Motijheel, Bangladesh
Motijheel, Bangladesh

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Rahman M.M.,Bangladesh Water Development Board | Arya D.S.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Goel N.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Dhamy A.P.,Ministry of Water Resources
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering | Year: 2010

A case study was conducted in the Teesta subcatchment in Bangladesh for determining design flood flows and corresponding flood stages for different return periods using frequency analysis and MIKE 11 model. Different distribution functions of frequency analysis were tested for their goodness of fit. The observed discharge data at Kaunia on the river Teesta were used for estimation of design flood. The Pearson type-III distribution was found best fitted by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, D-index, and L-moment diagram ratio tests, and accordingly 25-, 50-, and 100-year return period design floods were computed. The river network of Teesta River was extracted from SRTM 90-m digital elevation model. The river network of Teesta subcatchment was then simulated by MIKE 11 rainfall-runoff Nedbor-Afstromnings-Model (NAM) and HD model. The resultant time series of river stage was then compared with corresponding observed values. From the model, a stage-discharge relationship (Q-h) curve and respective equation were developed for Kaunia station on the river Teesta. The developed equation determines the corresponding flood stage of estimated flood flow of 25-, 50-, and 100-year return periods. The resulting flows and stages will be useful to design hydraulic structures, prepare flood extent maps, assess vulnerability of flood damage for different return periods, and provide flood forecasting for early warnings of floods. The approach presented would be applicable to similar river basin systems where data are limited and scarce. © 2011 ASCE.

Steckler M.S.,Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory | Nooner S.L.,Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory | Akhter S.H.,University of Dhaka | Chowdhury S.K.,Bangladesh Water Development Board | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth | Year: 2010

The Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna rivers converge in Bangladesh with an annual discharge second to the Amazon. Most of the flow occurs during the summer monsoon causing widespread flooding. The impounded water represents a large surface load whose effects can be observed in Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and GPS data. Bangladesh is at the center of the second largest seasonal anomaly in the GRACE gravity field, reflecting water storage in Southeast Asia. Eighteen continuous GPS stations in Bangladesh record seasonal vertical motions up to 6 cm that inversely correlate to river level. We use 304 river gages to compute water height surfaces with a digital elevation model to separate surface water from groundwater. Porosity of 20% was used to estimate groundwater mass and calculate the water load. Results show ∼100 GT of water are stored in Bangladesh (7.5% of annual discharge) but can reach 150 GT during extreme events. The calculated water mass agrees with monthly GRACE water mass equivalents from Bangladesh within statistical limits. We compute the deformation due to this water load on an elastic half-space, and we vary Young's modulus to fit GPS data from our two most continuous records. The water loading can account for >50% of the variance in the GPS data. The best fitting Young's modulus is 117-124 GPa for DHAK and 133-135 GPa for SUST, although the upper bound is not well constrained. These estimates lie between sediment (30-75 GPa) and mantle (190 GPa) values, indicating that response to loading is sensitive to structure throughout the lithosphere and is not absorbed by the weak sediments. Copyright © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

Rahman M.M.,Bangladesh Water Development Board | Goel N.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Arya D.S.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering | Year: 2012

A flood forecasting system has been developed using MIKE11 river-modeling software modules rainfall-runoff (RR) [or Nedbor-Afstromnings model (NAM)], hydrodynamic (HD), and flood forecasting (FF) for the Jamuneswari river catchment of the northwestern part of Bangladesh. The 3-arc second shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) version 4.0 and the D8 method of ArcGIS9.3 have been used to delineate river network and catchment bounderies, which are required for MIKE 11 model setup. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) model-forecasted rainfall data have been used in MIKE 11 NAM-HD modules to increase the forecast lead time to 72 h. Errors in forecast results have been assessed by computing efficiency index, coefficient of correlation, volume error, peak error, and peak time error. Integration of the MIKE 11 HD module with the MIKE NAM module has improved the result by 10.84% for efficiency index, 20.7% for volume error, 25.61% for peak error, and 95.83% for peak time error. The MIKE 11 FF module was applied along with the integrated MIKE 11 NAM and HD modules to minimize error in the forecasted result. The efficiency index, volume error, peak error, and peak time error of the hindcast result, before updating by MIKE 11 FF, were calculated as 0.803, 0.505%, 2.58%, and 2 h, After updating by the MIKE 11 FF module, results were calculated as 0.989, -0.005%, 0.158%, and 0.00 h. Inputting the ECMWF-forecasted rainfall, the updated forecasting system determined the efficiency index, volume error, peak error, and peak time error as 0.92, 0.008%, 0.87%, and 0.00% for 24 h; 0.87, 0.231%, 0.507%, and 0.00 h for 48 h; and 0.84, 0.519%, and 0.000 h for 72 h. The steps for developing the flood forecasting system described in this case study are generic and can be applied under similar geographic conditions in other locations worldwide. In Bangladesh, decision makers will have more time to develop responses to imminent the flooding as a result of the increased forecast lead time provided by the analysis method described in this case study. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Oberhagemann K.,Northwest Hydraulic Consultants Inc. | Hossain M.M.,Bangladesh Water Development Board
Geotextiles and Geomembranes | Year: 2011

