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Hashemi F.S.G.,University Putra Malaysia | Rafii M.Y.,University Putra Malaysia | Ismail M.R.,University Putra Malaysia | Mahmud T.M.M.,University Putra Malaysia | And 6 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

One of the most valuable traits in high-quality rice is aroma or fragrance, which is important for consumer preference and global trade. Aromatic rice is unique and recognized as a badge of honor and an asset in many countries. Among more than 100 volatile components, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) is believed to be the main aromatic compound in rice. The principal gene contributing to 2AP is badh2, which was mapped on chromosome 8 by map-based cloning. A deletion in this gene truncates and makes non-functional the BADH2 protein. Thus, the mutant badh2 transcript leads to 2AP accumulation in aromatic rice. The discovery of the gene has led to the clarification of the biochemistry, molecular genetics and evolution of fragrant rice. The breeding of fragrant rice is now faster because of marker assisted selection (MAS), which is based on recognized genes. For a more extensive elucidation of all effective and fundamental factors contributing to rice fragrance, it is essential to further explore target quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and their inheritance and locations. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Hasan M.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Rafii M.Y.,University Putra Malaysia | Ismail M.R.,University Putra Malaysia | Mahmood M.,University Putra Malaysia | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a significant disease threat to rice across the world and is especially prevalent in Malaysia. An elite, early-maturing, high-yielding Malaysian rice variety, MR263, is susceptible to blast and was used as the recurrent parent in this study. To improve MR263 disease resistance, the Pongsu Seribu 1 rice variety was used as donor of the blast resistance Pi-7(t), Pi-d(t)1 and Pir2-3(t) genes and qLN2 quantitative trait locus (QTL). The objective was to introgress these blast resistance genes into the background of MR263 using marker-assisted backcrossing with both foreground and background selection. RESULTS: Improved MR263-BR-3-2, MR263-BR-4-3, MR263-BR-13-1 and MR263-BR-26-4 lines carrying the Pi-7(t), Pi-d(t)1 and Pir2-3(t) genes and qLN2 QTL were developed using the simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers RM5961 and RM263 (linked to the blast resistance genes and QTL) for foreground selection and a collection of 65 polymorphic SSR markers for background selection in backcrossed and selfed generations. A background analysis revealed that the highest rate of recurrent parent genome recovery was 96.1% in MR263-BR-4-3 and 94.3% in MR263-BR-3-2. CONCLUSION: The addition of blast resistance genes can be used to improve several Malaysian rice varieties to combat this major disease. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.


PubMed | University Putra Malaysia, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear agriculture BINA and Malaysian Nuclear Agency
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the science of food and agriculture | Year: 2016

Blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a significant disease threat to rice across the world and is especially prevalent in Malaysia. An elite, early-maturing, high-yielding Malaysian rice variety, MR263, is susceptible to blast and was used as the recurrent parent in this study. To improve MR263 disease resistance, the Pongsu Seribu 1 rice variety was used as donor of the blast resistance Pi-7(t), Pi-d(t)1 and Pir2-3(t) genes and qLN2 quantitative trait locus (QTL). The objective was to introgress these blast resistance genes into the background of MR263 using marker-assisted backcrossing with both foreground and background selection.Improved MR263-BR-3-2, MR263-BR-4-3, MR263-BR-13-1 and MR263-BR-26-4 lines carrying the Pi-7(t), Pi-d(t)1 and Pir2-3(t) genes and qLN2 QTL were developed using the simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers RM5961 and RM263 (linked to the blast resistance genes and QTL) for foreground selection and a collection of 65 polymorphic SSR markers for background selection in backcrossed and selfed generations. A background analysis revealed that the highest rate of recurrent parent genome recovery was 96.1% in MR263-BR-4-3 and 94.3% in MR263-BR-3-2.The addition of blast resistance genes can be used to improve several Malaysian rice varieties to combat this major disease.


