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Chaudhuri K.R.,King's College London | Sauerbier A.,King's College London | Sethi K.,Georgia Regents University | Schapira A.H.V.,University College London | And 10 more authors.
Parkinsonism and Related Disorders | Year: 2015

Background: Non-motor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) affect virtually every patient, yet they are under-recognized and under-treated. The NMS Questionnaire (NMSQuest) is a validated 30-item self-assessment instrument useful for NMS screening in clinic. Objective: Development of a straight forward grading classification of the burden of non-motor symptoms in PD based on the number of NMS as assessed by the NMS Questionnaire. Methods: In an observational, cross-sectional, international study of 383 consecutive patients distribution of the declared NMS as per NMSQuest was analyzed according to previously published levels based on the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale and also the median and interquartile range (IR, percentiles 25 and 75) of the total NMSQuest scores. After post hoc checking, these values were proposed as cut-off points for estimating NMS burden based only on the accumulation of symptoms. Results: Burden and number of NMS correlate closely (r≥0.80). On the basis of this finding, five levels (0=No NMS to 4=Very severe) of NMSQuest grading were proposed after identification of their cut-offs by ordinal logistic regression and median and interquartile range distribution. These values coincided almost completely with those obtained by median and interquartile range in an independent sample. Concordance between this classification and HY staging was weak (weighted kappa=0.30), but was substantial (weighted kappa=0.68) with the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale grading. Conclusion: Completion of NMSQuest and subsequent grading of the burden could allow the health care professional to approach the severity of NMS burden using the self completed NMSQuest in a primary care setting. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | Nil Ratan Sircar Medical College, Bangur Institute of Neurology and Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Perspectives in clinical research | Year: 2014

Paracetamol; a cyclooxygenase inhibitor; acts through the central nervous system as well as serotoninergic system as a nonopioid analgesic. A prospective, double-blinded, and randomized-controlled study was carried out to compare the efficacy of preoperative 1g intravenous (iv) paracetamol with placebo in providing postoperative analgesia in head-neck cancer surgery.From 2008 February to 2009 December, 80 patients for palliative head-neck cancer surgery were randomly divided into (F) and (P) Group receiving ivplacebo and iv paracetamol, respectively, 5 min before induction. Everybody received fentanyl before induction and IM diclofenac for pain relief at8 hourly for 24 h after surgery. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and amount of fentanyl were measured for postoperative pain assessment (24 h).The mean VAS score in 1(st), 2(nd) postoperative hour, and fentanyl requirement was less and the need for rescue analgesic was delayed in ivparacetamol group which were all statistically significant. Paracetamol group had a shorter surgical intensive care unit (SICU) and hospital stay which was also statistically significant.The study demonstrates the effectiveness of ivparacetamol as preemptive analgesic in the postoperative pain control after head-neck cancer surgery and earlier discharge from hospital.

PubMed | Rg Kar Medical College, Bangur Institute of Neurology, NRS Medical College and Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Saudi journal of anaesthesia | Year: 2014

Post-operative pain frequently hampers implementation of day care arthroscopic knee surgery in spite of so many analgesic, local anesthetic drugs and routes of administration.The aim of the present study was carried out to compare the efficacy of ropivacaine and levobupivacaine when administered through intra-articular route in controlling pain after day care arthroscopic knee surgery.It was a prospective, double-blinded and randomized controlled study.April 2008-December 2008, 60 patients of both sex, of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II, undergoing day care arthroscopic knee surgery were randomly assigned into two groups (R, L). Group R received 10 ml of 0.75% ropivacaine, whereas group L received 10 ml of 0.50% levobupivacaine through intra-articular route at the end of the procedure. Pain assessed using visual analog scale (VAS) and diclofenac sodium given as rescue analgesia when VAS >3. Time of first analgesic request and total rescue analgesic were calculated.based on comparable demographic profiles; time for the requirement of first post-operative rescue analgesia (242.16 23.86 vs. 366.62 24.42) min and total mean rescue analgesic requirement was (104.35 18.96 vs. 76.82 14.28) mg in group R and L respectively. Group R had higher mean VAS score throughout the study period. No side effects found among the groups. These two results were clinically and statistically significant (P < 0.05).Hence, it was evident that intra-articular levobupivacaine give better post-operative pain relief, with an increase in time of first analgesic request and decreased need of total post-operative analgesia compared with ropivacaine.

