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Li R.,Beijing Normal University | Chen K.,Banner Good Samaritan Regional Medical Center | Yao L.,Beijing Normal University | Long Z.,Beijing Normal University
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE

The existence of the potential non-independency between task-related components in multi-task functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies limits the general application of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) method. The ICA with projection (ICAp) method proposed by Long (2009, HBM) demonstrated its capacity to solve the interaction among task-related components of multi-task fMRI data. The basic idea of projection is to remove the influence of the uninteresting tasks through projection in order to extract one interesting task-related component. However, both the stimulus paradigm of each task and the homodynamic response function (HRF) are essential for the projection. Due to the noises in the data and the variability of the HRF across the voxels and subjects, the ideal time course of each task for projection would be deviant from the true value, which might worsen the ICAp results. In order to make the time courses for projection closer to the true value, the iterative ICAp is proposed in this study. The iterative ICAp is based on the assumption that the task-related time courses extracted from the fMRI data by ICAp is more approximate to the true value than the ideal reference function. Simulated experiment proved that both the spatial detection power and the temporal accuracy of time course were increased for each task-related component. Moreover, the results of the real two-task fMRI data were also improved by the iterative ICAp method. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. Source

Graeme K.A.,Banner Good Samaritan Regional Medical Center
Journal of Medical Toxicology

Approximately 100 of the known species of mushrooms are poisonous to humans. New toxic mushroom species continue to be identified. Some species initially classified as edible are later reclassified as toxic. This results in a continually expanding list of toxic mushrooms. As new toxic species are identified, some classic teachings about mycetism no longer hold true. As more toxic mushrooms are identified and more toxic syndromes are reported, older classification systems fail to effectively accommodate mycetism. This review provides an update of myscetism and classifies mushroom poisonings by the primary organ system affected, permitting expansion, as new, toxic mushroom species are discovered. © 2014 American College of Medical Toxicology. Source

Skubic J.,Banner Good Samaritan Regional Medical Center | Vanhoy S.,West Valley Hospital | Vanhoy S.,University of Arizona | Hu C.,West Valley Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery

BACKGROUND: While studies, mostly from Europe and Australia, have examined the effect of speed cameras on motor vehicle collisions, limited data exist regarding their impact on charges and number of patients taken to Level 1 trauma centers (L1TCs). Because of conflicting perceptions and data on their value, speed cameras were implemented along select Arizona highways in 2008 but then removed in 2010. The hypotheses of our study were twofold. (1) Speed cameras reduce admissions to L1TCs, and (2) speed cameras reduce crash kinetic energy, resulting in lower Injury Severity Score (ISS), mortality, hospital costs, and length of stay (LOS). METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients admitted to L1TCs who were injured in motor vehicle crashes along a 26-mile segment of interstate I-10 in urban Phoenix was performed. Patients were identified using both the Arizona State Trauma Registry and the Arizona Department of Transportation collision data for 2009 to 2011. This specific 26-mile segment of I-10 was selected because it contained at least one speed camera within 1 mile along its entire length from October 2008 to October 2010. Two time frames were evaluated: January 1 to December 31, 2009, when cameras were in place (2009 camera group) and January 1 to December 31, 2011, when no cameras were in place (2011 no-camera group). Variables analyzed include number of collisions, number of injuries, on-scene mortality, trauma center admissions, number of collisions with admissions, in-hospital mortality, ISS, hospital charges, LOS, age, sex, race, and ethnicity. Five confounding variables were eliminated. Analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test and linear regression. RESULTS: Camera removal was associated with a twofold increase in L1TC admissions as well as increased resource use. There were no significant differences between the two time frames for ISS, mortality, median charges, or median LOS. CONCLUSION: In this study, removal of speed cameras resulted in increased trauma center admissions and resource use. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Care management study, level IV. © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Jellish J.,Arizona State University | Abbas J.J.,Arizona State University | Ingalls T.M.,Arizona State University | Mahant P.,Banner Good Samaritan Regional Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics

For people with Parkinson's disease (PD), gait and postural impairments can significantly affect their ability to perform activities of daily living. Presentation of appropriate cues has been shown to improve gait in PD. Based on this, a treadmill-based system and experimental paradigm were developed to determine if people with PD can utilize real-time feedback (RTFB) of step length or back angle (uprightness) to improve gait and posture. Eleven subjects (mean age 67 ± 8 years) with mild-to-moderate PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage I-III) were evaluated regarding their ability to successfully utilize RTFB of back angle or step length during quiet standing and treadmill walking tasks during a single session in their medication-on state. Changes in back angle and step length due to feedback were compared using Friedman nonparametric tests withWilcoxon Signed-Rank tests for post-hoc comparisons. Improvements in uprightness were observed as an increase in back angle during quiet standing (p = 0.005) and during treadmill walking (p = 0.005) with back angle feedback when compared to corresponding taskswithout feedback. Improvements in gait were also observed as an increase in step length (p = 0.005) during step length feedback compared to tasks without feedback. These results indicate that people with mild-to-moderate PD can utilize RTFB to improve upright posture and gait. Future work will investigate the long-term effects of this RTFB paradigm and the development of systems for clinical or home-based use. © 2015 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. Source

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