Rashid M.H.,Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture BINA | Rashid M.H.,University of Heidelberg | Young J.P.W.,University of York | Everall I.,University of York | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2015

Rhizobial strains isolated from effective root nodules of field-grown lentil (Lens culinaris) from different parts of Bangladesh were previously analysed using sequences of the 16S rRNA gene, three housekeeping genes (recA, atpD and glnII) and three nodulation genes (nodA,nodC and nodD), DNA fingerprinting and phenotypic characterization. Analysis of housekeeping gene sequences and DNA fingerprints indicated that the strains belonged to three novel clades in the genus Rhizobium. In present study, a representative strain from each clade was further characterized by determination of cellular fatty acid compositions, carbon substrate utilization patterns and DNA–DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity (ANI) analyses from whole-genome sequences. DNA–DNA hybridization showed 50–62% relatedness to their closest relatives (the type strains of Rhizobium etli and Rhizobium phaseoli) and 50–60% relatedness to each other. These results were further supported by ANI values, based on genome sequencing, which were 87–92% with their close relatives and 88–89% with each other. On the basis of these results, three novel species, Rhizobium lentis sp. nov. (type strain BLR27T=LMG 28441T=DSM 29286T), Rhizobium bangladeshense sp. nov. (type strain BLR175T=LMG 28442T=DSM 29287T) and Rhizobium binae sp. nov. (type strain BLR195T=LMG 28443T=DSM 29288T), are proposed. These species share common nodulation genes (nodA, nodC and nodD) that are similar to those of the symbiovar viciae. © 2015 IUMS.


Rashid M.H.-O.,University of Heidelberg | Rashid M.H.-O.,Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture BINA | Gonzalez J.,University of Heidelberg | Young J.P.W.,University of York | Wink M.,University of Heidelberg
FEMS Microbiology Ecology | Year: 2014

Lentil is the oldest of the crops that have been domesticated in the Fertile Crescent and spread to other regions during the Bronze Age, making it an ideal model to study the evolution of rhizobia associated with crop legumes. Housekeeping and nodulation genes of lentil-nodulating rhizobia from the region where lentil originated (Turkey and Syria) and regions to which lentil was introduced later (Germany and Bangladesh) were analyzed to determine their genetic diversity, population structure, and taxonomic position. There are four different lineages of rhizobia associated with lentil nodulation, of which three are new and endemic to Bangladesh, while Mediterranean and Central European lentil symbionts belong to the Rhizobium leguminosarum lineage. The endemic lentil grex pilosae may have played a significant role in the origin of these new lineages in Bangladesh. The presence of R. leguminosarum with lentil at the center of origin and in countries where lentil was introduced later suggests that R. leguminosarum is the original symbiont of lentil. Lentil seeds may have played a significant role in the initial dispersal of this Rhizobium species within the Middle East and on to other countries. Nodulation gene sequences revealed a high similarity to those of symbiovar viciae. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.


Rashid M.H.O.,University of Heidelberg | Rashid M.H.O.,Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture BINA | Schafer H.,University of Heidelberg | Gonzalez J.,University of Heidelberg | Wink M.,University of Heidelberg
Systematic and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2012

In order to determine the bacterial diversity and the identity of rhizobia nodulating lentil in Bangladesh, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, recA, atpD and glnII) and nodulation genes (nodC, nodD and nodA) of 36 bacterial isolates from 25 localities across the country. Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analyses based on 16S rRNA sequences showed that most of the isolates (30 out of 36) were related to Rhizobium etli and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Only these thirty isolates were able to re-nodulate lentil under laboratory conditions. The protein-coding housekeeping genes of the lentil nodulating isolates showed 89.1-94.8% genetic similarity to the corresponding genes of R. etli and R. leguminosarum. The same analyses showed that they split into three distinct phylogenetic clades. The distinctness of these clades from closely related species was also supported by high resolution ERIC-PCR fingerprinting and phenotypic characteristics such as temperature tolerance, growth on acid-alkaline media (pH 5.5-10.0) and antibiotic sensitivity. Our phylogenetic analyses based on three nodulation genes (nodA, nodC and nodD) and cross-inoculation assays confirmed that the nodulation genes are related to those of R. leguminosarum biovar viciae, but clustered in a distinct group supported by high bootstrap values. Thus, our multi-locus phylogenetic analysis, DNA fingerprinting and phenotypic characterizations suggest that at least three different clades are responsible for lentil nodulation in Bangladesh. These clades differ from the R. etli- R. leguminosarum group and may correspond to novel species in the genus Rhizobium. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.


