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Muhleisen A.L.,Banner University Medical Center Phoenix | Muhleisen A.L.,University of Arizona | Herbst-Kralovetz M.M.,University of Arizona
Maturitas | Year: 2016

For over a century it has been well documented that bacteria in the vagina maintain vaginal homeostasis, and that an imbalance or dysbiosis may be associated with poor reproductive and gynecologic health outcomes. Vaginal microbiota are of particular significance to postmenopausal women and may have a profound effect on vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal dryness, sexual health and overall quality of life. As molecular-based techniques have evolved, our understanding of the diversity and complexity of this bacterial community has expanded. The objective of this review is to compare the changes that have been identified in the vaginal microbiota of menopausal women, outline alterations in the microbiome associated with specific menopausal symptoms, and define how hormone replacement therapy impacts the vaginal microbiome and menopausal symptoms; it concludes by considering the potential of probiotics to reinstate vaginal homeostasis following menopause. This review details the studies that support the role of Lactobacillus species in maintaining vaginal homeostasis and how the vaginal microbiome structure in postmenopausal women changes with decreasing levels of circulating estrogen. In addition, the associated transformations in the microanatomical features of the vaginal epithelium that can lead to vaginal symptoms associated with menopause are described. Furthermore, hormone replacement therapy directly influences the dominance of Lactobacillus in the microbiota and can resolve vaginal symptoms. Oral and vaginal probiotics hold great promise and initial studies complement the findings of previous research efforts concerning menopause and the vaginal microbiome; however, additional trials are required to determine the efficacy of bacterial therapeutics to modulate or restore vaginal homeostasis. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Doty M.,University of California at San Diego | Wade C.,Banner University Medical Center | Farr J.,Banner University Medical Center | Gomezcoello V.C.,Childrens Hospital of Michigan | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Perinatology | Year: 2016

Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants who had feedings withheld during all blood transfusions had a lower incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) compared with infants who were fed during transfusions. Study Design A retrospective chart review over a 3-year period in a level-3 neonatal intensive care unit was conducted. A total of 108 inborn VLBW infants (weight range: 500-1,500 g) who had received a transfusion before 36 weeks were reviewed. Diagnosis of NEC (≥ Bell stage II), demographics, feeds, transfusions, outcomes, and variables associated with NEC were collected. Results The percentage of NEC cases was lower in infants who had feeds withheld during transfusions: 5/64 (7.8%) compared with 16/116 (13.8%) infants who were fed during transfusions. While potentially clinically important (6% absolute difference), this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.33 by two-tailed Fisher exact test). Conclusions No significant decrease in the incidence of NEC was found when feeds were withheld during blood transfusions. Holding feeds during transfusions is not without consequences such as the need for intravenous access, additional fluids, and the disruption of optimum nutrition. Further studies are needed to establish the relationship between blood transfusions, feeds, and NEC. © 2016 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc..

Anand K.,Banner University Medical Center Phoenix | Sabbagh M.,Santa Fe Institute
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs | Year: 2015

Introduction: Alzheimers disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is a significant burden to society. With continual expansion of our understanding of the disease, novel therapies are emerging as potential therapeutics to either halt or reverse progression of the disease.Areas covered: This paper aims to provide an overview of current drug therapies aimed at targeting the tau protein. With this protein known to be a noted pathologic finding of the disease, trials of therapeutics aimed at this protein have been under investigation. This article is based on data obtained from PubMed searches, TauRx, ALZFORUM, and Clinicaltrials.gov with search terms including: anti-tau, tau therapeutic agents in AD, Phase 0, I, II, III trials in AD, monoclonal antibodies and vaccines.Expert opinion: Broad-based treatments that target tau, including microtubule stabilization and tau aggregation inhibitors, appear to be of greatest promise. Immunotherapy appears to be relatively safe and efficacious but narrow whereas protein kinase inhibition has not demonstrated clinical benefit to date. © 2015 © Informa UK, Ltd.

Kelly L.,Arizona State University | Runge J.,HonorHealth Scottsdale Shea Medical Center | Spencer C.,Banner University Medical Center Phoenix
Journal of Nursing Scholarship | Year: 2015

Purpose: To examine compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction in acute care nurses across multiple specialties in a hospital-based setting. Design: A cross-sectional electronic survey design was used to collect data from direct care nurses in a 700-bed, quaternary care, teaching facility in the southwestern United States. Methods: A total of 491 direct care registered nurses completed a survey measuring their professional quality of life (burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion satisfaction). Analysis was conducted to assess for differences between demographics, specialties, job satisfaction, and intent to leave their current position. Findings: Significant predictors of burnout included lack of meaningful recognition, nurses with more years of experience, and nurses in the "Millennial" generation (ages 21-33 years). Receiving meaningful recognition, higher job satisfaction, nurses in the "Baby Boomer" generation (ages 50-65 years), and nurses with fewer years of experience significantly predicted compassion satisfaction. No significant differences were noted across nurse specialties, units, or departments. Conclusions: This study adds to the literature the impact meaningful recognition may have on compassion satisfaction and fatigue. Our findings provide a potential explanation for the lack of retention of nurses in the millennial generation who leave their positions with limited years of experience. Based on our research, meaningful recognition may increase compassion satisfaction, positively impact retention, and elevate job satisfaction. Clinical Relevance: Compassion fatigue in nurses has clear implications for nursing retention and the quality of care. Organizations willing to invest in reducing compassion fatigue have the potential to improve financial savings by reducing turnover and adverse events associated with burnout. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

Wood E.W.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Wood E.W.,Banner University Medical Center Phoenix | Strauss R.A.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Janus C.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Carrico C.K.,Virginia Commonwealth University
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2016

Purpose To determine the perceived utility and demand for the application of telemedicine for improved patient care between nonsurgical dental practitioners (GPS) and oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMS). Materials and Methods Two distinct questionnaires were made, one for GPS and one for OMSs. The GP questionnaire was sent to practicing Virginia Dental Association members on an e-mail list (approximately 2,200). The OMS questionnaire was sent by the Virginia Society of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery to members on an e-mail list (approximately 213). Questionnaires included questions about access to care, benefits of telemedicine consultations, reliability of telemedicine consultations, and perceived barriers against and opportunities for the implementation of telemedicine. The questionnaire was completed by 226 GP and 41 OMS respondents. Results There was a significant difference among responses of GPS based on practice location: rural patients had a longer average time from referral to OMS consultation (P =.003), rural patients traveled longer distances (P <.0001), rural practitioners referred more patients (P =.0038), and rural GPS referred more single-tooth implant cases (P =.0039). GP respondents moderately agreed to statements about the benefits of telemedicine, whereas OMS respondents were more neutral. GPS responded they would refer more patients (4.4) if consultations could be performed by telemedicine. OMSs agreed that more referrals would influence their decision to provide telemedicine consultations (51%). Practitioners had neutral perceptions about the reliability of telemedicine. OMS respondents agreed they would implement telemedicine in their practice if it provided equally good consultations as in-office visits. Conclusion According to the present findings, telemedicine could be an important step in the right direction for overcoming current issues with patient access to care and increasing health care costs. The benefits of telemedicine technology have been documented and will continue to be seen with wider application of its use in other areas of health care such as oral and maxillofacial surgery. © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

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