Gascon J.,Barcelona Center for International Health Research |
Gascon J.,Barcelona Institute for Global Health ISGlobal |
Vilasanjuan R.,Barcelona Institute for Global Health ISGlobal |
Lucas A.,Barcelona Institute for Global Health ISGlobal
Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy | Year: 2014
Chagas disease has a unique history where the confluence of rural and marginalized populations affected, the deeply rooted attitudes, clinical practices and an underfunded research area has resulted in one of the most current neglected health issues. Globalization has changed the epidemiology of the disease, which is now found throughout the Americas but also in Europe and Japan. Thus, Chagas disease is a global public health problem. In this new paradigm, a strong partnership aimed to coordinate actions to scale up diagnostics and treatments, to engage communities and health practitioners in implementation and advocating for sustained funding for the development of improved tools, can play a critical role to leave behind this story of neglect. Even with the imperfect tools currently available, still much can be done. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.
Gysels M.H.,King's College London |
Gysels M.H.,Barcelona Center for International Health Research |
Higginson I.J.,King's College London
BMC Palliative Care | Year: 2011
Background: Breathlessness is one of the core symptoms, particularly persistent and frequent, towards the end of life. There is no evidence of how the experience of breathlessness differs across conditions. This paper compares the experience of breathlessness in cancer, COPD, heart failure and MND, four conditions sharing heavy symptom burdens, poor prognoses, high breathlessness rates and palliative care needs. Methods. For this qualitative study a purposive sample of 48 patients was included with a diagnosis of cancer (10), COPD (18), heart failure (10) or MND (10) and experiencing daily problems of breathlessness. Patients were recruited from the respective clinics at the hospital; specialist nurses' ward rounds and consultations, and "Breathe Easy" service users meetings in the community. Data were collected through semi-structured, in-depth interviews and participant observation. Breathlessness was compared according to six components derived from explanatory models and symptom schemata, first within groups and then across groups. Frequency counts were conducted to check the qualitative findings. Results: All conditions shared the disabling effects of breathlessness. However there were differences between the four conditions, in the specific constraints of the illness and patients' experiences with the health care context and social environment. In cancer, breathlessness signalled the (possible) presence of cancer, and functioned as a reminder of patients' mortality despite the hopes they put in surgery, therapies and new drugs. For COPD patients, breathlessness was perceived as a self-inflicted symptom. Its insidious nature and response from services disaffirmed their experience and gradually led to greater disability in the course of illness. Patients with heart failure perceived breathlessness as a contributing factor to the negative effects of other symptoms. In MND breathlessness meant that the illness was a dangerous threat to patients' lives. COPD and heart failure had similar experiences. Conclusion: Integrated palliative care is needed, that makes use of all appropriate therapeutic options, collaborative efforts from health, social care professionals, patients and caregivers, and therapies that acknowledge the dynamic interrelation of the body, mind and spirit. © 2011 Gysels and Higginson; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Martin-Jaular L.,Barcelona Center for International Health Research |
Nakayasu E.S.,University of Texas at El Paso |
Nakayasu E.S.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory |
Ferrer M.,Barcelona Center for International Health Research |
And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011
Exosomes are 30-100-nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are released after the fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) with the plasma membrane. While initial studies suggested that the role of exosomes was limited to the removal of proteins during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes, recent studies indicate that they are produced by different types of cells and are involved in promoting inter-cellular communication and antigen presentation. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of exosomes from peripheral blood of BALB/c mice infected with the reticulocyte-prone non-lethal Plasmodium yoelii 17X strain. Importantly, proteomic analysis revealed the presence of parasite proteins in these vesicles. Moreover, immunization of mice with purified exosomes elicited IgG antibodies capable of recognizing P. yoelii-infected red blood cells. Furthermore, lethal challenge of immunized mice with the normocyte-prone lethal P. yoelii 17XL strain caused a significant attenuation in the course of parasitaemia, increased survival time, and altered the cell tropism to reticulocytes. These results were obtained also when the exosomes were isolated from a P. yoelii-infected reticulocyte culture indicating that reticulocyte-derived exosomes carry antigens and are involved in immune modulation. Moreover, inclusion of CpG ODN 1826 in exosome immunizations elicited IgG2a and IgG2b antibodies and promoted survival, clearance of parasites and subsequent sterile protection of 83% of the animals challenged with P. yoelli 17XL. To our knowledge, this is the first report of immune responses elicited by exosomes derived from reticulocytes opening new avenues for the modulation of anti-malaria responses. © 2011 Martin-Jaular et al.
