Hardy, Australia
Hardy, Australia

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Boardman W.S.J.,University of Adelaide | Boardman W.S.J.,Barbara Hardy Institute | Caraguel C.G.,University of Adelaide | Gill S.,Earlville Veterinary Surgery | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2014

We anesthetized 301 bridled nailtail wallabies (Onychogalea fraenata), captured within Scotia Sanctuary, New South Wales, Australia over four nights in October 2009 to perform health assessments before their release into a predator-proof exclosure. We tested two anesthetic dose-rate combinations, protocol 1 (0.08 mg/kg medetomidine–4.5 mg/kg ketamine), and protocol 2 (0.1 mg/kg medetomidine–5 mg/kg ketamine), each given intramuscularly. Median time from injection to recumbency for protocol 1 was 10 min (1–27 min) and for protocol 2 was 12 min (2–28) (P = 0.12). Five animals died during the induction with protocol 2; none died with protocol 1 (P = 0.06). Physiologic parameters were recorded during recumbency, with no significant abnormalities with protocol 1. Protocol 1 was an effective, efficient regime to anesthetize large numbers of bridled nailtail wallabies under field conditions. © Wildlife Disease Association 2014.

Boardman W.S.J.,University of Adelaide | Boardman W.S.J.,Barbara Hardy Institute | Lethbridge M.R.,Flinders University | Hampton J.O.,Vertebrate Pest Research Section | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2014

We report the clinical course and physiologic and anesthetic data for a case series of 76 free-ranging dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) chemically restrained, by remote injection from a helicopter, in the rangelands of Western Australia and South Australia, 2008–11, to attach satellite-tracking collars. Fifty-five camels were successfully anesthetized using medetomidine-ketamine (MK, n = 27) and medetomidine-ketamine-butorphanol (MKB, n = 28); the induction of anesthesia in 21 animals was considered unsuccessful. To produce reliable anesthesia for MK, medetomidine was administered at 0.22 mg/kg (±SD = 0.05) and ketamine at 2.54 mg/kg (±0.56), and for MKB, medetomidine was administered at 0.12 mg/kg (±0.05), ketamine at 2.3 mg/kg (±0.39), and butorphanol at 0.05 mg/kg (±0.02). Median time-to-recumbency for MKB (8.5 min) was 2.5 min shorter than for MK (11 min) (P = 0.13). For MK, the reversal atipamezole was administered at 0.24 mg/kg (±0.10), and for MKB, atipamezole was administered at 0.23 mg/kg (±0.13) and naltrexone at 0.17 mg/kg (±0.16). Median time-to-recovery was 1 min shorter for MK (5 min) than MKB (6 min; P = 0.02). Physiologic parameters during recumbency were not clinically different between the two regimes. Both regimes were suitable to safely anesthetize free-ranging camels; however, further investigation is required to find the safest, most consistent, and logistically practical combination. © Wildlife Disease Association 2014.

Boardman W.S.J.,Barbara Hardy Institute | Shephard L.,SA Pathology | Bastian I.,University of Adelaide | Globan M.,Victorian Infectious Disease Reference Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2014

This report describes the first case in South Australia, Australia, of Mycobacterium pinnipedii tuberculosis in a free-ranging Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Severe pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia with intrahistocytic acid-fast beaded filamentous bacilli was seen on histology. M. pinnipedii was confirmed by full 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Spillover concerns for public health and cattle are discussed. © Copyright 2014 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

Boardman W.S.J.,University of Adelaide | Boardman W.S.J.,Barbara Hardy Institute | Caraguel C.G.B.,University of Adelaide | Raath J.P.,WildlifeVets | Van Zijll Langhout M.,WildlifeVets
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2014

We immobilized 47 white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) for dehorning with 1–4 mg of etorphine HCl, 10–40 mg of azaperone, and 7,500 IU of hyaluronidase, at a game ranch in South Africa in November 2012. Forty-four received butorphanol intravenously 5 min after recumbency, at the rate of 10 mg of butorphanol per 1 mg of etorphine, and three animals did not. When possible, blood gas and physiologic parameters were measured immediately before butorphanol administration and 10 min later. Statistically significant improvements were observed, with a reduction in pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, and with an increase in arterial partial pressure of oxygen, arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate in animals administered butorphanol. In the three animals that did not receive butorphanol, no improvement was apparent. Butorphanol given to recumbent white rhinoceroses immediately after immobilization was associated with improved blood gas values and cardiopulmonary function for at least 10 min. Studies on the sustainability of these effects are necessary. © Wildlife Disease Association 2014.

O'Leary T.,University of South Australia | Belusko M.,Barbara Hardy Institute | Whaley D.,Barbara Hardy Institute | Bruno F.,Barbara Hardy Institute
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2015

This paper investigates the use of actual monitored household energy as an indicator of the thermal efficiency of a dwelling and subsequently rating of the building thermal performance. The paper reviews evaluation methods used internationally for both building thermal efficiency and building energy labelling and presents results from two discrete studies in South Australia on monitoring actual household energy consumption. In order to investigate the occupancy effect on household energy, monitored energy data collected from two different housing developments in South Australia were examined. The energy ratings for these homes are compliant with the national agreed protocols for thermal performance modelling of dwellings, where one set of homes is a group occupied by higher socio-economic groups and the other is low income public housing in a colder climate region with much poorer home energy ratings. The wide variation of actual household energy for the homes that have relatively similar thermal envelopes indicates a lack of meaningful use for actual household energy in disclosure of house energy performance. Therefore, it is argued that thermal modelling software used to rate homes appears a more useful application of a system of disclosure of energy performance than the use of energy bills. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zhang J.,University of New South Wales | Lo S.-C.R.,University of New South Wales | Yan J.,University of New South Wales | Rahman M.M.,Barbara Hardy Institute
15th Asian Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, ARC 2015: New Innovations and Sustainability | Year: 2015

Pond ash, being a form of coal ash, consists mainly of silt-size glassy particles with a significant percentage containing internal occluded voids. By analysing the evolution of particle size distribution before and after triaxial testing at normal stress range using a Laser Particle Size Analyser, specific gravity and SEM photography, it was found that these hollow particles may breakup as a result of shearing. This type of particle disintegration is different from localised grain crushing or shearing off of asperities at high contact stress points. The stress-strain responses measured in an extensive programme of triaxial testing were synthesised. It was established that a unique and consistent critical state line was achieved, irrespective of initial state, drainage conditions and stress histories. Furthermore, the overall pattern of stress-strain responses was related to the location of initial state relative to the critical state line. This supports the use of critical state soil mechanics framework in synthesising and modelling the stress-strain behaviour of pond ash.

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