Mondal M.M.A.,Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture BINA | Rahman M.A.,Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture BINA | Rahman M.A.,Jogdal Adhibasi School and College | Akter M.B.,Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture BINA | And 2 more authors.
Legume Research | Year: 2011

Nitrogen (N) in the form of urea (1.5% w/v) was prayed on the canopy of pot grown plants alone and with micronutrients (0.1% w/v of B, Mo, Zn, Ca and Fe) at reproductive stage to investigate their effect on morphological, growth and yield attributes in two mungbean genotypes, one bold (MB-16) and another small seeded (MB-35). Foliar application of N or N plus micronutrients increased leaf area, specific leaf weight, chlorophyll content, total dry mass, flower number and reproductive efficiency, yield attributes and yield over the control. This increment appeared to be the highest in N plus micronutrients treatment although did not differ from the foliar application of only N. Foliar application of N and N plus micronutrients had no significant influence on harvest index and grain protein content but had significant influence on yield attributes and yield. The effects were much more pronounced in bold seeded genotype, MB-16 compared to small seeded genotype, MB-35. Results suggest that foliar application of N and micronutrients at reproductive stage appears effective in improving mungbean seed yield.


Mondal M.M.A.,Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture BINA | Rahman M.A.,Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture BINA | Akter M.B.,Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture BINA | Fakir M.S.A.,Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture BINA
Legume Research | Year: 2011

Pot experiments were conducted at the pot yard of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, Bangladesh, during the period, February to May 2007 and 2008 to investigate the effect of defoliations on morphological characters, yield and yield attributing characters in mungbean. Experiment consisted of nine defoliation treatments viz., control, 2, 3, 4, 5 leaves removal from base and from top out of 7 leaves, during flowering stage. Results showed that plant height, leaf area and total dry biomass plant -1, number of raceme bearing nodes plant -1, rachis length, number of flowers plant -1, reproductive efficiency, number of pods plant -1, pod length, number of seeds pod -1, single pod weight, 100-seed weight and seed yield were decreased with increasing defoliation both from the base and top except the basal two leaves defoliation. But the decrement of seed yield was not significant up to basal three leaves defoliation. Contrarily, all these traits increased over the control in basal two leaves defoliation. The decrement due to defoliation was greater in top defoliation than the basal defoliation. These results indicate that upper leaves contributes more assimilate to the sink than the basal leaves. The basal two leaves defoliated plants produced the highest seed yield (5.85 g plant -1) due to greater morpho-physiological, reproductive and yield contributing characters whereas the lowest in top five leaves defoliated plants that produced the lowest seed yield (1.05 g plant -1).


Mondal M.M.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Mondal M.M.A.,Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture BINA | Malek M.A.,Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture BINA | Malek M.A.,University Putra Malaysia | And 4 more authors.
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2012

Pot and field experiments were conducted in two consecutive years at the pot-yard and experimental field of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, during March to June 2010 and 2011, to investigate the effect of foliar application of chitosan, a growth promoter, on morphological, growth, biochemical, yield attributes and fruit yield of okra cv. BARIdherosh-1. The experiment comprised of five levels of chitosan concentrations viz., 0 (control), 50, 75, 100 and 125 ppm. The chitosan was sprayed three times at 25, 40 and 55 days after sowing. The pot experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design and the field experiment in a randomized complete block design, both with four replicates. Results revealed that most of the morphological (plant height, leaf number plant-1), growth (total dry mass plant-1, absolute growth rate, relative growth rate), biochemical parameters (nitrate reductase and photosynthesis) and yield attributes (number of fruits plant-1 and fruit size) were increased with increasing concentration of chitosan until 25 ppm, resulted the highest fruit yield in okra (27.9% yield increased over the control). However, the increment of plant parameters as well as fruit yield was not significant from 100 ppm of chitosan. Therefore, foliar application of chitosan at 100 or 125 ppm may be used at early growth stage to achieve a maximum fruit yield in okra.


Islam M.T.,Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture BINA
Bangladesh Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

Two pot experiments were conducted to assess the effect of various degree of defoliation on photosynthesis, dry matter production and yield in soybean. Defoliation significantly increased rate of photosynthesis and transpiration and leaf conductance of the soybean genotypes however, it decreased dry matter production and yield.

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