Box Elder, NY, United States
Box Elder, NY, United States

Bard College, founded in 1860 as St. Stephen's College, is a private liberal arts college in Annandale-on-Hudson, a hamlet in Dutchess County, New York, United States, in the town of Red Hook. The campus overlooks the Hudson River and Catskill Mountains, and is within the Hudson River Historic District, a National Historic Landmark.The institution consists of a liberal arts college, a conservatory, as well as eight graduate programs offering over 20 graduate degrees in the arts and science. The undergraduate student-to-faculty ratio is 10:1. The college has a network of over thirty-five affiliated programs, institutes, and centers, spanning twelve cities, five states, seven countries, and four continents.Bard's Annandale campus serves as an important regional cultural institution. Both the CCS Hessel Museum of Contemporary Art and the Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts are located on campus. The college also hosts two acclaimed annual arts festivals, Bard SummerScape, and the Bard Music Festival. Wikipedia.


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Van Petten C.,Binghamton University State University of New York | Luka B.J.,Bard College
International Journal of Psychophysiology | Year: 2012

Because context has a robust influence on the processing of subsequent words, the idea that readers and listeners predict upcoming words has attracted research attention, but prediction has fallen in and out of favor as a likely factor in normal comprehension. We note that the common sense of this word includes both benefits for confirmed predictions and costs for disconfirmed predictions. The N400 component of the event-related potential (ERP) reliably indexes the benefits of semantic context. Evidence that the N400 is sensitive to the other half of prediction - a cost for failure - is largely absent from the literature. This raises the possibility that "prediction" is not a good description of what comprehenders do. However, it need not be the case that the benefits and costs of prediction are evident in a single ERP component. Research outside of language processing indicates that late positive components of the ERP are very sensitive to disconfirmed predictions. We review late positive components elicited by words that are potentially more or less predictable from preceding sentence context. This survey suggests that late positive responses to unexpected words are fairly common, but that these consist of two distinct components with different scalp topographies, one associated with semantically incongruent words and one associated with congruent words. We conclude with a discussion of the possible cognitive correlates of these distinct late positivities and their relationships with more thoroughly characterized ERP components, namely the P300, P600 response to syntactic errors, and the "old/new effect" in studies of recognition memory. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Lafratta C.N.,Bard College
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

Laser trapping by optical tweezers makes possible the spectroscopic analysis of single cells. Use of optical tweezers in conjunction with Raman spectroscopy has allowed cells to be identified as either healthy or cancerous. This combined technique is known as laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS), or Raman tweezers. The Raman spectra of cells are complex, since the technique probes nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids; but statistical analysis of these spectra makes possible differentiation of different classes of cells. In this article the recent development of LTRS is described along with two illustrative examples for potential application in cancer diagnostics. Techniques to expand the uses of LTRS and to improve the speed of LTRS are also suggested. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Ostfeld R.S.,Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies | Keesing F.,Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies | Keesing F.,Bard College
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics | Year: 2012

The dynamics of Infectious diseases can be affected by genetic diversity within host populations, species diversity within host communities, and diversity among communities. In principle, diversity can either increase or decrease pathogen transmission and disease risk. Theoretical models and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that a dilution effect (decreased disease risk with increasing diversity) can occur under a wide range of conditions. Field studies of plants, aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, birds, and mammals demonstrate that the phenomenon indeed does occur in many natural systems. A dilution effect is expected when (a) hosts differ in quality for pathogens or vectors; (b) higher quality hosts tend to occur in species-poor communities, whereas lower quality hosts tend to occur in more diverse communities; and (c) lower quality hosts regulate abundance of high-quality hosts or of vectors, or reduce encounter rates between these hosts and pathogens or vectors. Although these conditions characterize many disease systems, our ability to predict when and where the dilution effect occurs remains poor. The life-history traits that cause some hosts to be widespread and resilient might be correlated with those that promote Infection and transmission by some pathogens, supporting the notion that the dilution effect might be widespread among disease systems. Criticisms of the dilution effect have focused on whether species richness or species composition (both being metrics of biodiversity) drives disease risk. It is well established, however, that changes in species composition correlate with changes in species richness, and this correlation could explain why the dilution effect appears to be a general phenomenon. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: GEOPHYSICS | Award Amount: 138.55K | Year: 2016

