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Liu X.,RIKEN | Tamada K.,RIKEN | Tamada K.,Hiroshima University | Kishimoto R.,RIKEN | And 11 more authors.
Genomics Data | Year: 2015

Obesity is not only associated with unhealthy lifestyles, but also linked to genetic predisposition. Previously, we generated an autism mouse model (. patDp/+) that carries a 6.3. Mb paternal duplication homologous to the human 15q11-q13 locus. Chromosomal abnormalities in this region are known to cause autism spectrum disorder, Prader-Willi syndrome, and Angelman syndrome in humans. We found that, in addition to autistic-like behaviors, patDp/+ mice display late-onset obesity and hypersensitivity to a high-fat diet. These phenotypes are likely to be the results of genetic perturbations since the energy expenditures and food intakes of patDp/+ mice do not significantly differ from those of wild-type mice. Intriguingly, we found that an enlargement of adipose cells precedes the onset of obesity in patDp/+ mice. To understand the underlying molecular networks responsible for this pre-obese phenotype, we performed transcriptome profiling of white adipose tissue from patDp/+ and wild-type mice using microarray. We identified 230 genes as differentially expressed genes. Sfrp5 - a gene whose expression is positively correlated with adipocyte size, was found to be up-regulated, and Fndc5, a potent inducer of brown adipogenesis was identified to be the top down-regulated gene. Subsequent pathway analysis highlighted a set of 35 molecules involved in energy production, lipid metabolism, and small molecule biochemistry as the top candidate biological network responsible for the pre-obese phenotype of patDp/+. The microarray data were deposited in NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database with accession number GSE58191. Ultimately, our dataset provides novel insights into the molecular mechanism of obesity and demonstrated that patDp/+ is a valuable mouse model for obesity research. © 2015.

Kinouchi K.,Keio University | Ichihara A.,Keio University | Sano M.,Keio University | Sano M.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | And 12 more authors.
Circulation Research | Year: 2010

Rationale: The (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR], encoded in ATP6AP2, plays a key role in the activation of local renin-angiotensin system (RAS). A truncated form of (P)RR, termed M8.9, was also found to be associated with the vacuolar H-ATPase (V-ATPase), implicating a non-RAS-related function of ATP6AP2. Objective: We investigated the role of (P)RR/ATP6AP2 in murine cardiomyocytes. Methods and Results: Cardiomyocyte-specific ablation of Atp6ap2 resulted in lethal heart failure; the cardiomyocytes contained RAB7-and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2)-positive multivesicular vacuoles, especially in the perinuclear regions. The myofibrils and mitochondria remained at the cell periphery. Cardiomyocyte death was accompanied by numerous autophagic vacuoles that contained undigested cellular constituents, as a result of impaired autophagic degradation. Notably, ablation of Atp6ap2 selectively suppressed expression of the VO subunits of V-ATPase, resulting in deacidification of the intracellular vesicles. Furthermore, the inhibition of intracellular acidification by treatment with bafilomycin A1 or chloroquine reproduced the phenotype observed for the (P)RR/ATP6AP2-deficient cardiomyocytes. Conclusions: Genetic ablation of Atp6ap2 created a loss-of-function model for V-ATPase. The gene product of ATP6AP2 is considered to act as in 2 ways: (1) as (P)RR, exerting a RAS-related function; and (2) as the V-ATPase-associated protein, exerting a non-RAS-related function that is essential for cell survival. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.

Kishimoto R.,RIKEN | Kishimoto R.,Hiroshima University | Tamada K.,RIKEN | Tamada K.,Hiroshima University | And 11 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2015

Copy number variations on human chromosome 15q11-q13 have been implicated in several neurodevelopmental disorders. A paternal loss or duplication of the Prader-Willi syndrome/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS) region confers a risk of obesity, although the mechanism remains a mystery due to a lack of an animal model that accurately recreates the obesity phenotype. We performed detailed analyses of mice with duplication of PWS/AS locus (6 Mb) generated by chromosome engineering and found that animals with a paternal duplication of this region (patDp/+) show late-onset obesity, high sensitivity for high-fat diet, high levels of blood leptin and insulin without an increase in food intake. We show that prior to becoming obese, young patDp/+ mice already had enlarged white adipocytes. Transcriptome analysis of adipose tissue revealed an up-regulation of Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (Sfrp5), known to promote adipogenesis. We additionally generated a new mouse model of paternal duplication focusing on a 3 Mb region (3 Mb patDp/+) within the PWS/AS locus. These mice recapitulate the obese phenotypes including expansion of visceral adipose tissue. Our results suggest paternally expressed genes in PWS/AS locus play a significant role for the obesity and identify new potential targets for future research and treatment of obesity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Iino T.,Banyu Tsukuba Research Institute | Hashimoto N.,Banyu Tsukuba Research Institute | Hasegawa T.,Banyu Tsukuba Research Institute | Chiba M.,Banyu Tsukuba Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2010

Glucokinase activators (GKAs) are currently under investigation as potential antidiabetic agents by many pharmaceutical companies. Most of GKAs reported previously possess N-aminothiazol-2-yl amide moiety in their structures because the aminothiazole moiety interacts with glucokinase (GK) and shows strong GK activation. During the development of N-aminothiazol-2-yl amide derivatives, we identified a bioactivation and metabolic liability of 2-aminothizole substructure of GKA 3 by assessing covalent binding, metabolites in liver microsomes and glutathione (GSH) trap assay. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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