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Nijalingappa P.,Bapuji Institute of Engineering Technology
Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Applied and Theoretical Computing and Communication Technology, iCATccT 2015 | Year: 2015

The effects of the eye abnormalities are mostly gradual in nature which shows the necessity for an accurate abnormality identification system. Abnormality in retina is one among them. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a disease that causes damage to the retina of human eye, which is caused by complications of diabetes. DR is one of the main causes of vision loss and its prevalence keeps rising. Diabetic Retinopathy, a frequent diabetic retinal disease is caused due to the blood vessels in the retina get changes from its original shape. Diabetic Retinopathy generally affects both the human eyes. Most of the ophthalmologists depend on the visual interpretation for the identification of the types of diseases. But, inaccurate diagnosis will change the course of treatment planning which leads to fatal results. Hence, there is a requirement for a bias free automated system which yields highly accurate results. In this paper, we are classifying the various stages of DR. We first present a summary of diabetic retinopathy and its causes. Then, a literature review of the automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy techniques is presented. Explanation and restrictions of retina databases which are used to test the performance of these detection algorithms are given. © 2015 IEEE. Source


Mutalik S.,Bapuji Institute of Engineering Technology | VinodKumar C.S.,Ss Institute Of Medical Science And Research Center | Swamy S.,Bapuji Institute of Engineering Technology | Manjappa S.,Bapuji Institute of Engineering Technology
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2012

Early in the twentieth century, petroleum derived fuels (fossil fuels) began to appear and quickly dominated the market. Low prices persisted for several decades until the advent of the "oil crisis" in the 1970, demanding for alternative to fossil fuel. Current ethanol production processes using crops such as sugar cane and corn are well-established; however, utilization of a cheaper substrate such as lignocellulose could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuel. The processing and utilization of this substrate is complex. Lignocellulosic biomass contains carbohydrate fractions that can be converted into ethanol. In order to convert these fractions, the cellulose and hemicelluloses must ultimately be converted or hydrolysed into monosaccharides; it is the hydrolysis that has historically proven to be problematic. Biologically mediated processes are promising for energy conversion, in particular for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuels. The objective of the present study is to optimise cellulosic ethanol production from bagasse and maize by using Fibrobacter succinogenes isolated from rumen of herbivores animals. In this process cellulose is converted into monosaccharides by Fibrobacter succinogenes. These monosaccharides were subjected to alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This process of fermentation was followed by distillation at 78°C for alcohol extraction. Optimum temperature, pH and substrate concentration for hydrolyses of bagasse and maize was 39°C, 6 and 3.5% respectively for Fibrobacter succinogenes. For the feed stock of concentration 3.5% of bagasse and maize, ethanol yield of 16.8g/l for bagasse and 13.9 g/l for maize was obtained. Source


Mutalik S.,S S Institute of Medical science | Mutalik S.,Bapuji Institute of Engineering Technology | Vinod Kumar C.S.,S S Institute of Medical science | Vinod Kumar C.S.,Bapuji Institute of Engineering Technology | And 4 more authors.
Indian Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Ethanol is an alternative to fossil fuel. Current ethanol production processes using crops, such as, sugarcane and corn are well-established. However, utilization of a cheaper substrate, such as, lignocellulose makes bioethanol more purposeful. Biologically mediated processes are promising for energy conversion, in particular, for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuels. In the present study, optimized cellulosic ethanol production from bagasse and sorghum using Ruminococcus albus isolated from rumen of herbivores animals was attempted. R. albus could depolymerise cellulose and hemicellulose as well as could tolerate stress conditions (variable substrate concentration, pH, and temperature). Optimum temperature, pH and substrate concentration for hydrolyses of both bagasse and sorghum by R. albus were found to be 39°C, 8.8 and 3.5%, respectively. For the feed stock (3.5%) of bagasse and sorghum, ethanol yield of 19.8 g/L and 17.42 g/L, respectively was obtained. Source

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