Earths inner core is elastically anisotropic, with seismic waves propagating parallel to the rotation axis about 3% faster than those parallel to the equatorial plane. The inner core also exhibits an attenuation anisotropy, with the faster waves having smaller amplitudes. There is now evidence that the pattern of both anisotropies is more complex, exhibiting depth dependence, hemispherical variations, and smaller scale regional variations. The isotropic seismic velocity may also exhibit regional variations. These puzzling seismic inferences are clues as to the structure and evolution of the solid iron alloy inner core. This grant will allow the PI to investigate the causes of inner core attenuation and its anisotropy, and thus help to better understand the most remote part of our planet. In particular, in laboratory studies the PI will use ultrasonic waves to probe metallic alloys with a variety of microstructures that have been suggested for the inner core, employing ratios of wavelengths to grain and sub-grain lengthscales that are relevant to the inner core. By comparison with seismic data, this will allow the PI to quantify the relative importance of scattering attenuation versus intrinsic attenuation (viscoelasticity). As an RUI grant, the project will involve diverse undergraduates in all aspects of the research, providing them with training and experience in doing science.

Most explanations for the elastic anisotropy rely on a lattice preferred orientation (texturing) of hexagonal close-packed iron crystals, the most likely stable phase of iron under inner core conditions. Explanations for the texturing fall broadly into two classes, that due to solidification and that due to deformation. Directional solidification of metallic alloys typically results in columnar grains formed by primary and secondary dendrites of the primary compositional phase, with the secondary phase along grain boundaries and between dendrites, i.e., intragranular. Such microstructure has been proposed for the inner core, and scattering off grain boundaries of elongated crystals has been suggested as a cause for the attenuation anisotropy. Solidification microstructure is not thermodynamically stable, however, and annealing can result in coarsening of secondary dendrites, while maintaining the primary dendrites and columnar crystals, or possibly, in recrystallization and polygonal grain growth. The latter typically occurs in deformed materials exposed to high temperature. The PI will examine the ultrasonic scattering attenuation of three possible microstructures likely in Earths inner core: directional solidified columnar grains composed of primary and secondary dendrites; directionally solidified and then annealed grains; and polygonal grains that result from recrystallization due to deformation and annealing. He will use Pb-Sn because of its simple eutectic phase diagram, ease of use, and relatively small single crystal elastic anisotropy; and microstructures with relative wavelength/scatterer dimensions thought to be similar to those in the inner core. The PI will use the shape and decay of the ultrasonic coda to determine the quality factor Q, and will compare the ultrasonic waveforms with seismic data to infer regional microstructure in the inner core, which will give insight into the evolution of the inner core.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 250.00K | Year: 2011

The Earths central, solid inner core exhibits some intriguing properties, in particular, seismic wavespeed and attenuation that depend on the propagation direction of the seismic wave, with the spin axis being close to the axis of symmetry. Moreover, there is evidence that this directionality, or anisotropy, is stronger in the western hemisphere of the inner core. These seismic inferences can give us insight into the evolution and structure of the Earths core, which this study will explore. The work will draw on experience in materials science and geophysics to study the processes of solidification, annealing, and deformation, which are likely key to understanding the origin of the inner core seismic properties. The project will involve diverse undergraduates in all aspects of the work, allowing undergraduates the opportunity to get involved in research at an institution that is trying actively to improve its science education for students across the spectrum in interest and background in science. It will also involve a post-doc who will spend one-third of his/her time teaching and being mentored at an undergraduate institution, gaining experience teaching and managing the teaching/research balance at an undergraduate institution.

Most explanations for the elastic anisotropy rely on an alignment of the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) iron crystals that likely compose the inner core. The explanations for the alignment fall broadly into two classes, solidification texturing and deformation texturing. However, it seems increasingly likely that no one explanation may suffice to understand the complex inner core structure. Hence, one goal of this study is to understand deformation of metallic alloys during solidification. One possibility for the east-west asymmetry is that the inner core is solidifying in the west, translating eastward due to convection, and melting in the west. Accompanying this translation is annealing, and a second, related goal of this study is to better understand the annealing of directionally solidified alloys such as that in the Earths inner core.

