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Rozakis S.,Agricultural University of Athens | Haque M.I.,Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute | Natsis A.,Agricultural University of Athens | Borzecka-Walker M.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation | Mizak K.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2013

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of bioethanol as regards to its carbon dioxide emissions. The production of the raw material accounts for more than 50 % of the total cost as well as having a significant part of greenhouse gases emitted during the entire process. For this reason, special emphasis is given to a change in agricultural land usage influenced by the demand of biofuel. Therefore, we have estimated the extent of policy influence according to its bioethanol cost-effectiveness. A case study on bioethanol production in an ex-sugar factory in the region of Thessaly, Greece, illustrates the above ideas. Methods: A partial equilibrium micro-economic model of regional supply in the arable farming system of Thessaly was coupled to industrial processing sub-models of bioethanol production from beets and grains. The maximisation of total welfare determines the most suitable crop mix for farmers as well as the lowest cost configurations for industry and, eventually, the minimal level of support by the government for biofuel activity to take off. The environmental performance is assessed under the life cycle assessment (LCA) framework following three interrelated phases: data inventory, data analysis and interpretation. The economic burden to society to support the activity divided by avoided CO2 eq. emissions indicates the bioethanol cost-effectiveness, in other words, the cost of greenhouse gases emissions savings. Results: The integrated agro-industry model has been parametrically run for a range of biofuel capacities. A change in direct land use results in lower emissions in the agricultural phase, since energy crops are a substitute for intensive cultivations, such as cotton and corn. A change in indirect land use moderates these estimations, as it takes in account imported food crops that are replaced by energy crops in the region. The savings in cost vary around 160 euros per ton of CO2 eq. for the basic agricultural policy scenario. The current policy that supports cotton production by means of increased coupled area payment has increased up to 30 % the cost of greenhouse gas savings due to bioethanol production. Conclusions: An integrated model, articulating the agricultural supply of biomass with ethanol processing, maximises the total surplus that is under constraints in order to determine the cost-effectiveness for different production levels. Results demonstrate that economic performances, as well as the environmental cost-effectiveness of bioethanol, are clearly affected by the parameters of agricultural policies. Therefore, bioenergy, environmental and economic performances, when based on LCA and the conceptual change in land usage, are context dependent. Agricultural policies for decoupling subsidies from production are in favour of cultivation in biomass for energy purposes. © 2012 The Author(s).


Ahmed T.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ahmed T.,Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute | Zhang T.-T.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | He K.-L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology | Year: 2013

Parasitoid wasps from the insect order Hymenoptera can be deployed successfully as biological control agents for a number of pests, and have previously been introduced for the control of corn pest insect species from the Lepidopteran genus Ostrinia. Organs on the ovipositor of parasitoid wasps have mechanical and tactile senses that coordinate the complex movements of egg laying, and the ovipositor of Hymenopteran insects have evolved associated venom glands as part of their stinging defense. The ovipositor of parasitic wasps has evolved an additional function as a piercing organ that is required for the deposition of eggs within suitable host larvae. The morphology and ultrastructure of sense organs on the ovipositor and sheath of Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are described using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Three types of sensilla trichodea were shown to be abundant on the outer sheath of the ovipositor, with types II and III being most distal, and the inner surface of the ovipositor covered with microtrichia, more densely near the apex. Sensilla coeloconica are distributed on both ventral and dorsal valves, while campaniform sensilla and secretory pores are only located on the dorsal valve. The olistheter-like interlocking mechanism, as well as the morphology of the ventral and dorsal valve tips and the ventral valve seal may be important in stinging, oviposition and in the host selection process. © 2013 The Authors.


Ahmed T.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ahmed T.,Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute | Zhang T.-T.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang Z.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Micron | Year: 2013

Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a polyembryonic endoparasitoid of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis and the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. To better understand the host location mechanism, we examined the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla of this parasitoid by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Antennae of male and female of the M. cingulum are filiform in shape, 5.90-6.64. mm in length and consist of scape, pedicel, and flagellum with 39 and 40 flagellomeres, respectively. Cuticular pore and nine types of morphologically distinct sensilla were identified in both sexes, including two types of sensilla chaetica (nonporous), s. trichodea (nonporous), s. basiconica I (nonporous blunt tip), s. basiconica II (porous wall) and basiconica III (nonporous wall) with branched blunt tip, s. coeloconica with finger-like projections, protruded s. campaniform with central tip pore, and plate-like s. placodea (porous). We compared number, morphology, and distribution of sensilla between sexes. S. campaniform and non-porous basiconica type I may play a role in gustatory functions whereas type II, and s. placodea may play a function in detecting odor stimuli due to their pores wall. The sensilla chaetica and s. trichodea may be involved in mechnosensation. S. coeloconica probably plays a role as thermo-hygro receptor, whilst cuticular pores may detect odor stimuli. No differences in antenna shape and basic structure in the males and females, but male antennae length and width were significantly greater than those of females. Furthermore, males had more placodea than females. The sensilla types, morphology, and structure of both sexes were compared to those found in other parasitic hymenoptera, especially braconid wasps. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Mahmud K.,Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute | Nasiruddin K.M.,Bangladesh Agricultural University | Hossain M.A.,Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute | Hassan L.,Bangladesh Agricultural University
Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Sugarcane somaclones and their sources varieties were analyzed by RAPD molecular markers to check the variation at molecular level based on 1.4% agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE). Six RAPD primers generated 237 bands with average 39.5 varied from 15 to 63 with size ranging 145 ‐ 1000 bp among the four sugarcane varieties and their 12 somaclones. Genetic diversity or polymorphism information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.39 to 0.50 for all loci across the 4 varieties and their 12 somaclones based on RAPD markers. Dendrogram based on linkage distance using unweighted pair group method of arithmetic means (UPGMA) based on 6 RAPD primers indicated segregation of the 4 sugarcane varieties and their somaclones into two main clusters at linkage distance 36. Variety Isd 39 was observed in main cluster C1 while its (Isd 39) somaclones and other varieties (Isd 37, Isd 38 and Isd 40) and also their somaclones were found in main cluster C2 having different sub‐clusters. Theirfore, it may be concluded that RAPD markers can be used for identification of somaclonal variation and the relationship between sources varieties and their somaclones. © 2015, Bangladesh Association for Plant Tissue. All rights reserved.


Ahmed T.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ahmed T.,Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute | Zhang T.-T.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang Z.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) play a central role in transporting odorant molecules from the sensillum lymph to olfactory receptors to initiate behavioral responses. In this study, the OBP of Macrocentrus cingulum McinOBP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni ion affinity chromatography. Real-time PCR experiments indicate that the McinOBP1 is expressed mainly in adult antennae, with expression levels differing by sex. Ligand-binding experiments using N-phenylnaphthylamine (1-NPN) as a fluorescent probe demonstrated that the McinOBP1 can bind green-leaf volatiles, including aldehydes and terpenoids, but also can bind aliphatic alcohols with good affinity, in the order trans-2-nonenal>cis-3-hexen-1-ol>trans-caryophelle, suggesting a role of McinOBP1 in general odorant chemoreception. We chose those three odorants for further homology modeling and ligand docking based on their binding affinity. The Val58, Leu62 and Glu130 are the key amino acids in the binding pockets that bind with these three odorants. The three mutants, Val58, Leu62 and Glu130, where the valine, leucine and glutamic residues were replaced by alanine, proline and alanine, respectively; showed reduced affinity to these odorants. This information suggests, Val58, Leu62 and Glu130 are involved in the binding of these compounds, possibly through the specific recognition of ligands that forms hydrogen bonds with the ligands functional groups. © 2014 Ahmed et al.


Nath U.K.,Bangladesh Agricultural University | Rani S.,Bangladesh Agricultural University | Paul M.R.,Bangladesh Agricultural University | Alam M.N.,Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute | Horneburg B.,University of Gottingen
Scientific World Journal | Year: 2014

Lentil is one of the most important pulse crops in the world as well as in Bangladesh. It is now considered a main component for training and body building practising in first world countries. Yield varies tremendously from year to year and location to location. Therefore, it is very important to find genotypes that perform consistently well even in ecological farming systems without any intercultural operations. Twenty lentil genotypes were tested during the period from November 2010 to March 2011 and from December 2011 to March 2012 with three replicates in each season to determine genetic variability, diversity, characters association, and selection indices for better grain yield. The experiment was conducted at the breeding field of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. This study revealed that all the genotypes possess a high amount of genetic diversity. Plant height and 100-grain weight showed significant positive correlation with grain yield plant-1 that was also confirmed by path analysis as the highest direct effect on grain yield. The genotypes BM-513 and BM-941 were found to be the best performer in both the seasons and were considered as consistent genotype. The genotypes were grouped into four clusters based on Euclidean distance following Ward's method and RAPD analysis. However, discriminant function analysis revealed a progressive increase in the efficiency of selection and BM-70 ranked as the best followed by the genotypes BM-739, BM-680, BM-185, and BM-513. These genotypes might be recommended for farmers' cultivation in ecological farming in Bangladesh. © 2014 U. K. Nath et al.


Begum M.K.,Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute | Alam M.R.,Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute | Islam M.S.,Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute | Arefin M.S.,Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute
Sugar Tech | Year: 2012

The present study was conducted during 2007-2008 cropping season at Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute, Ishurdi-6620, Pabna to investigate the effect of drought stress at various levels with a view to study the physiological characters of sugarcane associated with juice quality under drought condition. Six genotypes and four drought cycles were (i) daily watering (ii) 4 days without water (iii) 6 days without water (iv) 8 days without water imposed in the study. The physiological parameters viz., total chlorophyll, chlorophyll stability index, leaf area index and relative water content and biochemical parameters viz., brix, pol, purity and reducing sugar were reduced under drought treatments. The rates of reduction for most of the characters were higher in I 97-01, I 111-01, I 112-01 and I 191-02. The genotypes I 95-01 and Isd 36 were found better than other genotypes in respect of physiological adaptation associated with juice quality. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationships among the physiological parameters total chlorophyll, chlorophyll stability index, leaf area index and relative water content with juice quality in sugarcane under water stress during its grand growth period, which will help sugarcane breeders in adopting traits for selecting drought tolerant varieties. © 2012 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.


