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Karim M.R.,Hokkaido University | Ishikawa M.,Hokkaido University | Ikeda M.,Hokkaido University | Islam T.,Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture
Agronomy for Sustainable Development

In Bangladesh, projected climate change is expected to increase food demands by more frequent and intense droughts and increasing temperatures. Few investigations have studied the impact of climate variability on future rice production. Previous investigations mainly checked the sensitivity of higher air temperature and higher atmospheric carbon dioxide on rice yields. Whereas in this study, we checked the combined effects of major climatic parameters on rice. The effects of climate change on yield of a popular winter rice cultivar in Bangladesh were assessed using the biophysical simulation model ORYZA2000. This model was first validated for 2000-2008 using field experimental data from Bangladesh, with a careful test of climate data on daily basis for station-wise and reanalysis datasets. The model performance was satisfactory enough to represent crop productions in nine major rice-growing districts. Then, simulation experiments were carried out for 2046-2065 and 2081-2100. Results show 33 % reduction of average rice yields for 2046-2065 and 2081-2100 for three locations. Projected rainfall pattern and distribution will also have a negative impact on the yields by increasing water demands by 14 % in the future. The model also showed that later transplanting will have less damage under the projected climate. © INRA and Springer-Verlag, France 2012. Source

Monjurul Alam Mondal M.,Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture | Fakir S.A.,Bangladesh Agricultural University | Ismail M.R.,University Putra Malaysia | Ashrafuzzaman M.,University Putra Malaysia
Australian Journal of Crop Science

Loss of foliage in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] crop through leaf eating insects and diseases is common in tropical and sub-tropical countries where farmers do not protect their crops adequately. Experiments were carried out with eight levels of defoliations (0, 25, 50 and 75% either from top or from base of the canopy, and 100%) to investigate the growth, reproductive characters, and yield attributes in two high and two low yielding mungbean genotypes. Results revealed that degrees of defoliations parallely decreased leaf area and total dry matter (TDM) production irrespective of seasons and genotypes. Defoliation not only reduced source sizes but also decreased total sink (flower) production resulting in lower pod and seed yields. However, basal 25% defoliation did not significantly decrease TDM and seed yield plant -1 indicating the fact that the mungbean plant, in general, can tolerate 25% basal leaf loss of the canopy. Furthermore, the high yielding genotypes showed higher compensatory mechanism of source loss than the low yielders. Exceeding this threshold limit (> 25%) either from the base or from the top of the canopy defoliation significantly reduced TDM and seed yield. Reduction in yield was higher with top defoliation than basal defoliation. Implication of the results in relation to pest management is also discussed. Source

Khanam S.,United Arab Emirates University | Khanam S.,Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture | Sham A.,United Arab Emirates University | Bennetzen J.L.,University of Georgia | And 2 more authors.
Australian Journal of Crop Science

Date palm breeding is challenging because of its long juvenility and dioecity. Genetic variation between cultivars is a pre-requisite to develop improved varieties. DNA fingerprinting is an effective method for date palm cultivar identification, examining genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis. This review discusses the different markers used in DNA fingerprinting and phylogeny analysis of date palm varieties and the advances achieved. The date palm fingerprint analyses reported so far are neither comprehensive nor particularly clear because of variable variety nomenclature, a large number of uninvestigated new introductions, and uneven geographic sampling, which itself leads to inconsistent nomenclature. Most of the molecular markers utilized such as RAPD, RFLP, AFLP, ISSR and SSR have some limitations related to their cost, ease of use, robustness, dominance/co dominance and polymorphism level. Nuclear Microsatellite or (SSR) markers seem to fulfill most of the requirements to achieve accurate analysis of date palm fingerprints and phylogeny. The need for coordinated international, or at least regional, efforts to establish a comprehensive DNA fingerprint data set and phylogeny of all date palm cultivars is discussed in this review. Source

Ali M.H.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Abustan I.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Rahman M.A.,Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture | Haque A.A.M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Water Resources Management

Water is essential for economic, social, and environmental development. Global water resources are vulnerable due to increasing demand related to population growth, pollution potential, and climate change. Competition for water between different sectors is increasing. To meet the increasing demand, the use of groundwater is increasing worldwide. In this paper, the water-table dynamics of the north-eastern region of Bangladesh were studied using the MEKESENS software. This study reveals that the depth to water-table (WT) of almost all the wells is declining slowly. In many cases, the depth will approximately double by the year 2040, and almost all will double by 2060, if the present trend continues. If the decline of the water-table is allowed to continue in the long run, the result could be a serious threat to the ecology and to the sustainability of food production, which is vital for the nation's food security. Therefore, necessary measures should be taken to sustain water resources and thereby agricultural production. Demand-side management of water and the development of alternative surface water sources seem to be viable strategies for the area. These strategies could be employed to reduce pressure on groundwater and thus maintain the sustainability of the resource. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Puteh A.B.,University Putra Malaysia | Monjurul Alam Mondal M.,University Putra Malaysia | Monjurul Alam Mondal M.,Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment

The experiment was carried out to assess the effects of three soil moisture levels, 100, 70 and 50% of field capacity (FC), on three promising rice mutants viz., RM250-172, RM250-940 and RM250-1085. The three levels of water stress were imposed at booting stage and continued up to maturity. Results indicated that morphological parameters such as plant height and leaf area, physiological parameters such as biological yield, absolute growth rate, harvest index, chlorophyll content and photosynthesis, yield attributes such as number of effective tillers hill-1, number of grains panicle-1 and 1000-grain weight were decreased with gradual increasing of water stress levels while number of non-effective tillers hill-1 and unfilled grains panicle-1 showed the reverse trend. The highest value of the above parameters was observed in 100% FC (control) and the lowest values of them were observed at 50% FC. Generally genotypes having ability to maintain high chlorophyll as well as photosynthesis under water stress were found drought tolerant in respect of dry mass production and yield attributes. Among the genotypes, the dry matter production and yield loss due to water stress were less in RM250-940 than that in others, which further revealed that RM250-940 had a greater tolerance to moderate water stress than RM250-1723 and RM250-1085. Source

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