Technical Institute of Baqubah

Ba‘qūbah, Iraq

Technical Institute of Baqubah

Ba‘qūbah, Iraq
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Mahmood A.H.,Translational Research Institute | Mahmood A.H.,Technical Institute of Baqubah | Liu X.,Translational Research Institute | Grice J.E.,Translational Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Pharmaceutics | Year: 2015

To introduce better antibiotics for the treatment of some infectious diseases in sheep and to expand the range of antibiotics available for veterinary medicine, pharmacokinetics of two antibiotics marbofloxacin (MBX) and trovafloxacin (TVX) were investigated in sheep after intramuscular injection. Variable and irregular plasma concentration-time profiles were observed for TVX but not for MBX. To understand the mechanism of this phenomenon, intravenous studies were performed for both drugs and data were analyzed using a population approach. Deconvolution was then performed using various approaches to obtain absorption profiles of both drugs in sheep after intramuscular injection. The Loo-Riegelman and staircase deconvolution function methods were found to provide more reliable estimates of absorption rate than the Spath-spline and B-spline constraining break points deconvolution methods. The absorption profiles resulting from deconvolution indicated a zero-order absorption process for TVX and a first-order process for MBX. Precipitation of TVX at the injection site was suspected to cause the pseudo zero-order absorption. This hypothesis was supported by the observation of crystalline deposits of TVX in sheep meat after direct injection, using reflectance confocal microscopy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.All rights reserved.


Mahmood A.,University of Queensland | Mahmood A.,Technical Institute of Baqubah | Grice J.E.,University of Queensland | Roberts M.S.,University of Queensland | Prow T.W.,University of Queensland
Journal of Biomedical Optics | Year: 2013

Antibiotic levels in livestock are usually evaluated through destructive analysis. Taking advantage of the fluorescent properties of marbofloxacin (MBX) and trovafloxacin (TVX), multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was evaluated as a minimally invasive and nondestructive method to determine the penetration of TVX and MBX into sheep neutrophils. Standard curves were measured with drug-only solutions and suggested that MBX was more suited for this type of analysis. The intracellular concentration of both TVX and MBX was higher than the extracellular concentration after incubating neutrophils for 30 min at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 μ g/ml for both the drugs. The intracellular concentration of TVX increased with the extracellular concentration but was always greater than the extracellular concentration, suggesting active internalization. On the other hand, intracellular/ extracellular ratio (I/E) peaked at 1.6-fold I/E for 1 μ g/ml and then gradually decreased with increased concentration to 1.2-fold I/E at 100 μ g/ml. For the first time, this study showed the use of MPM to quantify antibiotic uptake by sheep neutrophils and observed that both antibiotics were taken up by sheep neutrophils beyond extracellular levels. © The Authors.


Mahmood A.H.,University of Queensland | Mahmood A.H.,Technical Institute of Baqubah | Medley G.A.,University of Queensland | Grice J.E.,University of Queensland | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2012

A simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed, validated and applied for the simultaneous determination of marbofloxacin (MBX) and trovafloxacin (TVX) in sheep plasma. Samples were extracted with 20% perchloric acid and MBX and TVX were separated on a C18 column using a gradient mobile phase system consisting of 17.5mM of NaH2PO4 and 1.5mM of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide aqueous solution, pH 3 (A) and 50% acetonitrile and 50% methanol (B), with UV detection at 293 and 270nm. The retention times of MBX and TVX were 4.9 and 6.6min respectively. The detection and quantification limits for MBX and TVX were 2ng/mL and 10ng/mL respectively for both compounds. The calibration curves were linear over a concentration range of 10-50,000ng/mL for both antibiotics. The linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery and stability of the assay were evaluated from spiked sheep plasma. The method was successfully applied to sheep plasma samples obtained from MBX and TVX pharmacokinetic studies. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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