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Hayes E.B.,Barcelona Center for International Health Research
Vaccine | Year: 2010

An inexpensive live attenuated vaccine (the 17D vaccine) against yellow fever has been effectively used to prevent yellow fever for more than 70 years. Interest in developing new inactivated vaccines has been spurred by recognition of rare but serious, sometimes fatal adverse events following live virus vaccination. A safer inactivated yellow fever vaccine could be useful for vaccinating people at higher risk of adverse events from the live vaccine, but could also have broader global health utility by lowering the risk-benefit threshold for assuring high levels of yellow fever vaccine coverage. If ongoing trials demonstrate favorable immunogenicity and safety compared to the current vaccine, the practical global health utility of an inactivated vaccine is likely to be determined mostly by cost. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Gascon J.,Barcelona Center for International Health Research | Gascon J.,Barcelona Institute for Global Health ISGlobal | Vilasanjuan R.,Barcelona Institute for Global Health ISGlobal | Lucas A.,Barcelona Institute for Global Health ISGlobal
Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy | Year: 2014

Chagas disease has a unique history where the confluence of rural and marginalized populations affected, the deeply rooted attitudes, clinical practices and an underfunded research area has resulted in one of the most current neglected health issues. Globalization has changed the epidemiology of the disease, which is now found throughout the Americas but also in Europe and Japan. Thus, Chagas disease is a global public health problem. In this new paradigm, a strong partnership aimed to coordinate actions to scale up diagnostics and treatments, to engage communities and health practitioners in implementation and advocating for sustained funding for the development of improved tools, can play a critical role to leave behind this story of neglect. Even with the imperfect tools currently available, still much can be done. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Hayes E.B.,Barcelona Center for International Health Research
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease | Year: 2010

Millions of travelers visit the United States every year during warm months when risk of vector-borne disease is highest. The epidemiology and geographic distribution of the principal vector-borne diseases in the United States are reviewed and recommendations for visitors to reduce their risk of disease are described. Travel advice should focus on preventing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis and babesiosis in the northeast and north central States, West Nile virus disease in western plains States, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tularemia in the southeast; other diseases and itineraries requiring particular attention are described. All travelers to the United States should be advised to practice personal protection against arthropod bites, including appropriate use of insect repellents, especially when visiting rural and suburban areas during the warm months. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Viotti R.,Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos HIGA Eva Peron | Alarcon De Noya B.,Central University of Venezuela | Araujo-Jorge T.,Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz Instituto Oswaldo Cruz FIOCRUZ IOC | Grijalva M.J.,Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador | And 9 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Treatment for Chagas disease with currently available medications is recommended universally only for acute cases (all ages) and for children up to 14 years old. The World Health Organization, however, also recommends specific antiparasite treatment for all chronic-phase Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals, even though in current medical practice this remains controversial, and most physicians only prescribe palliative treatment for adult Chagas patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. The present opinion, prepared by members of the NHEPACHA network (Nuevas Herramientas para el Diagnóstico y la Evaluación del Paciente con Enfermedad de Chagas/New Tools for the Diagnosis and Evaluation of Chagas Disease Patients), reviews the paradigm shift based on clinical and immunological evidence and argues in favor of antiparasitic treatment for all chronic patients. We review the tools needed to monitor therapeutic efficacy and the potential criteria for evaluation of treatment efficacy beyond parasitological cure. Etiological treatment should now be mandatory for all adult chronic Chagas disease patients. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Huijben S.,Pennsylvania State University | Huijben S.,Barcelona Center for International Health Research | Bell A.S.,Pennsylvania State University | Sim D.G.,Pennsylvania State University | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2013

Drug resistant pathogens are one of the key public health challenges of the 21st century. There is a widespread belief that resistance is best managed by using drugs to rapidly eliminate target pathogens from patients so as to minimize the probability that pathogens acquire resistance de novo. Yet strong drug pressure imposes intense selection in favor of resistance through alleviation of competition with wild-type populations. Aggressive chemotherapy thus generates opposing evolutionary forces which together determine the rate of drug resistance emergence. Identifying treatment regimens which best retard resistance evolution while maximizing health gains and minimizing disease transmission requires empirical analysis of resistance evolution in vivo in conjunction with measures of clinical outcomes and infectiousness. Using rodent malaria in laboratory mice, we found that less aggressive chemotherapeutic regimens substantially reduced the probability of onward transmission of resistance (by >150-fold), without compromising health outcomes. Our experiments suggest that there may be cases where resistance evolution can be managed more effectively with treatment regimens other than those which reduce pathogen burdens as fast as possible. © 2013 Huijben et al. Source

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