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Mondal M.M.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Mondal M.M.A.,Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture BINA | Puteh A.B.,University Putra Malaysia
Research on Crops | Year: 2013

The experiment was conducted under sand culture condition to know the effect of nitrogen sources on nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and its consequence on dry mass production and seed yield in peanut. The treatments were two genotypes viz., Dacca-1, a widely cultivated variety in Bangladesh and Mut-3, a promising mutant and three nitrogen sources viz., (i) 0 N, (ii) 5 mM KNO3 and (iii) 5 mM NH4C1. No rhizobial inoculant was provided for O N treatment. Results showed that NRA increased with supplying nitrogen as nitrate or ammonium at early growth stage of peanut with being the highest in nitrate. But no effect was observed at reproductive growth stage. Leghaemoglobin content decreased with adding nitrogen in the form of nitrate or ammonium resulting in decreased growth and development thereby yield in peanut over control. The NR activity was greater in Mut-3 than Dacca-1 and Mut-3 also showed higher dry mass and pod yield than Dacca-1. Mut-3 was significantly affected by adding nitrogen in the form of nitrate or ammonium, whereas Dacca-1 had no significant effect indicating the variety Dacca-1 resistance to ammonia suppression.

Rashid M.H.,Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture BINA | Rashid M.H.,University of Heidelberg | Young J.P.W.,University of York | Everall I.,University of York | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2015

Rhizobial strains isolated from effective root nodules of field-grown lentil (Lens culinaris) from different parts of Bangladesh were previously analysed using sequences of the 16S rRNA gene, three housekeeping genes (recA, atpD and glnII) and three nodulation genes (nodA,nodC and nodD), DNA fingerprinting and phenotypic characterization. Analysis of housekeeping gene sequences and DNA fingerprints indicated that the strains belonged to three novel clades in the genus Rhizobium. In present study, a representative strain from each clade was further characterized by determination of cellular fatty acid compositions, carbon substrate utilization patterns and DNA–DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity (ANI) analyses from whole-genome sequences. DNA–DNA hybridization showed 50–62% relatedness to their closest relatives (the type strains of Rhizobium etli and Rhizobium phaseoli) and 50–60% relatedness to each other. These results were further supported by ANI values, based on genome sequencing, which were 87–92% with their close relatives and 88–89% with each other. On the basis of these results, three novel species, Rhizobium lentis sp. nov. (type strain BLR27T=LMG 28441T=DSM 29286T), Rhizobium bangladeshense sp. nov. (type strain BLR175T=LMG 28442T=DSM 29287T) and Rhizobium binae sp. nov. (type strain BLR195T=LMG 28443T=DSM 29288T), are proposed. These species share common nodulation genes (nodA, nodC and nodD) that are similar to those of the symbiovar viciae. © 2015 IUMS.

Hasan M.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Rafii M.Y.,University Putra Malaysia | Ismail M.R.,University Putra Malaysia | Mahmood M.,University Putra Malaysia | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a significant disease threat to rice across the world and is especially prevalent in Malaysia. An elite, early-maturing, high-yielding Malaysian rice variety, MR263, is susceptible to blast and was used as the recurrent parent in this study. To improve MR263 disease resistance, the Pongsu Seribu 1 rice variety was used as donor of the blast resistance Pi-7(t), Pi-d(t)1 and Pir2-3(t) genes and qLN2 quantitative trait locus (QTL). The objective was to introgress these blast resistance genes into the background of MR263 using marker-assisted backcrossing with both foreground and background selection. RESULTS: Improved MR263-BR-3-2, MR263-BR-4-3, MR263-BR-13-1 and MR263-BR-26-4 lines carrying the Pi-7(t), Pi-d(t)1 and Pir2-3(t) genes and qLN2 QTL were developed using the simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers RM5961 and RM263 (linked to the blast resistance genes and QTL) for foreground selection and a collection of 65 polymorphic SSR markers for background selection in backcrossed and selfed generations. A background analysis revealed that the highest rate of recurrent parent genome recovery was 96.1% in MR263-BR-4-3 and 94.3% in MR263-BR-3-2. CONCLUSION: The addition of blast resistance genes can be used to improve several Malaysian rice varieties to combat this major disease. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

Rashid M.H.-O.,University of Heidelberg | Rashid M.H.-O.,Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture BINA | Gonzalez J.,University of Heidelberg | Young J.P.W.,University of York | Wink M.,University of Heidelberg
FEMS Microbiology Ecology | Year: 2014

Lentil is the oldest of the crops that have been domesticated in the Fertile Crescent and spread to other regions during the Bronze Age, making it an ideal model to study the evolution of rhizobia associated with crop legumes. Housekeeping and nodulation genes of lentil-nodulating rhizobia from the region where lentil originated (Turkey and Syria) and regions to which lentil was introduced later (Germany and Bangladesh) were analyzed to determine their genetic diversity, population structure, and taxonomic position. There are four different lineages of rhizobia associated with lentil nodulation, of which three are new and endemic to Bangladesh, while Mediterranean and Central European lentil symbionts belong to the Rhizobium leguminosarum lineage. The endemic lentil grex pilosae may have played a significant role in the origin of these new lineages in Bangladesh. The presence of R. leguminosarum with lentil at the center of origin and in countries where lentil was introduced later suggests that R. leguminosarum is the original symbiont of lentil. Lentil seeds may have played a significant role in the initial dispersal of this Rhizobium species within the Middle East and on to other countries. Nodulation gene sequences revealed a high similarity to those of symbiovar viciae. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

Hashemi F.S.G.,University Putra Malaysia | Rafii M.Y.,University Putra Malaysia | Ismail M.R.,University Putra Malaysia | Mahmud T.M.M.,University Putra Malaysia | And 6 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

One of the most valuable traits in high-quality rice is aroma or fragrance, which is important for consumer preference and global trade. Aromatic rice is unique and recognized as a badge of honor and an asset in many countries. Among more than 100 volatile components, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) is believed to be the main aromatic compound in rice. The principal gene contributing to 2AP is badh2, which was mapped on chromosome 8 by map-based cloning. A deletion in this gene truncates and makes non-functional the BADH2 protein. Thus, the mutant badh2 transcript leads to 2AP accumulation in aromatic rice. The discovery of the gene has led to the clarification of the biochemistry, molecular genetics and evolution of fragrant rice. The breeding of fragrant rice is now faster because of marker assisted selection (MAS), which is based on recognized genes. For a more extensive elucidation of all effective and fundamental factors contributing to rice fragrance, it is essential to further explore target quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and their inheritance and locations. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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