News Article | October 26, 2016
A multipronged approach to supporting healthy breastfeeding among new mothers was effective when implemented at the population level, according to research published in PLOS Medicine. In cluster-randomized evaluations of two programs in Viet Nam and Bangladesh, Purnima Menon of the International Food Policy Research Institute in Washington, DC, and colleagues compared the effect of a program combining intensive interpersonal counseling (IPC), mass media (MM), and community mobilization (CM) to encourage breastfeeding (intensive group) to that of standard nutrition counseling and less intensive MM and CM (non-intensive group). In Bangladesh IPC was delivered through a large non-governmental health program, while in Viet Nam it was integrated into government health facilities. The researchers compared surveyed breastfeeding practices in households with children less than 6 months old before the interventions started and again four years later. They found positive population-level impacts on breastfeeding practices, including higher rates of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding, and lower use of prelacteal feeding and bottle feeding, in areas that received the intensive package compared to areas that received the non-intensive program. In Bangladesh, the percentage of mothers reporting exclusive breastfeeding rose from 48.5% to 87.6% in areas receiving the intensive program, and in Viet Nam the EBF prevalence rose from 18.9% to 57.8%. This is compared to much smaller changes in the areas with the non-intensive program (51.2% to 53.5% in Bangladesh and 17.8% to 28.4% in Viet Nam). The authors note that the findings are reliant on self-reporting of the mothers, who may have felt pressure to report "desirable" behavior, and the surveys only asked the mothers to report their behavior from the previous day, and thus would not capture day-to-day fluctuations in breastfeeding practices. However, they note that this study "shows that comprehensive behavior change strategies implemented at scale, under real-life conditions, and delivered through outreach-based (Bangladesh) and facility-based (Viet Nam) platforms have strong and significant impacts on breastfeeding practices." Funding for this evaluation and the implementation of the interventions was provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, through Alive & Thrive, managed by FHI360; additional financial support to the evaluation study was provided by the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH), led by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. JB, TS, NH, SA, KA and RH are part of the implementation team who delivered the interventions described in this paper. They helped conceive and design the study, but played no role in research data collection or data analysis. Their contributions to this manuscript included written inputs to sections on intervention design, critical in-person discussions regarding interpretation of results, and written review of manuscript drafts. Final decisions about results to include, interpretation and conclusions rested with authors from the evaluation team (PM, RR, EAF, MR, PN, KKS, AKh, AKn, LTM). Menon P, Nguyen PH, Saha KK, Khaled A, Kennedy A, Tran LM, et al. (2016) Impacts on Breastfeeding Practices of At-Scale Strategies That Combine Intensive Interpersonal Counseling, Mass Media, and Community Mobilization: Results of Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluations in Bangladesh and Viet Nam. PLoS Med 13(10): e1002159. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002159 Poverty, Health and Nutrition Division, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America Alive & Thrive, FHI360, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America Save the Children, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America BRAC, Dhaka, Bangladesh University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, United States of America IN YOUR COVERAGE PLEASE USE THIS URL TO PROVIDE ACCESS TO THE FREELY AVAILABLE PAPER:
Alam M.N.,Bangladesh University |
Akbar M.A.,University of Rajshahi |
Mohyud-Din S.T.,HITEC University
Chinese Physics B | Year: 2014
In this article, a novel (G′/G)-expansion method is proposed to search for the traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. We construct abundant traveling wave solutions involving parameters to the Boussinesq equation by means of the suggested method. The performance of the method is reliable and useful, and gives more general exact solutions than the existing methods. The new (G′/G)-expansion method provides not only more general forms of solutions but also cuspon, peakon, soliton, and periodic waves. © 2014 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.
Khan K.,Bangladesh University |
Akbar M.A.,University of Rajshahi
International Journal of Dynamical Systems and Differential Equations | Year: 2015
The paper employs the exp(-Φ(ξ))-expansion method for finding exact solutions of the Vakhnenko-Parkes (VP) equation. Each of the obtained solutions, namely hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions, exponential function solutions and rational function solutions, contain an explicit function of the variables in the considered equation. It has been shown that the method provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving non-linear wave equations in mathematical physics and engineering problems. Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Khan K.,Bangladesh University |
Ali Akbar M.,University of Rajshahi
Ain Shams Engineering Journal | Year: 2014
The modified simple equation (MSE) method is promising for finding exact traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) in mathematical physics. In this letter, we investigate solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional Zoomeron equation and the (2 + 1)-dimensional Burgers equation by using the MSE method and the Exp-function method. The competence of the methods for constructing exact solutions has been established. © 2013 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Ain Shams University.
