Choi B.-H.,Gyeongsang National University |
Bang J.-I.,Gyeongsang National University |
Jin J.-I.,Gyeongsang National University |
Kim S.-S.,Gyeongsang National University |
And 6 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2013
Oocyte quality is a key factor affecting success of invitro embryo production in cattle. Improving the microenvironment of oocytes during invitro maturation (IVM) can increase developmental rate and embryo quality. Therefore, the objective was to determine whether denuded oocytes (DO) affect embryo development and ultrastructure of the zona pellucida (ZP) in invitro matured bovine oocytes. Intact immature cumulus-oocytes complexes (COC) obtained from a local abattoir or by ovum pick-up (OPU) were cocultured with and without abattoir-obtained DO at a COC:DO ratio of 1:5. After IVM, DO were removed and intact DO were either fertilized or observed by scanning electron microscopy. Blastocyst quality was evaluated using a TUNEL assay. The ZP pore size decreased after IVM in COC + DO coculture, regardless of their origin (OPU, 310.5 ± 92.5 vs. 428.9 ± 148.5 nm; abattoir, 317.5 ± 68.5 vs. 358.9 ± 128.5 nm; P < 0.05; mean values ± standard deviation). Moreover, the number of ZP pores in OPU COC + DO and COC + DO was greater than those in OPU COC and COC (control) groups (56 ± 4 and 55 ± 7 vs. 50 ± 6 and 42 ± 4; P < 0.05). The rate of blastocyst development in COC + DO and OPU COC + DO groups was greater those in control and OPU COC groups (36.6% and 55.5% vs. 28.1% and 40.0%; P < 0.05). Moreover, the total cell numbers of blastocysts in COC + DO group exceeded that of control (132.91 ± 30.90 vs. 115.44 ± 24.95; P < 0.05), with no significant between OPU COC + DO and OPU COC groups (139.31 ± 42.51 vs. 137.00 ± 61.34). In conclusion, invitro embryo development competence and quality improved when oocytes were cocultured with DO. Furthermore, there more, but smaller, ZP pores. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Osmani M.G.,Bangladesh Agricultural University |
Ward M.P.,University of Sydney |
Giasuddin M.,Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute |
Islam M.R.,Bangladesh Agricultural University |
Kalam A.,Food and Agriculture Organization
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2014
Since the global spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 during 2005-2006, control programs have been successfully implemented in most affected countries. HPAI H5N1 was first reported in Bangladesh in 2007, and since then 546 outbreaks have been reported to the OIE. The disease has apparently become endemic in Bangladesh. Spatio-temporal information on 177 outbreaks of HPAI H5N1 occurring between February 2010 and April 2011 in Bangladesh, and 37 of these outbreaks in which isolated H5N1 viruses were phylogenetically characterized to clade, were analyzed.Three clades were identified, 2.2 (21 cases), 2.3.4 (2 cases) and 220.127.116.11 (14 cases). Clade 2.2 was identified throughout the time period and was widely distributed in a southeast-northwest orientation. Clade 18.104.22.168 appeared later and was generally confined to central Bangladesh in a north-south orientation. Based on a direction test, clade 2.2 viruses spread in a southeast-to-northwest direction, whereas clade 22.214.171.124 spread west-to-east. The magnitude of spread of clade 126.96.36.199 was greater relative to clade 2.2 (angular concentration 0.2765 versus 0.1860). In both cases, the first outbreak(s) were identified as early outliers, but in addition, early outbreaks (one each) of clade 2.2 were also identified in central Bangladesh and in northwest Bangladesh, a considerable distance apart.The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in Bangladesh is characterized by reported long-distance translocation events. This poses a challenge to disease control efforts. Increased enforcement of biosecurity and stronger control of movements between affected farms and susceptible farms, and better surveillance and reporting, is needed. Although the movement of poultry and equipment appears to be a more likely explanation for the patterns identified, the relative contribution of trade and the market chain versus wild birds in spreading the disease needs further investigation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Sarker S.K.,Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute |
Yang C.J.,Sunchon National University
Journal of Medicinal Plant Research | Year: 2011
