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Subhani G.M.,Wheat Research Institute | Ahmad J.,Wheat Research Institute | Subhani A.,Barani Agricultural Research Institute | Hussain M.,Wheat Research Institute | Mahmood A.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2015

The population of world is accelerating fast with increased number of malnourished people having deficiency of micronutrients, particularly in developing countries. Mineral malnutrition is considered to be the most serious among the global challenges for humans. Biofortification of wheat grain through genetics is a powerful methodology for altering the balance of nutrients in the human food on a large scale. In this study, concentration of mineral nutrients, protein and grain yield were studied to find out potential source of minerals in historical and present spring wheat varieties of Pakistan with the objective to strengthen the hybridization programme and to develop high nutritive wheat. Fifty eight genotypes were sown according to randomized complete block design with three replications. Total nitrogen in wheat grain samples was determined by the Kjeldahl method and grain nitrogen value in percentage was multiplied by 6.25 to get grain protein concentration. Potassium was measured with the help of Jenway Flame Photometer and phosphorus was determined colorimetrically using spectrophotometer. Zn2+, Fe2+, Cu2+ and Mn2+ were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A wide range of diversity was observed among the studied varieties for grain yield, protein and seven mineral in wheat grain. The grain yield was increased and nitrogen concentration in the endosperm diluted over time of green revolution. While mineral concentration of Zn2+, Fe2+, Cu2+, NO3- and protein was significantly low in present local varieties as compared to the mean of pre-green revolution local varieties. Fe2+ concentration was significantly increased in present local varieties than the local varieties of green revolution period. The mean of grain yield, Zn2+, Mn2+ and H2 PO4- concentration of present International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) varieties (GA-2002, Seher-2006, Chakwal-50 and FSD-2008) were significantly increased (33.8%, 22.8%, 60% and 30.8 %, respectively) than CIMMYT varieties of green revolution era (Mexipak-65, Blue Silver, Arz, Sandal, Lyallpur-73, Pari-73, Pothowar-73, Noori, Pavon, WL-711 and Bahawalpur-79). The present (local&CIMMYT) varieties have a significant edge for yield, Zn2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, H2 PO4- and K+ over varieties of all other groups. Grain yield had positive and significant phenotypic correlation with Mn2+, H2 PO4- and K+ (0.247, 0.364 and 0.140, respectively). Nitrogen had negative genotypic/ phenotypic correlations with the minerals (Zn2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, H2 PO4- and K+) and the yield. Therefore, variation of mineral concentration and grain yield present in studied genotypes can be utilized to develop high yielding wheat varieties without affecting the nutritional quality of grain.

Islam M.,National Fertilizer Development Center | Ali S.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Mohsan S.,National Fertilizer Development Center | Khalid R.,Soil and Water Testing Laboratory for Research | And 3 more authors.
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2012

Field experiments were conducted at two different locations (Barani Agriculture Research Institute Chakwal and farmer's field in Talagang) in northern rainfed Punjab, Pakistan, to assess relative efficiency of two sources of sulfur (S) in enhancing nitrogen (N) fixation and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The treatments were four combinations of two levels of S (15 and 30 kg ha -1) from two sources [gypsum and ammonium sulfate (AS)] and a no-S control. Application of S significantly increased seed yield up to 12% and 14% at Chakwal and Talagang, respectively. Response (kg seed yield kg -1 S) at economic optimum dose (EOD) was greater for AS than for gypsum. Sulfur application enhanced the S uptake at both locations significantly. Sulfur harvest index and S economic yield efficiency ratio were greater at Talagang than at Chakwal. Sulfur application resulted increases in N uptake by 19% and 20% and N fixation by up to 19% and 30% at Chakwal and Talagang, respectively. Ammonium sulfate was more effective in increasing N fixation and uptake as compared to gypsum at Chakwal, whereas the difference between the two sources was nonsignificant at Talagang. Thus, it can be concluded that S should be applied to chickpea crop to enhance yield and improve soil fertility status as result of greater amount of N fixed. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Baenziger P.S.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Dweikat I.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Gill K.,Washington State University | Eskridge K.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | And 12 more authors.
Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2011