PubMed | I.P.G.M.E.R, Midnapore Medical College, Bangur Institute of Neurology and NRS Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pharmacognosy research | Year: 2014

Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) frequently hampers implementation of ambulatory surgery in spite of so many costly antiemetic drugs and regimens.The study was carried out to compare the efficacy of ginger (Zingiber officinale) added to Ondansetron in preventing PONV after ambulatory surgery.It was a prospective, double blinded, and randomized controlled study. From March 2008 to July 2010, 100 adult patients of either sex, aged 20-45, of ASA physical status I and II, scheduled for day care surgery, were randomly allocated into Group A[(n = 50) receiving (IV) Ondansetron (4 mg) and two capsules of placebo] and Group B[(n = 50) receiving IV Ondansetron (4 mg) and two capsules of ginger] simultaneously one hour prior to induction of general anaesthesia (GA) in a double-blind manner. One ginger capsule contains 0.5 gm of ginger powder. Episodes of PONV were noted at 0.5h, 1h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 12h and 18h post- operatively.Statistically significant difference between groups A and B (P < 0.05), was found showing that ginger ondansetron combination was superior to plain Ondansetron as antiemetic regimen for both regarding frequency and severity.Prophylactic administration of ginger and ondansetron significantly reduced the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting compared to ondansetron alone in patients undergoing day care surgery under general anaesthesia.

Pal S.,Burdwan Medical College | Sanyal D.,Midnapur Medical College | Biswas A.,Bangur Institute of Neurology | Paul N.,Institute of Psychiatry | Das S.K.,Burdwan Medical College
American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias | Year: 2013

Introduction: Alzheimers disease (AD) is characterized by amnesia, though non-memory-cognitive domains like visual are also affected. We planned to study frequency of visual dysfunctions in AD and their relationship with dementia severity. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Cognitive clinic of Department of Neurology, Bangur Institute of Neurosciences, Kolkata, between January 2007 and December 2010. 55 patients of AD were evaluated by neurological and neuropsychological assessments and by special tests for visual dysfunctions. Results: Common visual dysfunctions were visuo-constructional (87.3%), visuo-perceptual (63.6%), object agnosia(47.3%), prosopagnosia (45.5%), visual hallucination (27.3%) and simultanagnosia (12.7%). Symptoms of ventral visual pathway dysfunction were more common than that of dorsal pathway. MMSE score and number of visual manifestations had a good correlation. Conclusions: Visual dysfunctions are common in AD, elicitation of which helps us to understand the cause of disability so that appropriate steps can be taken. © 2013 The Author(s).

PubMed | Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Nil Ratan Sarkar Medical College and Hospital, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Bangur Institute of Neurology and National Institute of Biomedical Genomics
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is a valid therapeutic target in a wide range of malignancies. We focus here on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a lethal malignancy of the central nervous system (CNS). By analyzing RNA-sequencing based transcriptomics data on 149 clinical cases of TCGA-GBM database we show here a strong correlation (r = 0.7) between GLI1 and PTCH1 mRNA expression--as a hallmark of the canonical Hh-pathway activity in this malignancy. GLI1 mRNA expression varied in 3 orders of magnitude among the GBM patients of the same cohort showing a single continuous distribution-unlike the discrete high/low-GLI1 mRNA expressing clusters of medulloblastoma (MB). When compared with MB as a reference, the median GLI1 mRNA expression in GBM appeared 14.8 fold lower than that of the high-Hh cluster of MB but 5.6 fold higher than that of the low-Hh cluster of MB. Next, we demonstrated statistically significant up- and down-regulation of GLI1 mRNA expressions in GBM patient-derived low-passage neurospheres in vitro by sonic hedgehog ligand-enriched conditioned media (shh-CM) and by Hh-inhibitor drug vismodegib respectively. We also showed clinically achievable dose (50 M) of vismodegib alone to be sufficient to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in these low-passage GBM neurospheres in vitro. Vismodegib showed an effect on the neurospheres, both by down-regulating GLI1 mRNA expression and by inducing apoptosis/cell cycle arrest, irrespective of their relative endogenous levels of GLI1 mRNA expression. We conclude from our study that this single continuous distribution pattern of GLI1 mRNA expression technically puts almost all GBM patients in a single group rather than discrete high- or low-clusters in terms of Hh-pathway activity. That is suggestive of therapies with Hh-pathway inhibitor drugs in this malignancy without a need for further stratification of patients on the basis of relative levels of Hh-pathway activity among them.

Taraphdar D.,ID and BG Hospital Campus | Roy B.K.,Bangur Institute of Neurology | Chatterjee S.,ID and BG Hospital Campus
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2015

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection from the acute encephalitis syndrome cases is an uncommon form and has been observed in the year 2010-11 from West Bengal, India. The case-1 and case-2 had the acute encephalitis syndrome; case-3 was of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis whereas the case-4 had the symptoms of meningo-encephalopathy with bulbar involvement. We are reporting four cases with neurological complications involving central nervous system (CNS) due to CHIKV infection from this state for the first time. The virus has spread almost every districts of this state rapidly. At this stage, these cases are public health threat.