A study was conducted with 140 "Ross" broilers (1-day old) having four treatments to know the potentiality of Eosungcho, Houttuynia cordata with probiotics (HCP) and suitable level in replacing antibiotic. The groups were control (basal diet), antibiotic (basal diet + 0.05% OTC) and HCP 0.5 and 1.0% with basal diet. The birds were arranged in a completely randomized design having 5 replications with 7 chicks per replication in wire cage. Addition of feed additives in the diet did not show negative effect on growth and feed conversion efficiency in broilers. Significantly, highest protein percentage in broiler meat fed 1.0% HCP was recorded compared to control (p<0.05). Crude fat significantly reduced in 1.0% HCP like antibiotic compared to control group (p<0.05). The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of meat in antibiotic and HCP groups showed significantly lower value compared to control (p<0.05). No mortality was observed in 1.0% HCP added diet compared to other groups. Although, no difference in internal organs among the groups were observed except large intestine weight. Significantly, lowest large intestinal weight was found in antibiotic and 1.0% HCP addition diet were found (p<0.05). Considering the findings, addition of 1.0% Eusungcho (Houttuynia cordata) with multi strain probiotics can be replaceable to antibiotic for broiler production. © 2011 Academic Journals.
Sarker M.S.K.,Sunchon National University |
Yang C.J.,Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2010
A study was conducted with 48 Hanwoo post weaning calves from 91 -120 days to know the effect of natural feed additives on growth, feed intake and blood profiles. The calves were arranged in four groups; control, antibiotic (Neomycine 110 ppm), propolis (0.05%) and illite (2%) having 12 calves (male female ratio 6:6) in each. The claves were supplied pellet feeds ad libitum. Multi nutrient block and timothy grass hay were supplied to the calves. Water was supplied ad libitum through the water tub. Significantly lowest (p<0.05) initial BW was recorded at the beginning of post-weaning age in propolis group compared to others. The ADG at 5 months age were found statistically similar among the groups which indicates the effectiveness of the propolis. Higher feed intakes were recorded in control and propolis group followed by antibiotic and illite group. Illite and propolis group showed better compared to control diet in terms of ADG and feed efficiency. Addition of propolis and illite in the diet of post-weaning calves increased the percentage of platelets count (p<0.05) keeping other blood component statistically unchanged. The serum albumin and globulin values also falls within the range of antibiotic group although lowest IgM was recorded in illite group. In conclusion, the natural resources, illite and propolis showed potential without any detrimental effect for production of Hanwoo post-weaning calves. © Medwell Journals, 2010.
Sarkerand M.S.K.,Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute |
Yang C.J.,Sunchon National University
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2010
A study was conducted with 48 Hanwoo calves from birth to 90 days to know the effect of natural feed additives on growth, feed intake and blood profiles. The calves were arranged in four groups; control, antibiotic (Neomycine 110 ppm), propolis (0.05%) and illite (2%) having 12 calves (male female ratio 6:6) in each. The claves were supplied pellet feeds ad libitum. They were allowed to suck mother's milk and timothy grass hay were supplied after 1 month and multi nutrient block. Water was supplied ad libitum through the water tub. The significantly highest (p<0.05) BW and ADG were found in antibiotic fed calves than other groups. There were almost similar values observed in control and illite fed calves. Significant lowest (p<0.05) weight was observed in propolis fed calves. Highest feed intake was recorded in control group followed by antibiotic, illite and propolis group. Illite group seems to be suitable among the feed additives groups but the daily weight gam was statistically lowest (p<0.05). Blood profiles didn't show any effects after addition of additives except significant reduction of A/G ratio. So considering all the factors both the natural resources, Illite and Propolis didn't show potential for production of Hanwoo calf at pre-weaning. © Medwell Journals, 2010.
