Bangor is a city in Gwynedd unitary authority, north west Wales, and one of the smallest cities in Britain. Historically in Caernarfonshire, it is a university city with a population of 17,575 at the 2011 census, not including around 10,000 students at Bangor University. It is one of only six places classed as a city in Wales, although it is only the 36th largest urban area by population. According to the 2001 census, 46.6% of the non-student resident population speak Welsh, which is low for Gwynedd but despite this, the language keeps a high profile in town. Wikipedia.
Johnson D.B.,Bangor University
Current Opinion in Biotechnology | Year: 2014
The abilities of acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacteria and archaea to accelerate the oxidative dissolution of sulfide minerals have been harnessed in the development and application of a biotechnology for extracting metals from sulfidic ores and concentrates. Biomining is currently used primarily to leach copper sulfides and as an oxidative pretreatment for refractory gold ores, though it is also used to recover other base metals, such as cobalt, nickel and zinc. Recent developments have included using acidophiles to process electronic wastes, to extract metals from oxidized ores, and to selectively recover metals from process waters and waste streams. This review describes the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in commercial biomining operations, how the technology has developed over the past 50 years, and discusses the challenges and opportunities for mineral biotechnologies in the 21st century. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Giddings R.,Bangor University
Journal of Lightwave Technology | Year: 2014
In this paper, key aspects associated with realizing real-time digital signal processing (DSP)-based optical transceivers for use in future optical access networks are considered. The fundamental principles of optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM)-based transceivers and their associated DSP implementation are presented. This is followed by an extensive review of the real-time DSP implemented in the end-to-end OOFDM transceivers experimentally demonstrated over the past several years. © 1983-2012 IEEE.
Sciamanna M.,CNRS Laboratory of Optical Materials, Photonics, and Systems |
Shore K.A.,Bangor University
Nature Photonics | Year: 2015
This Review Article provides an overview of chaos in laser diodes by surveying experimental achievements in the area and explaining the theory behind the phenomenon. The fundamental physics underpinning laser diode chaos and also the opportunities for harnessing it for potential applications are discussed. The availability and ease of operation of laser diodes, in a wide range of configurations, make them a convenient testbed for exploring basic aspects of nonlinear and chaotic dynamics. It also makes them attractive for practical tasks, such as chaos-based secure communications and random number generation. Avenues for future research and development of chaotic laser diodes are also identified. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Davis N.J.,Bangor University
Sports Medicine | Year: 2013
Doping may be defined, broadly, as the use of unauthorised means to increase performance in sport. Doping is most commonly associated with the use of drugs. In this paper, I discuss the use of emerging techniques for the modulation of brain activity in healthy people using electric or magnetic fields, and suggest how they might be used to enhance physical and mental performance in sports. I will suggest that neurodoping may have different uses in different sports, and I argue that each sport must determine whether neurodoping should be considered as cheating, or should be considered a legitimate aid to training or performance. © 2013 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Neal R.D.,Bangor University
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015
Background:It is unclear whether more timely cancer diagnosis brings favourable outcomes, with much of the previous evidence, in some cancers, being equivocal. We set out to determine whether there is an association between time to diagnosis, treatment and clinical outcomes, across all cancers for symptomatic presentations.Methods:Systematic review of the literature and narrative synthesis.Results:We included 177 articles reporting 209 studies. These studies varied in study design, the time intervals assessed and the outcomes reported. Study quality was variable, with a small number of higher-quality studies. Heterogeneity precluded definitive findings. The cancers with more reports of an association between shorter times to diagnosis and more favourable outcomes were breast, colorectal, head and neck, testicular and melanoma.Conclusions:This is the first review encompassing many cancer types, and we have demonstrated those cancers in which more evidence of an association between shorter times to diagnosis and more favourable outcomes exists, and where it is lacking. We believe that it is reasonable to assume that efforts to expedite the diagnosis of symptomatic cancer are likely to have benefits for patients in terms of improved survival, earlier-stage diagnosis and improved quality of life, although these benefits vary between cancers.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 3 March 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.48 www.bjcancer.com. © 2015 Cancer Research UK