The first part of this study will examine experimentally the high temperature deformation of an hcp zinc-rich tin alloy that has been directionally solidified. The directionally solidified castings will have the columnar, dendritic structure that has been proposed for the inner core. Slices of the castings will then be heated to a high homologous temperature, at which the small fraction of interdendritic tin will melt. While held at this temperature, a slice will be given a differential twist to produce a constant strain rate. Each slice will be examined before and after deformation for crystalline orientation, microstructure (morphology and grain size), and chemical variations, while the torque will be measured during the deformation in order to establish the stress-strain relationship and hence the deformation mechanism. The first goal of this study will help to interpret inner core elastic and attenuation anisotropies, and to give insight on the grain size and viscosity of the inner core, both of which relate to the deformation mechanism.

Previous work has shown that annealing of iron crystals as they convectively transverse the inner core could be responsible for east-west asymmetry. The second goal of this study is thus to better understand the annealing of directionally solidified alloys where an alloying element has a very low solubility in the primary phase, which has been identified as a key, previously unstudied feature. The study will use phase field modeling to better understand the evolution of such systems, and also examine the annealing of an hcp magnesium-rich alloy that has been directionally solidified to confirm the observations in the zinc-rich system. The study uses the methods and experience of materials science to shed light on a puzzling problem in Earth science.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: STUDIES OF THE EARTHS DEEP INT | Award Amount: 7.00K | Year: 2016

This award will partially cover participant costs for the 15th Symposium on Study of Earths Deep Interior (SEDI). The meeting will be held in Nantes, France from July 24-29, 2016. SEDI is an international scientific organization dedicated to the Study of the Earths Deep Interior. The ultimate goal of SEDI is an enhanced understanding of the past evolution and current thermal, chemical and dynamical state of the Earths deep interior and of the effect of that the interior has on structures and processes observed at the surface of the Earth. The deep interior is generally considered to be the core and lower mantle, but interest often extends to the surface, for example, in the study of mantle plumes or dynamics of descending lithospheric slabs. The scientific questions and problems of interest to SEDI include the geomagnetic dynamo and secular variation, paleomagnetism and the evolution of the Earths deep interior, material properties at extreme conditions, structure and dynamics of the core and mantle, core-mantle interactions, and the nature and location of deep geochemical reservoirs.

This workshop will contribute to interdisciplinary education of US graduate students and beginning researchers by fostering dialog with researchers at all levels at a relatively small workshop-style meeting. The international format complements efforts by US national groups such as CIDER and will be useful to those funded under or seeking funding from the NSF CSEDI program. The structure of SEDI is intrinsically interdisciplinary, providing many opportunities for intra- and international collaborations on a broad range of topics that contribute to our understanding of the deep earth and other planetary interiors.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 24.00K | Year: 2014

Funds are provided to partially cover participant costs for beginning scientists at the 14th Symposium on Study of Earths Deep Interior (SEDI). The meeting will be held in Tokyo, Japan from August 4-8, 2014. This proposal will contribute to interdisciplinary education of US graduate students and beginning researchers by fostering dialog with researchers at all levels at a relatively small workshop-style meeting. The international format complements efforts by US national groups such as CIDER and will be useful to those funded under or seeking funding from the NSF CSEDI program. The structure of SEDI is intrinsically interdisciplinary, providing many opportunities for intra- and inter- national collaborations on a broad range of topics that contribute to our understanding of the deep Earth and other planetary interiors.

SEDI is an international scientific organization dedicated to the Study of the Earths Deep Interior. The ultimate goal of SEDI is an enhanced understanding of the past evolution and current thermal, chemical and dynamical state of the Earths deep interior and of the effect the interior has on structures and processes observed at the surface of the Earth. The deep interior is generally considered to be the core and lower mantle, but interest often extends to the surface, for example, in the study of mantle plumes or dynamics of descending lithospheric slabs. The scientific questions and problems of interest to SEDI include the geomagnetic dynamo and secular variation, paleomagnetism and the evolution of the Earths deep interior, material properties at extreme conditions, structure and dynamics of the core and mantle, core-mantle interactions, and the nature and location of deep geochemical reservoirs.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 198.00K | Year: 2011