Since the late 1990s, riverbank revetments constructed of sand-filled geotextile bags (geotextile bags) have been developed in Bangladesh in response to the lack of traditional erosion-protection materials, particularly rock. After independence in 1971 and the related loss of access to quarries, rock was replaced by concrete cubes, but those are expensive and slow to manufacture. Geotextile bags on the other hand, first used as emergency measures during the second half of the 1990s, can be filled with local sand and therefore provide the opportunity to respond quickly to dynamic river changes. Geotextile bags also provide the potential for substantial cost reduction, due to the use of locally available resources. The use of the abundant local sand reduces transport distance and cost, while local labor is used for filling, transporting, and dumping of the 75-250. kg bags. Driven by the need for longer protection, the idea of using geotextile bags for permanent riverbank protection emerged in 2001. Eight years of experience have enabled systematic placement of geotextile bag protection along about 12. km of major riverbanks at a unit cost of around USD 2. M per km. By comparison, concrete-block revetments cost around USD 5. M per km. In addition, there are strong indications that geotextile bags perform better than concrete blocks as underwater protection, largely due to their inherent filter properties and better launching behavior when the toe of the protected underwater slope is under-scoured. This article reports the outcome of the last eight years of development work under the ADB-supported Jamuna-Meghna River Erosion Mitigation Project (ADB, 2002), implemented by the Bangladesh Water Development Board. Besides substituting geotextile bags for concrete blocks as protective elements, the project involved development of a comprehensive planning system to improve the overall reliability and sustainability of riverbank protection works. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Bhattacharya B.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Shams M.S.,Bangladesh Water Development Board | Popescu I.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education
Environmental Engineering and Management Journal | Year: 2013

Flood inundation modelling and flood risk mapping are primary cornerstones of flood risk assessment and management. Modelling activities generally assume that the morphology of the conveyance does not change, which certainly is not true for alluvial rivers. River bed elevations can quickly change during flood events. Flood water can induce different bed-forms (ripples, dunes, plain bed, etc.), which affects the flow resistance and as a result the flood water level. As a result integrating the river bed dynamics in flood risk management has the benefit of providing more realistic representation of flood levels. The paper presents an analysis of a measured dataset of River Rhine in the Netherlands to show the variation of dune heights during a flood in 2004. In another case study a hydraulic model, capable of simulating the changes in bed forms and the corresponding friction, has been developed for the Nzoia River in Kenya. This case study as well shows the development of dunes with flood and the corresponding effects on roughness and flood water level. Both case studies substantiate the importance of incorporating the changes in bed resistance due to the formation of bed forms in flood inundation modelling.

Shamsudduha M.,University College London | Taylor R.G.,University College London | Ahmed K.M.,University of Dhaka | Zahid A.,Bangladesh Water Development Board
Hydrogeology Journal | Year: 2011

Quantitative evaluations of the impact of groundwater abstraction on recharge are rare. Over a period (1975-2007) during which groundwater abstraction increased dramatically in the Bengal Basin, changes in net groundwater recharge in Bangladesh are assessed using the water-table fluctuation method. Mean annual groundwater recharge is shown to be higher (300-600 mm) in northwestern and southwestern areas of Bangladesh than in southeastern and northeastern regions (< 100 mm) where rainfall and potential recharge are greater. Net recharge in many parts of Bangladesh has increased substantially (5-15 mm/year between 1985 and 2007) in response to increased groundwater abstraction for irrigation and urban water supplies. In contrast, net recharge has slightly decreased (-0.5 to -1 mm/year) in areas where groundwater-fed irrigation is low (< 30% of total irrigation) and where abstraction has either decreased or remained unchanged over the period of 1985-2007. The spatio-temporal dynamics of recharge in Bangladesh illustrate the fundamental flaw in definitions of "safe yield" based on recharge estimated under static (non-pumping) conditions and reveal the areas where (1) further groundwater abstraction may increase actual recharge to the shallow aquifer, and (2) current groundwater abstraction for irrigation and urban water supplies is unsustainable. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Kwak Y.,International Center for Water Hazard and Risk Management ICHARM under the Auspices of UNESCO | Gusyev M.,International Center for Water Hazard and Risk Management ICHARM under the Auspices of UNESCO | Arifuzzaman B.,Bangladesh Water Development Board | Khairul I.,Bangladesh Water Development Board | And 2 more authors.
IAHS-AISH Proceedings and Reports | Year: 2015

