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Box Elder, NY, United States

Bard College, founded in 1860 as St. Stephen's College, is a private liberal arts college in Annandale-on-Hudson, a hamlet in Dutchess County, New York, United States, in the town of Red Hook. The campus overlooks the Hudson River and Catskill Mountains, and is within the Hudson River Historic District, a National Historic Landmark.The institution consists of a liberal arts college, a conservatory, as well as eight graduate programs offering over 20 graduate degrees in the arts and science. The undergraduate student-to-faculty ratio is 10:1. The college has a network of over thirty-five affiliated programs, institutes, and centers, spanning twelve cities, five states, seven countries, and four continents.Bard's Annandale campus serves as an important regional cultural institution. Both the CCS Hessel Museum of Contemporary Art and the Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts are located on campus. The college also hosts two acclaimed annual arts festivals, Bard SummerScape, and the Bard Music Festival. Wikipedia.

Keesing F.,Bard College | Young T.P.,University of California at Davis
BioScience | Year: 2014

African savannas are home to an abundant and diverse assemblage of wild herbivores, but the very grasses that sustain these wild herds also make savannas attractive to humans and their livestock. We used the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment to investigate the ecological effects of different combinations of native and domestic grazers. The experimental removal of large grazing mammals set into motion a cascade of consequences, beginning with the doubling in abundance of a small grazing mammal, the pouched mouse (Saccostomus mearnsi). The presence of abundant mice attracted venomous snakes such as the olive hissing snake (Psammophis mossambicus); devastated seedlings of the dominant tree (Acacia drepanolobium); and doubled the abundance of fleas, which potentially increased the risk of transmission of flea-borne pathogens. Together, these results show the potential for the loss of large mammals to have cryptic consequences for African savannas, with important and often undesirable repercussions for humans. © The Author(s) 2014. Source

Robertson B.A.,Bard College | Robertson B.A.,Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute | Rehage J.S.,Florida International University | Sih A.,University of California at Davis
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC; e.g., climate change or exotic species) has caused global species declines. Although behavioral plasticity has buffered some species against HIREC, maladaptive behavioral scenarios called 'evolutionary traps' are increasingly common, threatening the persistence of affected species. Here, we review examples of evolutionary traps to identify their anthropogenic causes, behavioral mechanisms, and evolutionary bases, and to better forecast forms of HIREC liable to trigger traps. We summarize a conceptual framework for explaining the susceptibility of animals to traps that integrates the cost-benefit approach of standard behavioral ecology with an evolutionary approach (reaction norms) to understanding cue-response systems (signal detection). Finally, we suggest that a significant revision of conceptual thinking in wildlife conservation and management is needed to effectively eliminate and mitigate evolutionary traps. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Van Petten C.,Binghamton University State University of New York | Luka B.J.,Bard College
International Journal of Psychophysiology | Year: 2012

Because context has a robust influence on the processing of subsequent words, the idea that readers and listeners predict upcoming words has attracted research attention, but prediction has fallen in and out of favor as a likely factor in normal comprehension. We note that the common sense of this word includes both benefits for confirmed predictions and costs for disconfirmed predictions. The N400 component of the event-related potential (ERP) reliably indexes the benefits of semantic context. Evidence that the N400 is sensitive to the other half of prediction - a cost for failure - is largely absent from the literature. This raises the possibility that "prediction" is not a good description of what comprehenders do. However, it need not be the case that the benefits and costs of prediction are evident in a single ERP component. Research outside of language processing indicates that late positive components of the ERP are very sensitive to disconfirmed predictions. We review late positive components elicited by words that are potentially more or less predictable from preceding sentence context. This survey suggests that late positive responses to unexpected words are fairly common, but that these consist of two distinct components with different scalp topographies, one associated with semantically incongruent words and one associated with congruent words. We conclude with a discussion of the possible cognitive correlates of these distinct late positivities and their relationships with more thoroughly characterized ERP components, namely the P300, P600 response to syntactic errors, and the "old/new effect" in studies of recognition memory. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Eshel G.,Bard College | Shepon A.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Makov T.,The New School | Milo R.,Weizmann Institute of Science
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014

Livestock production impacts air and water quality, ocean health, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on regional to global scales and it is the largest use of land globally. Quantifying the environmental impacts of the various livestock categories, mostly arising from feed production, is thus a grand challenge of sustainability science. Here, we quantify land, irrigation water, and reactive nitrogen (Nr) impacts due to feed production, and recast published full life cycle GHG emission estimates, for each of the major animal-based categories in the US diet. Our calculations reveal that the environmental costs per consumed calorie of dairy, poultry, pork, and eggs are mutually comparable (to within a factor of 2), but strikingly lower than the impacts of beef. Beef production requires 28, 11, 5, and 6 times more land, irrigation water, GHG, and Nr, respectively, than the average of the other livestock categories. Preliminary analysis of three staple plant foods shows two- to sixfold lower land, GHG, and Nr requirements than those of the nonbeef animal-derived calories, whereas irrigation requirements are comparable. Our analysis is based on the best data currently available, but follow-up studies are necessary to improve parameter estimates and fill remaining knowledge gaps. Data imperfections notwithstanding, the key conclusion - that beef production demands about 1 order of magnitude more resources than alternative livestock categories - is robust under existing uncertainties. The study thus elucidates the multiple environmental benefits of potential, easy-toimplement dietary changes, and highlights the uniquely high resource demands of beef. Source

This paper examines recent southern New York State climate changes as reflected in a detailed hourly climate record collected about 110 km due north of New York City since 1988, including comprehensive surface radiation data. Comparing 1988-2000 and 2001-14 means, the area has warmed, dominated by a 0.5- 0.7-K summer warming. Daytime warming exceeds nighttime's warming. Warming is not due to enhanced downward longwave flux but arises from increased incident solar fluxes accompanying declining aerosol loads. Local warming is shown to stem from a large-scale response to increased solar forcing, the key element of which is an accelerated summer hydrological cycle: Increased precipitation, with smaller evaporation increases leading to large, significant soil moisture and runoff increases. Much of the accelerated summer hydrological cycle is shown to arise as a result of an anomalous low-level cyclonic motion centered on the mid- Atlantic U.S. coast, rendering the results regional rather than local. Analyzing the stability and CAPE budgets of mean and individual summer profiles over the studied site provides a diagnostic explanation of the observed warming and accelerated hydrometeorology due to enhanced solar fluxes. The study reveals a complex suite of (thermo)dynamic feedbacks to radiative forcing of which surface warming is but one element, reiterating and re-emphasizing that surface temperature trends may be embedded in far richer physics than greenhouse gas-induced radiative forcing alone. © 2016 American Meteorological Society. Source

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