Huijben S.,Pennsylvania State University |
Huijben S.,Barcelona Center for International Health Research |
Bell A.S.,Pennsylvania State University |
Sim D.G.,Pennsylvania State University |
And 6 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2013
Drug resistant pathogens are one of the key public health challenges of the 21st century. There is a widespread belief that resistance is best managed by using drugs to rapidly eliminate target pathogens from patients so as to minimize the probability that pathogens acquire resistance de novo. Yet strong drug pressure imposes intense selection in favor of resistance through alleviation of competition with wild-type populations. Aggressive chemotherapy thus generates opposing evolutionary forces which together determine the rate of drug resistance emergence. Identifying treatment regimens which best retard resistance evolution while maximizing health gains and minimizing disease transmission requires empirical analysis of resistance evolution in vivo in conjunction with measures of clinical outcomes and infectiousness. Using rodent malaria in laboratory mice, we found that less aggressive chemotherapeutic regimens substantially reduced the probability of onward transmission of resistance (by >150-fold), without compromising health outcomes. Our experiments suggest that there may be cases where resistance evolution can be managed more effectively with treatment regimens other than those which reduce pathogen burdens as fast as possible. © 2013 Huijben et al.
Pulford J.,Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research PNGIMR |
Pulford J.,University of Queensland |
Hetzel M.W.,Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research PNGIMR |
Hetzel M.W.,University of Queensland |
And 3 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011
Background: A review of the barriers to mosquito net use in malaria-endemic countries has yet to be presented in the published literature despite considerable research interest in this area. This paper partly addresses this gap by reviewing one component of the evidence base; namely, published research pertaining to self-reported reasons for not using a mosquito net among net 'owning' individuals. It was anticipated that the review findings would potentially inform an intervention or range of interventions best suited to promoting greater net use amongst this group. Method. Studies were sought via a search of the Medline database. The key inclusion criteria were: that study participants could be identified as owning a mosquito net or having a mosquito net available for use; that these participants on one or more occasions were identified or self-reported as not using the mosquito net; and that reasons for not using the mosquito net were reported. Studies meeting these criteria were included irrespective of mosquito net type. Results: A total of 22 studies met the inclusion criteria. Discomfort, primarily due to heat, and perceived (low) mosquito density were the most widely identified reason for non-use. Social factors, such as sleeping elsewhere, or not sleeping at all, were also reported across studies as were technical factors related to mosquito net use (i.e. not being able to hang a mosquito net or finding it inconvenient to hang) and the temporary unavailability of a normally available mosquito net (primarily due to someone else using it). However, confidence in the reported findings was substantially undermined by a range of methodological limitations and a dearth of dedicated research investigation. Conclusions: The findings of this review should be considered highly tentative until such time as greater quantities of dedicated, well-designed and reported studies are available in the published literature. The current evidence-base is not sufficient in scope or quality to reliably inform mosquito net promoting interventions or campaigns targeted at individuals who own, but do not (reliably) use, mosquito nets. © 2011 Pulford et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Paaijmans K.P.,Pennsylvania State University |
Paaijmans K.P.,Barcelona Center for International Health Research |
Cator L.J.,Pennsylvania State University |
Thomas M.B.,Pennsylvania State University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
A mosquito needs to bite at least twice for malaria transmission to occur: once to acquire parasites and, after these parasites complete their development in their mosquito host, once to transmit the parasites to the next vertebrate host. Here we investigate the relationship between temperature, parasite development, and biting frequency in a mosquito-rodent malaria model system. We show that the pre-bloodmeal period (the time lag between mosquito emergence and first bloodmeal) increases at lower temperatures. In addition, parasite development time and feeding exhibit different thermal sensitivities such that mosquitoes might not be ready to feed at the point at which the parasite is ready to be transmitted. Exploring these effects using a simple theoretical model of human malaria shows that delays in infection and transmission can reduce the vectorial capacity of malaria mosquitoes by 20 to over 60%, depending on temperature. These delays have important implications for disease epidemiology and control, and should be considered in future transmission models. © 2013 Paaijmans et al.
