arabinose to xylose ratio of wheat bran AX. In addition, hyperthermophilic xylanases allow producing AXOS in situ during bread making without the negative impacts of AX extensive hydrolysis on dough processing that some regular xylanases induce. Bran fermentation with yeast prior to bread making leads to higher bread volume and greater crumb softness. Moreover, bioprocessing of bran by enzyme-aided fermentation increases the content of soluble fibre and the in vitro and in vivo bioaccessibility of phenolic acids. The quality of gluten-free breads can be improved by using lactic acid bacteria with properties including antifungal activity, or the production of exopolysaccharides or enzymes. Finally, studies and demonstration activities were carried out on laboratory and pilot scale. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Santesso N.,McMaster University | Akl E.A.,McMaster University | Akl E.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Bianchi M.,Barilla Inc. | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Background/Objectives:Numerous randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in first tier medical journals have evaluated the health effects of diets high in protein. We conducted a rigorous systematic review of RCTs comparing higher-and lower-protein diets.Methods:We searched several electronic databases up to July 2011 for studies focusing on patient-important outcomes (for example, cardiovascular disease) and secondary outcomes such as risk factors for chronic disease (for example, adiposity).Results:We identified 111 articles reporting on 74 trials. Pooled effect sizes using standardised mean differences (SMDs) were small to moderate and favoured higher-protein diets for weight loss (SMD 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56 to 0.17), body mass index (0.37, CI 0.56 to 0.19), waist circumference (0.43, CI 0.69 to 0.16), blood pressure (systolic: 0.21, CI 0.32 to 0.09 and diastolic: 0.18, CI 0.29 to 0.06), high-density lipoproteins (HDL 0.25, CI 0.07 to 0.44), fasting insulin (0.20, CI 0.39 to 0.01) and triglycerides (0.51, CI 0.78 to 0.24). Sensitivity analysis of studies with lower risk of bias abolished the effect on HDL and fasting insulin, and reduced the effect on triglycerides. We observed nonsignificant effects on total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, C-reactive protein, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and surrogates for bone and kidney health. Adverse gastrointestinal events were more common with high-protein diets. Multivariable meta-regression analysis showed no significant dose response with higher protein intake.Conclusions:Higher-protein diets probably improve adiposity, blood pressure and triglyceride levels, but these effects are small and need to be weighed against the potential for harms. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Background: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have provided important benefits in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease and in the prevention of non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and aspirin-related ulcer complications. PPIs are also the most commonly used medications for stress ulcer prophylaxis, despite little evidence to support their use in non-intensive care unit. Discussion: Considering the widespread use of PPIs, these agents' overall safety profile is unquestionable. However, there is growing evidence that PPIs use may be associated with an increased risk of enteric infections, pneumonia, hip fractures, vitamin B12 deficiency. Overall, until now, none of these adverse effects have discouraged the PPIs treatment. Recently attention has been placed on a more important potential adverse effect of PPIs, their interaction with Clopidogrel to which they are associated for the prophylaxis of gastrointestinal bleeding. Preliminary results of laboratory tests suggest that omeprazole reduces Clopidogrel 's antiplatelet effect. The interaction seems to involve the competitive inhibition of the CYP2C19 isoenzyme. The effect appears to be clinically important, as some retrospective studies have shown an increase in adverse cardiovascular outcomes when PPIs and Clopidogrel are used concomitantly. Some studies indicate that pantoprazole and esomeprazole are not associated with impaired response to Clopidogrel. However, the available data for PPIs other than omeprazole do not allow definitive conclusions to be drawn about whether is a class effect. Conclusions: Specifically designed and randomized clinical studies are needed to define the interaction between PPIs and Clopidogrel. Moreover, alternative treatment strategies with histamines receptor antagonists that are not dependent on cytochrome p450 2C19 should be tested in future studies. © 2010 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved. Source

Barilla Inc. | Date: 2011-08-10


Barilla Inc. | Date: 2012-02-28


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