Ahmed T.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ahmed T.,Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute | Zhang T.-T.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang Z.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Entomology | Year: 2016

Macrocentrus cingulum is an important polyembryonic endoparasitic wasp that attacks larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) and the European corn borer, O. nubilalis (Hübner). Parasitoids use antennae as the main sensory organ to recognize herbivore-induced plant volatiles as host searching cues. The antennal olfaction proteins, odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs) are involved in olfactory signal transduction pathway as a sensory neuron response. In the present study, we constructed a cDNA library from the male and female antennae for identifying the olfaction-related genes in M. cingulum. For that, we sequenced 3160 unique gene sequences and annotated them with gene ontology (GO), cluster of orthologous groups of proteins (COG), and KEGG ontology (KO). Through the homology search, we identified 9 odorant receptors (ORs), 3 ionotropic receptors (IRs) and 1 odorant binding protein (OBP) genes from the cDNA library sequences. Additionally, the expression patterns of these ORs and IRs in different tissues (antennae, heads, thoraxes, abdomens, and legs) were demonstrated by RT-PCR. The qualitative gene expression analyses showed that most of the OR genes were more highly expressed in female than male antennae; whereas IRs, unlike ORs, were more expressed in various male than females tissues. We are the first to report ORs and IRs in M. cingulum, which should help in deciphering the molecular basis of olfaction system in this wasp. © Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, Ceské Budejovice.


Rahman M.A.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Rahman M.A.,Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute | Ren L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wu W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yan Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2015

Drought is the major abiotic stress limiting sugarcane growth and productivity. ERF proteins regulate a variety of stress responses in plant. Overexpression of TERF1 can enhance the tolerance of transgenic sugarcane to drought stress. To improve the efficiency of sugarcane breeding, better understanding of the tolerance mechanism at molecular level is required. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses were conducted to compare the leaf proteome of the TERF1 OE and WT sugarcane plants to PEG stress. Using statistical program, 50 significantly differential protein spots were detected, of which 36 spots were identified by PMF and MS/MS fragmentation. Most of the identified proteins corresponded to metabolism, energy, protein synthesis, and disease/defense. Results implicated that the involvement of different metabolic pathways that may be activated in the TERF1 overexpressed transgenic sugarcane to cope with drought environment. Of the identified proteins, abundance of pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) containing protein and peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) were decreased, but the abundance of vital proteins, such as metabolism protein (14-3-3 like protein), photosynthetic protein (RuBisCO large subunit, PEP carboxylase), ferredoxin, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, elongation factor Tu, several small heat shock proteins, and peroxidases were increased. Analysis of protein properties showed that majority of the differentially abundant proteins associated with drought were stable, hydrophilic, and transmembrane proteins. Thus, the results of our study unravel the regulatory mechanism of TERF1 for drought stress tolerance of transgenic sugarcane and provide new insight into adaptation to osmotic stress through altering the expression of particular proteins. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Ahmed T.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ahmed T.,Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute | Zhang T.-T.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang Z.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology | Year: 2015

The wasp, Macrocentrus cingulum, is a polyembryonic endoparasitoid from the insect order Hymenoptera deployed successfully as biological control agent for the control of corn pest insect species from the Lepidopteran genus Ostrinia. As an insect, olfaction plays a crucial role for foraging, host-seeking, mating, ovipositing and avoiding toxic substances. Consequently, the molecular basis of olfaction in this wasp is of particular interest. In an effort to expand our understanding of chemosensory pathways, transcripts encoding the highly conserved insect odorant co-receptor (Orco) were isolated from this wasp. The McinOrco shares high degree of sequence homology with known Orco proteins in other insects. Real-time PCR experiments indicate that the McinOrco is expressed mainly in adult antennae, with expression levels differing by sex. The expressing cells were visualized by adapting a whole mount fluorescence in situ hybridization method. Orco-expressing sensory neurons were shown to be abundant in all 39 segments of male antenna. The highest densities of Orco-expressing cells were identified in segment 20, whereas segment 7 comprised in low level. In case of female antenna, levels of Orco-expressing cells were lower than male antenna. Almost expressed cells were distributed over 40 flagellomeres, with decreasing numbers towards the proximal end. These demonstrate the sexual dimorphism concerning the expression cells of Orco. We are the first to report, Orco in polyembryonic endoparasitoid M. cingulum, which play an important role in detection of olfactory cues in this wasp. © 2015 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society.

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