Hayes E.B.,Barcelona Center for International Health Research
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease | Year: 2010
Millions of travelers visit the United States every year during warm months when risk of vector-borne disease is highest. The epidemiology and geographic distribution of the principal vector-borne diseases in the United States are reviewed and recommendations for visitors to reduce their risk of disease are described. Travel advice should focus on preventing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis and babesiosis in the northeast and north central States, West Nile virus disease in western plains States, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tularemia in the southeast; other diseases and itineraries requiring particular attention are described. All travelers to the United States should be advised to practice personal protection against arthropod bites, including appropriate use of insect repellents, especially when visiting rural and suburban areas during the warm months. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hayes E.B.,Barcelona Center for International Health Research
Vaccine | Year: 2010
An inexpensive live attenuated vaccine (the 17D vaccine) against yellow fever has been effectively used to prevent yellow fever for more than 70 years. Interest in developing new inactivated vaccines has been spurred by recognition of rare but serious, sometimes fatal adverse events following live virus vaccination. A safer inactivated yellow fever vaccine could be useful for vaccinating people at higher risk of adverse events from the live vaccine, but could also have broader global health utility by lowering the risk-benefit threshold for assuring high levels of yellow fever vaccine coverage. If ongoing trials demonstrate favorable immunogenicity and safety compared to the current vaccine, the practical global health utility of an inactivated vaccine is likely to be determined mostly by cost. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Gysels M.,Barcelona Center for International Health Research |
Pell C.,Barcelona Center for International Health Research |
Straus L.,Barcelona Center for International Health Research |
Pool R.,Barcelona Center for International Health Research |
Pool R.,University of Amsterdam
BMC Palliative Care | Year: 2011
Background. End of life (EoL) care in sub-Saharan Africa still lacks the sound evidence-base needed for the development of effective, appropriate service provision. It is essential to make evidence from all types of research available alongside clinical and health service data, to ensure that EoL care is ethical and culturally appropriate. This article aims to synthesize qualitative research on EoL care in sub-Saharan Africa to inform policy, practice and further research. It seeks to identify areas of existing research; describe findings specifically relevant to the African context; and, identify areas lacking evidence. Methods. Relevant literature was identified through eight electronic databases: AMED, British Nursing Index & Archive, CINAHL, EMBASE, IBSS, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the Social Sciences Citation Index; and hand searches. Inclusion criteria were: published qualitative or mixed-method studies in sub-Saharan Africa, about EoL care. Study quality was assessed using a standard grading scale. Relevant data including findings and practice recommendations were extracted and compared in tabular format. Results. Of the 407 articles initially identified, 51 were included in the qualitative synthesis. Nineteen came from South Africa and the majority (38) focused on HIV/AIDS. Nine dealt with multiple or unspecified conditions and four were about cancer. Study respondents included health professionals, informal carers, patients, community members and bereaved relatives. Informal carers were typically women, the elderly and children, providing total care in the home, and lacking support from professionals or the extended family. Twenty studies focused on home-based care, describing how programmes function in practice and what is needed to make them effective. Patients and carers were reported to prefer institutional care but this needs to be understood in context. Studies focusing on culture discussed good and bad death, culture-specific approaches to symptoms and illness, and the bereavement process. Conclusions. The data support or complement the findings from quantitative research. The review prompts a reconsideration of the assumption that in Africa the extended family care for the sick, and that people prefer home-based care. The review identifies areas relevant for a research agenda on socio-cultural issues at the EoL in sub-Saharan Africa. © 2011 Gysels et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Ferrer M.,Barcelona Center for International Health Research
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE | Year: 2012
The advent of intravital microscopy in experimental rodent malaria models has allowed major advances to the knowledge of parasite-host interactions. Thus, in vivo imaging of malaria parasites during pre-erythrocytic stages have revealed the active entrance of parasites into skin lymph nodes, the complete development of the parasite in the skin, and the formation of a hepatocyte-derived merosome to assure migration and release of merozoites into the blood stream. Moreover, the development of individual parasites in erythrocytes has been recently documented using 4D imaging and challenged our current view on protein export in malaria. Thus, intravital imaging has radically changed our view on key events in Plasmodium development. Unfortunately, studies of the dynamic passage of malaria parasites through the spleen, a major lymphoid organ exquisitely adapted to clear infected red blood cells are lacking due to technical constraints. Using the murine model of malaria Plasmodium yoelii in Balb/c mice, we have implemented intravital imaging of the spleen and reported a differential remodeling of it and adherence of parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs) to barrier cells of fibroblastic origin in the red pulp during infection with the non-lethal parasite line P.yoelii 17X as opposed to infections with the P.yoelii 17XL lethal parasite line. To reach these conclusions, a specific methodology using ImageJ free software was developed to enable characterization of the fast three-dimensional movement of single-pRBCs. Results obtained with this protocol allow determining velocity, directionality and residence time of parasites in the spleen, all parameters addressing adherence in vivo. In addition, we report the methodology for blood flow quantification using intravital microscopy and the use of different colouring agents to gain insight into the complex microcirculatory structure of the spleen. ETHICS STATEMENT: All the animal studies were performed at the animal facilities of University of Barcelona in accordance with guidelines and protocols approved by the Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation of the University of Barcelona CEEA-UB (Protocol No DMAH: 5429). Female Balb/c mice of 6-8 weeks of age were obtained from Charles River Laboratories.