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Tasmin S.,University of Tokyo | Furusawa H.,University of Tokyo | Ahmad S.A.,Bangladesh Institute of Health Science | Faruquee M.H.,State University of Bangladesh | Watanabe C.,University of Tokyo
Environmental Research | Year: 2015

Background and objective: Lead has long been recognized as a harmful environmental pollutant. People in developing countries like Bangladesh still have a higher risk of lead exposure. Previous research has suggested that the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) genotype can modify lead toxicity and individual susceptibility. As children are more susceptible to lead-induced toxicity, this study investigated whether the ALAD genotype influenced urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA) among children exposed to environmental lead in Bangladesh. Methods: Subjects were elementary schoolchildren from a semi-urban industrialized area in Bangladesh. A total of 222 children were studied. Blood and urine were collected to determine ALAD genotypes, blood lead levels and urinary aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA). Results: The mean BPb level was 9.7. μg/dl for the study children. BPb was significantly positively correlated with hemoglobin (p<0.01). In total, allele frequency for ALAD 1 and 2 was 0.83 and 0.17 respectively. The mean U-ALA concentration was lower in ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers than ALAD1-1 carriers for boys (p=0.001). But for girls, U-ALA did not differ significantly by genotype (p=0.26). When U-ALA was compared by genotype at the same exposure level in a multiple linear regression analysis, boys who were ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers still had a lower level of U-ALA compared to ALAD1-1carriers. Conclusion: This study provides information about the influence of ALAD polymorphism and its association with U-ALA in Bangladeshi children. Our results indicate that the ALAD1-2/2-2 genotype may have a protective effect in terms of U-ALA for environmentally lead exposed boys. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Akhter M.,Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University | Ali L.,Bangladesh Institute of Health Science | Hassan Z.,BIRDEM | Khan I.,BIRDEM
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2013

Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. In Bangladesh, it comprises 20% of the whole body malignancies. Several studies found that 15% to 25% of oropharyngeal cancer cases are associated with human papilloma virus (HPV). This study is done to find the association of human papilloma virus subtypes, particularly HPV type 16 and HPV type 18, with the oral squamous cell carcinoma in Bangladeshi patients. In total, 34 diagnosed patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma were included in the study. Extracted DNA from the cancerous tissues was checked for PCR reaction to detect the subtypes of human papilloma virus. Data of the present study suggest that oral squamous cell carcinoma are almost absent in Bangladeshi patients with human papilloma virus, particularly HPV 16 and 18. © INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR DIARRHOEAL DISEASE RESEARCH, BANGLADESH.

Imam M.H.,National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine | Karim M.R.,National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine | Ferdous C.,Bangladesh Institute of Health Science | Akhter S.,Combined Military Hospital
Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin | Year: 2011

Identifying the level of health related quality of life (HQoL) and their influencing factors in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive people is of extreme importance in implementing an interventional program to support this group. This cross sectional study was an attempt to determine the level and factors associated with HQoL among the people living with HIV. A convenient sample of 82 HIV-infected people from three NGOs and one Infectious Disease Hospital (IDH), were interviewed using an interviewer administered, semi structured questionnaire developed by adopting the "WHOQOL-HIV BREF instrument". A majority of the respondents were with low Quality of Life (QoL) in all the domains of HQoL. The proportion of respondents with low QoL was highest in the domain of social relationship (64.6%) followed by psychological domain (59.8%), physical domain (58.5%), level of independence domain (56.1%), environmental domain (52.4%) and spirituality domain (52.4%) of HQoL. Bivariate analysis revealed that the overall perception of QoL was better in the respondents living in urban area, who were employed and asymptomatic of the centre for disease control (CDC) stage of HIV. The perception of overall health was higher in females, all respondents less than 35 years of age, asymptomatic of the CDC stage of disease and with a current CD 4 count greater than 200 cell/mm 3. These findings highlight the need for enhanced socio-psychosocial support and a better environment for improving the health related quality of life among people living with HIV.