A case study of Bangladesh presents a methodological possibility based on a global approach for assessing river flood risk and its changes considering flood hazard, exposure, basic vulnerability and coping capacity. This study consists of two parts in the issue of flood change: hazard assessment (Part 1) and risk assessment (Part 2). In Part 1, a hazard modeling technology was introduced and applied to the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) basin to quantify the change of 50- and 100-year flood hazards in Bangladesh under the present (1979-2003) and future (2075-2099) climates. Part 2 focuses on estimating nationwide flood risk in terms of affected people and rice crop damage due to a 50-year flood hazard identified in Part 1, and quantifying flood risk changes between the presence and absence of existing water infrastructure (i.e., embankments). To assess flood risk in terms of rice crop damage, rice paddy fields were extracted and flood stage-damage curves were created for maximum risk scenarios as a demonstration of risk change in the present and future climates. The preliminary results in Bangladesh show that a tendency of flood risk change strongly depends on the temporal and spatial dynamics of exposure and vulnerability such as distributed population and effectiveness of water infrastructure, which suggests that the proposed methodology is applicable anywhere in the world. © Author(s) 2015.

Kibler K.M.,International Center for Water Hazard and Risk Management under the Auspices of UNESCO | Biswas R.K.,Bangladesh Water Development Board | Lucas A.M.J.,International Center for Water Hazard and Risk Management under the Auspices of UNESCO | Lucas A.M.J.,Wageningen University
Water Policy | Year: 2014

Principles of equitable and reasonable use underpin international water agreements. Despite the potential for hydrologic information to enhance resilience to extreme events, comparable application of just principles to the distribution of hydrometeorological data is poorly established.Within the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) river basin, we find that water allocation agreements are codified into treaties or Memorandums of Understanding (MoUs). Analogous decisions regarding hydrometeorological data sharing are often internalized at the level of river basin organizations and are not upheld as MoUs. This institutional structure provides extremely limited data to the most downstream nation of Bangladesh. Available precipitation and discharge stations are well below the minimum densities recommended by the World Meteorological Organization. Forecasters in Bangladesh therefore contend with vast areas of geopolitically ungauged catchment, precluding the application of basin-wide modelling approaches driven by observed data. Thus, capacity for increasing resilience to extreme events within Bangladesh is obstructed, demonstrating the potential for perceived injustice related to distribution of hydrometeorological data. Consensus that water is a human right warrants the application of equity to water allocation. But is security from water-related disasters also a human right? As hydrometeorological data can be a powerful resource with potential to profoundly affect lives and livelihoods, enhanced awareness of justice related to data sharing is needed. © 2014 IWA Publishing.

Uddin S.M.,Bangladesh Water Development Board | Ronteltap M.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | van Lier J.B.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | van Lier J.B.,Technical University of Delft
Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development | Year: 2013

Bangladesh has made a significant contribution to supply improved sanitation facilities in rural areas in recent years. As it is the most known option, pit latrines were the most favourable technology. Yet, as Bangladesh is a country of flooding and high groundwater table, pit latrines not only flush out and cause pollution; they also become inaccessible during floods, and remain filled with silt after the floods. Every year floods destroy many sanitation facilities and force people to resort to open defecation, despite the capital-intensive investment. Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets (UDDTs) were evaluated on their suitability in flood-prone areas and their affordability in the context of Bangladesh. A survey conducted in two flood-prone areas of Bangladesh showed that with an average height of 0.69 m the UDDTs are higher than the average highest flood level of 0.31 m. To decrease cost and construction complexity, a local design was developed based on the current pit latrine, at 50% of the costs of the current UDDTs. Although the resulting cost is still not within reach for most Bangladeshi, the affordability could be increased by taking into account avoided emptying costs as well as the added value of human excreta as a fertilizer. © IWA Publishing 2013.

Rahman M.M.,Bangladesh Water Development Board | Arya D.S.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Goel N.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Applied Geomatics | Year: 2010

Bangladesh is the deltaic flood plain located in the lower ridge of the Ganges Brahmaputra and Meghna basins. The country is very flat having 40% of its landmass up to 10 m above the mean sea level. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 90 m, i.e., 3-arc second digital elevation model (DEM) is being widely used to delineate river network and to extract catchment information using hydrology tool of ArcGIS. The hydrology tool uses the D8 method for extraction of drainage pattern. The study was carried out to find the limitation and suitability of 90 m SRTM DEM data in flat terrains especially in Bangladesh using ArcGIS. Twelve catchments of varying geomorphology were chosen from five hydrological zones of Bangladesh. Basin characteristics such as bifurcation ratio, drainage density, and channel slope of the catchments were estimated and analyzed to evaluate the suitability of 90 m SRTM DEM. The delineated catchments of slope 1:3,600 or more flat shows large deviation in river network alignment when compared with the digital river network developed by Bangladesh Water Development Board and with Google Earth's images. The catchments having slope 1:2,850 and more steep were delineated correctly. The conclusion could not be established between slopes 1:2,850 and 1:3,600. The study also revealed that the catchment characteristics other than the slope have no effect on river network delineation © The Author(s) 2010.

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