Klingelhoefer L.,TU Dresden | Bhattacharya K.,TU Dresden | Reichmann H.,Bangur Institute of Neurology
Clinical Medicine, Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London | Year: 2016

Restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease (WED), is a common movement disorder characterised by an uncontrollable urge to move because of uncomfortable, sometimes painful sensations in the legs with a diurnal variation and a release with movement. The pathophysiology is only partially known and a genetic component together with dopaminergic and brain iron dysregulation plays an important role. Secondary causes for RLS need to be excluded. Treatment depends on the severity and frequency of RLS symptoms, comprises non-pharmacological (eg lifestyle changes) and pharmacological interventions (eg dopaminergic medication, alpha-2-delta calcium channel ligands, opioids) and relieves symptoms only. Augmentation is the main complication of long-term dopaminergic treatment of RLS. This article will provide a clinically useful overview of RLS with provision of diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses, possible investigations and different treatment strategies with their associated complications. © Royal College of Physicians 2016. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Banaras Hindu University, Bangur Institute of Neurology and Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research
Type: | Journal: Journal of postgraduate medicine | Year: 2016

Tumors of the pituitary gland and sellar region represent approximately 10-15% of all brain tumors. Pituitary adenoma (PA), the most common pathology of the pituitary gland, can be effectively subclassified only with the help of immunohistochemistry (IHC). This is important and needed for individual patient management.The objective of the study was to analyze the importance of intraoperative imprint smear cytology and correlating with final histopathological diagnosis. Furthermore, to classify the different types of PA with the help of IHC, prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and growth hormone (GH) and to predict the benign, atypical, or malignant nature of the tumor with the help of prognostic marker Ki-67.A prospective study was done in 34 cases. The patients whose pituitary gland samples are referred from the endocrine and the neurosurgery department to the pathology department for histopathological examinations were selected. We have studied the clinical features, radiology and touch imprint cytology, histopathology, and IHC with the help of PRL, ACTH, GH, and Ki-67 of PA over 2 years.In our study, we had 32 cases of PA of 34 cases over a span of 2 years. We have seen that there is a correlation between cytological and histological diagnosis of the subtypes of PA in 62% cases, and the Kappa statistics show a moderate extent of agreement (Kappa - 0.320, 95% confidence interval = 0.031-0.609). Ki-67 when compared to the radiological grading showed a high degree of comparability (Chi-square test: P < 0.001). All cases with invasion had a higher Ki-67. On using the Fishers exact test, we found that the Ki-67 expression with GH-producing adenomas and ACTH-producing adenomas was comparable (P = 1.000) while in PRL-producing adenomas too this was not significant (P = 0.269).PA can be effectively classified with the help of IHC. Intraoperative cytology is important in diagnosing PA, but histopathology remains the gold standard in diagnosing and differentiating PA from other pathologies of the pituitary gland. The radiological grading together with immunological classification and the prognostic markers of Ki-67 is important in deciding the benign or atypical nature of the adenomas thus helping in better patient management.

PubMed | Bangur Institute of Neurology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology | Year: 2014

Progressive cerebellar ataxia inherited by autosomal dominant transmission is known as Spino Cerebellar Ataxia (SCA).To look for various clinical profile and molecular genetics of patients with SCAs and their phenotype-genotype correlation of patients with SCAs.This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Bangur Institute of Neurosciences, Kolkata from June 2010 to April 2013. We selected patients from the neurogenetic clinic of our institute and performed genetic test for SCA 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12. The diagnosis was based on suggestive clinical features and positive genetic study, done by polymerase chain reaction.83 patients were tested for trineucleotide repeats and turned out 45 positive for the mentioned SCAs. We found 13(28.9%) SCA-1, 18(40%) SCA-2, 7(15.6%) SCA-3, 6(13.3) SCA-6 and 1(2.2%) SCA-12 patients. Half of the remaining 38 patients had positive family history. The mean age of onset were 38.46 years in SCA-1, 29.55 years in SCA-2, 38.43 years in SCA-3, 47.33 years in SCA-6. Slow saccades were observed in 7(53.8%) SCA-1, 17(94.4%) SCA-2, 4(57.1%) SCA-3, 3(50%) SCA-6 patients. Hyporeflexia was noticed in 5(27.8%) SCA-2 patients. Pyramidal tract involvement was found in 8(61.5%) SCA-1, 4(22.2%) SCA-2, 4(57.1%) SCA-3 and 1(16.7%) SCA-6 patients.Our study showed SCA-2 is the most common variety of SCA and genotypic-phenotypic correlation was observed in SCA-1,2,6 and 12 patients.

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