Islam M.S.,Bangladesh Health Professions Institute | Hafez M.A.,Bangladesh Institute of Health Science | Akter M.,Shishu Polli Plus
Spinal Cord | Year: 2011

Study design: This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. Objectives: The objective of this study was to find out the clinical types and sociodemographic characteristics of patients with spinal cord lesion (SCL). Setting: Centre for the Rehabilitation of the Paralysed (CRP). Methods: Data were collected by face-to-face interview, with a structured interview schedule from admitted patients. Descriptive measures and χ 2-test were applied for data analysis. Results: Of 107 patients, majority (20%) belonged to age group of 25-29 years (mean 31 ± 12.2 years). About 83% were males; 65% married and 54% illiterate. Agricultural and other day laborers constituted the major occupation groups with mean monthly family income of US $60 (± $53). About 92% came from rural area and 84% belonged to nuclear family. About one-third of the patients were referred by the medical college hospitals. About 65% of the patients were admitted at 1-29 days of lesion with longest duration of 3 years. Patients were mostly (93%) traumatic. Fifty-four percent had paraplegia and most common skeletal level segment was cervical (44%). About 43% had pressure sores at admission. Eighty-nine percent needed management for bladder function through the use of catheter. Age, sex and occupation were associated with type of paralysis, skeletal level of injury and neurological condition; physical status, causes of lesion, type of injury and skeletal level of injury; and skeletal level of injury, respectively, (P<0.05). Conclusion: Major cause of SCL was traumatic. Available treatment facilities were inadequate and needed improvement through government and private initiatives. © 2011 International Spinal Cord Society All rights reserved.

Saleh F.,Bangladesh Institute of Health Science
Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ | Year: 2011

Menopause is the transitional event of female life creating a considerable degree of clinical and psychological as well as social problem and it is known to affect the risk markers of cardiovascular diseases. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was though to be a cornerstone in the management of menopause, but evidences accumulated in the recent past have raised serious questions regarding its safety and usability. In this context, phytoestrogens are getting increasingly more attention for therapeutic (as an alternate of HRT) and dietary interventions. Menopause is a special problem for women in developing countries and intake of phytoestrogens can be highly useful also from the economic point of views. The nutraceuticals of specific vitamins, minerals and especially phytoestrogens supplementations are a vital component of the strategy to reduce health problem. The present study was aimed to assess the association of phytoestrogens and risk markers of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. A total of 111 postmenopausal subjects [age, (years, M±SD) 52±5.35] were studied. The dietary intake of phytoestrogens by study subjects was calculated by a specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Serum fasting homocysteine was measured by AxSYM system. Serum glucose was estimated by glucose-oxidase method. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-C were estimated by enzymatic-colorimetric method LDL-C was estimated by the Friedewald's formula. The intake of total phytoestrogens, isoflavones and lignans (mean±SD, mg/day) were 7.65±3.33, 0.32±0.16, 7.32±3.28 respectively in postmenopausal women. The intake of diadzein, genistein, formononetin, biochanin A (mean±SD, mg/day) were 0.085±0.035, 0.168±0.101, 0.074±0.052 and 0.001±0.0008 respectively. The intake of matairesinol and secoisolaiciresinol (SILR) (mean±SD, mg/day) were 0.022±0.006 and 7.30±3.28 respectively. The total phytoestrogens (r=-0.19, p=0.03) and SILR, one specific type of lignans (r=-0.19, p=0.04) consumption in this study were inversely significantly associated with serum glucose level. The dietary formononetin, one specific type of isoflavones was negatively significantly associated with LDL-cholesterol (r=-0.18, p=0.04). There was no significant relationship found between phytoestrogen intake and serum homocysteine level (r=-0.11, p=0.23). Phytoestrogens containing food intake should be encouraged for reducing risk markers of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women.

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