Rahman A.K.M.A.,Bangladesh Agricultural University |
Rahman A.K.M.A.,University of Liège |
Rahman A.K.M.A.,Institute of Tropical Medicine |
Saegerman C.,University of Liège |
And 6 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013
The true prevalence of brucellosis and diagnostic test characteristics of three conditionally dependent serological tests were estimated using the Bayesian approach in goats and sheep populations of Bangladesh. Serum samples from a random selection of 636 goats and 1044 sheep were tested in parallel by indirect ELISA (iELISA), Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and Slow Agglutination Test (SAT). The true prevalence of brucellosis in goats and sheep were estimated as 1% (95% credibility interval (CrI): 0.7-1.8) and 1.2% (95% CrI: 0.6-2.2) respectively. The sensitivity of iELISA was 92.9% in goats and 92.0% in sheep with corresponding specificities of 96.5% and 99.5% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity estimates of RBT were 80.2% and 99.6% in goats and 82.8% and 98.3% in sheep. The sensitivity and specificity of SAT were 57.1% and 99.3% in goats and 72.0% and 98.6% in sheep. In this study, three conditionally dependent serological tests for the diagnosis of small ruminant brucellosis in Bangladesh were validated. Considerable conditional dependence between IELISA and RBT and between RBT and SAT was observed among sheep. The influence of the priors on the model fit and estimated parameter values was checked using sensitivity analysis. In multiple test validation, conditional dependence should not be ignored when the tests are in fact conditionally dependent. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Huque Q.M.E.,Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute |
Fouzder S.K.,Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute |
Islam R.,Bangladesh Agricultural University
Revista Veterinaria | Year: 2010
Bangladesh estimated 1.26 million buffaloes which are non-descriptive riverine and swamp type. The present production systems of buffaloes in Bangladesh are household (HH) and herded flock (HF) managemen. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information from 60 farms to determine the production cost structure and output of buffaloes for its potential contribution to the economy. HH and HF managed animals under both production systems were running in profit. The income obtained from milk, draught, calves and manure were 49.23, 25.35, 23.08 and 2.31 percent in HH buffaloes and the income from sale of milk, calves and manure were 77.47, 21.61 and 0.92 percent, respectively in HF where HF animals are not used for draught purpose. The major heads of expenditure accounting for 76.90 and 42.79 percent for feed of the total costs in HH and HF systems. Among the other expenditure, the respective contribution of costs on veterinary and health services, labor, materials, fixed items, equipment and bank loan were 3.68, 0.0, 0.0, 8.62, 10.80 and 0.0 in the HH and 7.88, 30.81, 6.07,9.21, 3.23 and 0.0 in HF, respectively. The labor cost (30.81 percent) was the second higher head of expenditure in HF whereas HH animals do not have any labor cost. Health service cost was higher (31.20) than the veterinary services. The differences of milk prices exist between buffalo and cow at farm gate but that does not exist in consumer's gate. The price of milk differs 29 percent between urban and rural market.
Rashid M.M.,Bangladesh Agricultural University |
Hoque M.A.,Bangladesh Agricultural University |
Huque K.S.,Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute |
Bhuiyan A.K.F.H.,Bangladesh Agricultural University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2015
Twelve Local x Brahman (LxB) bulls of average 20.0±1.5 months of age and 343±20.0 kg live weight) divided into three equal groups were fed: a mixed concentrate diet (CON); 1:1 CON and UMS (Urea and Molasses impregnated Straw at a ratio of 3:15:82 on dry matter basis (DM)); and the UMS diet alone. The average daily DM intake of CON group was 7.56 kg/head,; feeding UMS with concentrate at 1:1 ratio increased daily DM intake to 10.2 kg. The DM intake was reduced when UMS was fed alone. The apparent digestibility of DM and crude protein was highest for the CON treatment, and was reduced linearly with the increasing level of UMS. The average daily live weight gain was 954 and 873 for CON and CON:UMS and was reduced to 205 g/head on UMS alone. Feed conversion rate was 34.7 on UMS, much poorer than that of CON and CON:UMS. The feed cost of producing one kg live weight was calculated to be 2.26, 2.04 and 2.60 US$, respectively for the three diets. Considering feed conversion rate and cost per kg gain, a mixed diet of concentrate and UMS (1:1) is the most appropriate for F1 Local x Brahman crossbred bulls. © 2015 Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.