Approximately 20 years ago, we began our efforts to understand grain yield in winter wheat using chromosome substitution lines between Cheyenne (CNN) and Wichita (WI). We found that two chromosome substitutions, 3A and 6A, greatly affected grain yield. CNN(WI3A) and CNN(WI6A) had 15 to 20% higher grain yield than CNN, whereas WI(CNN3A) and WI(CNN6A) had 15 to 20% lower grain yield than WI. The differences in grain yield are mainly expressed in higher yielding environments (e.g. eastern Nebraska) indicating genotype by environment interactions (G × E). In studies using hybrid wheat, the gene action for grain yield on these chromosomes was found to be mainly controlled by additive gene action. In subsequent studies, we developed recombinant inbred chromosome lines (RICLs) using monosomics or doubled haploids. In extensive studies we found that two regions on 3A affect grain yield in the CNN(RICLs-3A) with the positive QTLs coming from WI. In WI(RICLs-3A), we found a main region on 3A that affected grain yield with the negative QTL coming from CNN. The 3A region identified using WI(RICLs-3A) coincided with one of the regions previously identified in CNN(RICLs-3A). As expected the QTLs have their greatest effect in higher-yielding environments and also exhibit QTL × E. Using molecular markers on chromosomes 3A and 6A, the favorable alleles on 3A in Wichita may be from Turkey Red, the original hard red winter wheat in the Great Plains and presumably the original source of the favorable alleles. Cheyenne, a selection from Crimea, did not have the favorable alleles. In studying modern cultivars, many high yielding cultivars adapted to eastern Nebraska have the WI-allele indicating that it was selected for in breeding higher yielding cultivars. However, some modern cultivars adapted to western Nebraska where the QTL has less effect retain the CNN-allele, presumably because the allele has less effect (is less important in improving grain yield). In addition many modern cultivars have neither the WI-allele, nor the CNN-allele indicating we have diversified our germplasm and new alleles have been brought into the breeding program in this region.

Musa M.,Barani Agricultural Research Institute | Leitch M.H.,Aberystwyth University | Iqbal M.,Barani Agricultural Research Institute | Sahi F.-U.-H.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2010

The effect of spatial variation in the planting arrangement on characteristics of a 50:50 barley/pea intercrop mixture was studied. The three planting arrangements were (i) complete seed mixing within rows, (ii) the two species cross drilled at right angles and (iii) alternate pairs of rows of the two un-mixed species. Pure stands of barley and peas were included for comparison. In all cases, dry matter production from intercropping was greater than that from sole crops; however, planting arrangement did have a significant effect. Land equivalent ratio (LER) values were 1.26, 1.25 and 1.16 for the mixed row, cross drilled and alternate row arrangements, respectively. The alternative row strategy produced significantly less LER value than the other two arrangements. While, there was an increase in LER values in both the component species of the mixtures, the magnitude of effect was greater with the barley (average of 30.0% increase) than it was with the peas (average of 14.8% increase). Grain/seed yields of both components of the intercrop mixtures were greater than would be expected if these were expected to yield half that of the sole crops. The increases were brought about by an increase in the number of ears m-2 in barley and pods m-2 in peas. Analysis of N uptake suggests that greater N availability for the barley component of the mixture was the mechanism responsible for the increased barley yields. Improved pea growth is likely to have arisen from the support offered by the barley plants, which was greatest in the mixed and cross rows, but least in the pairs of alternate rows. © Friends Science Publishers.

Mahmood A.,Cotton Research Institute AARI | Mian M.A.,Barani Agricultural Research Institute | Ihsan M.,Barani Agricultural Research Institute | Ijaz M.,Barani Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

Chakwal-50 a spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety was developed at Barani Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Chakwal, Pakistan and released in 2008 for general cultivation as high yielding, drought tolerant and disease resistant wheat cultivar for rainfed areas of Punjab, Pakistan. The cultivar was developed by selecting the plants from entry No. 20 of 20th Elite Spring Wheat Yield Trial received from CIMMYT, Mexico during 1999-2000. Selection was done on phenotypic basis and the line was evaluated in various yield trials conducted at Barani Agricultural Research Institute, Chakwal and other ecological zones of the country from 1999 to 2008, based on the desirable traits for drought tolerance (erect, twisted and waxy leaves), diseases tolerance (Yellow rust, Brown Rust & Karnal Bunt) and high grain yield. This line gave significant higher yield than existing varieties like Chakwal-97, Kohistan-97, GA-2002 and Inqilab- 91. This line also showed tolerance against yellow rust, brown rust and Karnal bunt. This variety was approved for general cultivation in rainfed areas of the Punjab as "Chakwal-50" by the Punjab Seed Council in its 36th meeting held on 9th July, 2008.

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