Khan K.,Bangladesh University |
Akbar M.A.,University of Rajshahi
Ain Shams Engineering Journal | Year: 2013
The modified simple equation (MSE) method is thriving in finding exact traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) in engineering and mathematical physics. In this study, we bring to bear the MSE method to look for the exact solutions via the Tzitzeica-Dodd-Bullough and the modified KdV-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equations involving parameters. When the parameters receive special values, solitary wave solutions are derived from the exact solutions. By means of this scheme, we found some fresh traveling wave solutions of the above mentioned equations. © 2013 Ain Shams University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Roshid H.-O.,Bangladesh University |
Azizur Rahman M.,Bangladesh University
Results in Physics | Year: 2014
Periodic and soliton solutions are presented for the (1+1)-dimensional classical Boussinesq equation which governs the evolution of nonlinear dispersive long gravity wave traveling in two horizontal directions on shallow water of uniform depth. The equation is handled via the exp(-Φ(η))-expansion method. It is worth declaring that the method is more effective and useful for solving the nonlinear evolution equations. In particular, mathematical analysis and numerical graph are provided for those solitons, periodic, singular kink and bell type solitary wave solutions to visualize the dynamics of the equation. © 2014 The Authors.
Alam M.N.,Bangladesh University
Results in Physics | Year: 2015
The new generalized (G'/G)-expansion method is an interesting approach to find new and more general exact solutions to the nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) in mathematical physics and engineering. In this paper, the method is applied to construct exact solutions involving parameters for the foam drainage equation. When these parameters are taken to be special values, the solitary wave solutions, the periodic wave and the rational function solutions are derived from exact solutions. These solutions might be imperative and significant for the explanation of some practical physical phenomena. It is shown that the method is an easy and advanced mathematical tool for solving NLEEs. © 2015 The Authors.
Chakrabortty R.K.,Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology |
Akhtar Hasin M.A.,Bangladesh University
International Journal of Industrial Engineering Computations | Year: 2013
In hierarchical production planning system, Aggregate Production Planning (APP) falls between the broad decisions of long-range planning and the highly specific and detailed short-range planning decisions. This study develops an interactive Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) approach for solving the multi-product, multi-period aggregate production planning (APP) with forecasted demand, related operating costs, and capacity. The proposed approach attempts to minimize total costs with reference to inventory levels, labor levels, overtime, subcontracting and backordering levels, and labor, machine and warehouse capacity. Here several genetic algorithm parameters are considered for solving NP-hard problem (APP problem) and their relative comparisons are focused to choose the most auspicious combination for solving multiple objective problems. An industrial case demonstrates the feasibility of applying the proposed approach to real APP decision problems. Consequently, the proposed MOGA approach yields an efficient APP compromise solution for large-scale problems. © 2012 Growing Science Ltd.
Mumu S.J.,Bangladesh University
Indian journal of public health | Year: 2014
Non-adherence to preventive and therapeutic life-style recommendations among patients with diabetes is special challenge in the management of these patients. This study aimed to measure the proportion of non-adherence to life-style modification and factors associated with these among a group of Bangladeshi type 2 diabetic patients. Under an analytical cross-sectional design 374 type 2 diabetic patients (age >20 years), diagnosed for at least 1 year, were selected from different health care centers operated by the Diabetic Association of Bangladesh. Non-adherence rate were assessed for: Diet (88%), exercise (25%), routine blood glucose testing (32%), foot care (70%), smoking (6%) and betel quid chewing habit (25%). Binary logistic regression suggests that higher education group (P = 0.013), rural area (P = 0.013) and attendance to diabetes education classes (P = 0.043) showed good adherence to diet and non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.014), older age (P = 0.037) are associated to non-adherence to exercise. Unemployed patients showed more non-adherence to blood glucose testing (P = 0.045) than others. Non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.037) and business occupation group (P = 0.039) showed significant association to smoking and betel quid intake habit respectively.
Fatema K.,Bangladesh University
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2013
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is now one of the major health problems all over the world and its early screening is vital to prevent the development of end-stage renal failure. This study was designed to evaluate the proportion of urban adults suffering from CKD as well as to have a preliminary idea about the determinants of this disorder. The screening program for CKD was arranged in a public place in Dhaka city, Bangladesh, and involved 634 adult participants (>18 years of age) selected on first-come first-served basis. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, and clinical data were collected. Urinary protein was tested by the dipstick method, and serum glucose and creatinine were measured by an auto-analyzer. Estimated glomerular filtrate rate (eGFR) was calculated by using standard formula. CKD was diagnosed and classified according to the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) guidelines. A total of 12.8% of the subjects were found to have CKD of whom 2.7% were in Stage 1, 4.1% in Stage 2, and 6% were in Stage 3. The proportion was strongly influenced by age, with the highest prevalence (38.5%) found at 60 years and above. The CKD group showed higher body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and systolic blood pressure, compared with their non-CKD counterparts (P = 0.02). On multiple regression analysis (after adjustment of some confounding variables), age, random blood sugar, and education showed significant association with the development of CKD. A substantial number of urban adults in Dhaka were found to be unaware about the existence of CKD and large-scale prevention programs should be undertaken to reduce the classical risk factors of these disorders.