Haque M.E.,Bangladesh Agricultural University |
Giasuddin M.,Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute |
Chowdhury E.H.,Bangladesh Agricultural University |
Islam M.R.,Bangladesh Agricultural University
Avian Pathology | Year: 2014
In Bangladesh, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 was first detected in February 2007. Since then the virus has become entrenched in poultry farms of Bangladesh. There have so far been seven human cases of H5N1 HPAI infection in Bangladesh with one death. The objective of the present study was to investigate the molecular evolution of H5N1 HPAI viruses during 2007 to 2012. Partial or complete nucleotide sequences of all eight gene segments of two chicken isolates, five gene segments of a duck isolate and the haemagglutinin gene segment of 18 isolates from Bangladesh were established in the present study and subjected to molecular analysis. In addition, full-length sequences of different gene segments of other Bangladeshi H5N1 isolates available in GenBank were included in the analysis. The analysis revealed that the first introduction of clade 2.2 virus in Bangladesh in 2007 was followed by the introduction of clade 188.8.131.52 and 2.3.4 viruses in 2011. However, only clade 184.108.40.206 viruses could be isolated in 2012, indicating progressive replacement of clade 2.2 and 2.3.4 viruses. There has been an event of segment re-assortment between H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in Bangladesh, where H5N1 virus acquired the PB1 gene from a H9N2 virus. Point mutations have accumulated in Bangladeshi isolates over the last 5 years with potential modification of receptor binding site and antigenic sites. Extensive and continuous molecular epidemiological studies are necessary to monitor the evolution of circulating avian influenza viruses in Bangladesh. © 2014 © 2014 Houghton Trust Ltd.
Ahmed S.S.U.,Copenhagen University |
Ahmed S.S.U.,Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University |
Themudo G.E.,University of Southern Denmark |
Christensen J.P.,Copenhagen University |
And 5 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2012
Bangladesh has been severely hit by highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI-H5N1). However, little is known about the genetic diversity and the evolution of the circulating viruses in Bangladesh. In the present study, we analyzed the hemagglutinin gene of 30 Bangladeshi chicken isolates from 2007 through 2010. We analyzed the polybasic amino acid sequence motif of the cleavage site and amino acid substitution pattern. Phylogenetic history was reconstructed using neighbor-joining and Bayesian time-scaled methods. In addition, we used Mantel correlation tests to analyze the relation between genetic relatedness and spatial and temporal distances. Neighbor-joining phylogeography revealed that virus circulating in Bangladesh from 2007 through 2010 belonged to clade 2.2. The results suggest that clade 2.2 viruses are firmly entrenched and have probably become endemic in Bangladesh. We detected several amino acid substitutions, but they are not indicative of adaptation toward human infection. The Mantel correlation test confirmed significant correlation between genetic distances and temporal distances between the viruses. The Bayesian tree shows that isolates from waves 3 and 4 derived from a subgroup of isolates from the previous waves grouping with a high posterior probability (pp = 1.0). This indicates the possibility of formation of local subclades. One surprising finding of spatio-temporal analysis was that genetically identical virus caused independent outbreaks over a distance of more than 200 km and within 14 days of each other. This might indicate long distance dispersal through vectors such as migratory birds and vehicles, and challenges the effectiveness of movement restriction around 10 km radius of an outbreak. The study indicates possible endemicity of the clade 2.2 HPAI-H5N1 virus in Bangladesh. Furthermore, the formation of a subclade capable of transmission to humans cannot be ruled out. The findings of this study might provide valuable information for future surveillance, prevention and control programme. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.