In this RUI project funded by the Chemical Structure, Dynamics and Mechanisms Program of the Chemistry Division, Professor Craig M. Anderson of Bard College will investigate the effect that ligand architecture has on the selectivity of carbon-hydrogen bond activation by platinum centers. He will examine selective carbon-hydrogen activation as a function of the ligand as a strategy for increasing control of desired products and improving processes as C-H activation has practical significance in commercial applications such as catalysis. Specifically, he plans to synthesize a variety of naphthyl and phenanthryl functionalized imine ligands in order to facilitate and/or drive the regioselectivity of C-H bonds mediated by platinum(II) centers. The newly formed cyclometalated platinum complexes will be characterized and studied for their reactivity. Ligands will be designed so that variables such as the ring size of the platinacycle formed, the bond hybridization of the C-H bond being activated, and aromaticity of the ring formed can be examined in detail. The resultant cyclometalated products will be studied in order to examine the factors affecting reductive elimination to produce C-C coupling as well as for their reactivity with various substrates.

An important component of this work is that it will involve undergraduate student researchers at all levels. This includes the multi-step synthesis of ligands and complexes, the characterization of intermediates and products by IR, UV/Vis, emission spectroscopy, NMR, and XRD (X-ray diffraction) where possible, and the use of computational techniques to determine the kinetically and thermodynamically favored products in order to correlate theory with experimental results. The proposed research plans to establish a greater set of selectivity guidelines (especially in cases where several variables compete simultaneously), offer promise for the development of more selective catalytic processes, and contribute to the understanding of the intimate mechanisms of these processes. The activation of carbon-hydrogen bonds by metal complexes is important in the functionalization of available feedstocks into more useful products and materials, and is germane in the area of synthesis, for example, in carbon-carbon bond coupling.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 216.00K | Year: 2014

In this project funded by the Chemical Structure, Dynamics and Mechanisms B Program of the Chemistry Division, Professor Craig M. Anderson of the Chemistry Department at Bard College will investigate the synthesis of transition cyclometalated complexes. The study of these complexes may advance the understanding of fundamental catalytic reactions and eventually contribute in areas with energy implications, as cyclometalated complexes are well known in the study of artificial photosynthetic devices. Another very important aspect of this work is that it will involve undergraduates at all levels from first-year to senior students. It will also allow students to gain experience in many diverse skills and techniques such as synthesis, characterization, and analysis of results. The students will become well trained in order to continue further scientific studies, disseminate their work through written publications and oral presentations, and develop new hypotheses for testing.

Cyclometalated transition metal complexes are a very versatile group of compounds whose varied applications include acting as catalysts, sensors, artificial photosynthetic devices, and bio-organometallic agents. The effect that ligand architecture exerts on selectivity and reactivity of cyclometalated complexes is important to understand, as the coordination environment determines both reaction functionality and efficacy. First, the physical and chemical properties of these cyclometalated compounds will be tuned to maximize their benefits, which include catalysis and anti-cancer agents. Second, studying the regiochemistry of C-H and C-X bond activation will be examined in the area of synthetic chemistry. Third, several multi-heteronuclear species will be synthesized and their interaction with biomolecules, such as proteins, DNA, and RNA will be examined


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 24.67K | Year: 2015

The purpose of this award is to support participation by students and early career researchers, including members of under-represented groups, in the mathematical and physical sciences at the 14th Experimental Chaos and Complexity Conference (ECC 2016) to be held May 16-19, 2016 in Alberta, Canada. ECC 2016 will bring together an international group of researchers to improve the scientific understanding of complex systems such as the cardiac electrical system, the brain, energy and the power grid, social systems, earthquakes, and climate. The objective of ECC 2016 is to encourage and facilitate the collaboration of experimental and applied research in mathematics, physics, engineering, neuroscience, chemistry, and biology.

ECC 2016 highlights new results in the study of complex systems at a variety of scales. The goal is to bring together experimentalists and applied researchers to study various aspects of of nonlinear dynamics, chaos, and complexity. Examples of applications where this type of collaboration has been successful include the cardiac electrical system, the brain, energy and the power grid, social systems, earthquakes, and climate. These systems can display chaotic dynamics, in that small changes in inputs or features of the system can cause large changes in behavior. The study of complexity and chaos by mathematicians, physicists, engineers, chemists, biologists, and neuroscientists has led to the ability to understand and control chaotic systems in areas ranging from control of cardiac chaos to improved efficiency in combustion systems. The award gives students and early career researchers, including members of under-represented groups, the opportunity to attend and participate in this conference, with the hope that it inspires new research directions and collaborations for this group.

Conference web site: http://wcm.ucalgary.ca/ecc2016/

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