Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies

Dhaka, Bangladesh

Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies

Dhaka, Bangladesh
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Bogard J.R.,University of Queensland | Bogard J.R.,CSIRO | Farook S.,Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies | Marks G.C.,University of Queensland | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

Malnutrition is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century, with one in three people in the world malnourished, combined with poor diets being the leading cause of the global burden of disease. Fish is an under-recognised and undervalued source of micronutrients, which could play a more significant role in addressing this global challenge. With rising pressures on capture fisheries, demand is increasingly being met from aquaculture. However, aquaculture systems are designed to maximise productivity, with little consideration for nutritional quality of fish produced. A global shift away from diverse capture species towards consumption of few farmed species, has implications for diet quality that are yet to be fully explored. Bangladesh provides a useful case study of this transition, as fish is the most important animal-source food in diets, and is increasingly supplied from aquaculture. We conducted a temporal analysis of fish consumption and nutrient intakes from fish in Bangladesh, using nationally representative household expenditure surveys from 1991, 2000 and 2010 (n = 25,425 households), combined with detailed species-level nutrient composition data. Fish consumption increased by 30% from 1991-2010. Consumption of non-farmed species declined by 33% over this period, compensated (in terms of quantity) by large increases in consumption of farmed species. Despite increased total fish consumption, there were significant decreases in iron and calcium intakes from fish (P<0.01); and no significant change in intakes of zinc, vitamin A and vitamin B12 from fish, reflecting lower overall nutritional quality of fish available for consumption over time. Our results challenge the conventional narrative that increases in food supply lead to improvements in diet and nutrition. As aquaculture becomes an increasingly important food source, it must embrace a nutrition-sensitive approach, moving beyond maximising productivity to also consider nutritional quality. Doing so will optimise the complementary role that aquaculture and capture fisheries play in improving nutrition and health. © 2017 Bogard et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Tareque Md.I.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University | Tareque Md.I.,Nihon University | Begum S.,Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies | Saito Y.,Nihon University | Saito Y.,National University of Singapore
Journal of Aging and Health | Year: 2013

Objective: We examined gender differences in the prevalence of disability and Disability-free Life Expectancy (DFLE) for Bangladeshi older adults. Method: We used data representing 4,189 elderly subjects aged 60 years and over from a nationally representative survey (Bangladesh's Household Income and Expenditure Survey-2010). The Sullivan method was used to compute DFLE. Results: Eyesight disability is prevalent among 28.94 and 36.47 men and women, respectively, and is the most prevalent type of disability in Bangladesh. Women have each disability and at least one disability in significantly higher percentages than men. At all ages, and in both numbers and proportion, women have longer life expectancy but shorter DFLE than men. Discussion: Attention should be given to the elderly, with special care devoted to elderly women. The findings of the current study have important implications for risk of disability and the need for, and use of, long-term care services.

Toufique K.A.,Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies | Belton B.,WorldFish
World Development | Year: 2014

Aquaculture is widely held to contribute to poverty reduction and food security in the Global South, but robust evidence is limited. Using nationally representative data from Bangladesh, this study analyses changes in fish consumption from 2000 to 2010. Rapid expansion of commercial aquaculture pegged down fish prices, resulting in increased fish consumption by extreme poor and moderate poor consumers and those in rural areas. These outcomes are closely linked to the pro-poor nature of national economic growth during this period. These findings contribute to a broadening of the debate on whether the growth of aquaculture in Bangladesh has been pro-poor. © 2014 The Authors.

Toufique K.A.,Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies | Islam A.,Center for Natural Resource Studies
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction | Year: 2014

We have measured livelihoods vulnerability indices for four disaster prone zones in Bangladesh, namely saline, flood, flash flood and drought. A total of 2558 households were surveyed to collect data on socio-demographics, livelihoods, social networks, health, food and water security, natural disasters and climate variability. The data were aggregated using a composite index and vulnerabilities across the four disaster prone areas were compared. Our results show that the flash flood zone is the most vulnerable zone followed by the saline, drought and flood zones respectively. The flash flood zone is mainly a mono-rice crop area and local livelihood opportunities are uncertain and limited. Road infrastructure is poor as a large part of this zone remains under water in the wet season. Public health services are underprovided and the hospitals are understaffed, sanitary conditions are poor and the households suffer a longer period of food insecurity. The poor households living in the saline zone have to depend more on social networks and local authorities to withstand livelihood shocks brought about by natural disasters such as tidal surges, cyclones and increasing salinity. The drought and saline zones are highly vulnerable to water. Water in these zones is not only scarce but also unsafe for drinking. The saline zone also suffers from salinity in water used for irrigation which has already affected productivity of land. We suggest an increase in public spending on sanitation and drinking water, health and rural infrastructure particularly in the disaster prone areas where incidence of poverty is high. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Luoto J.,RAND | Mahmud M.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research | Mahmud M.,Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies | Albert J.,Aquaya Institute | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Low-cost point-of-use (POU) safe water products have the potential to reduce waterborne illness, but adoption by the global poor remains low. We performed an eight-month randomized trial of four low-cost household water treatment products in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Intervention households (n = 600) received repeated educational messages about the importance of drinking safe water along with consecutive two-month free trials with each of four POU products in random order. Households randomly assigned to the control group (n = 200) did not receive free products or repeated educational messages. Households' willingness to pay for these products was quite low on average (as measured by bids in an incentive-compatible real-money auction), although a modest share was willing to pay the actual or expected retail price for low-cost chlorine-based products. Furthermore, contrary to our hypotheses that both one's own personal experience and the influence of one's peers would increase consumers' willingness to pay, direct experience significantly decreased mean bids by 18-55% for three of the four products and had no discernible effect on the fourth. Neighbor experience also did not increase bids. Widespread dissemination of safe water products is unlikely until we better understand the preferences and aspirations of these at-risk populations. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Minten B.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Murshid K.A.S.,Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies | Reardon T.,Michigan State University | Reardon T.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Reardon T.,Renmin University of China
World Development | Year: 2013

In Dhaka, the share of the less expensive coarse rice is shown to be rapidly decreasing in rice markets and it thus seems that the role of rice as only a cheap staple food is being redefined. The increasing demand for the more expensive varieties is seemingly associated with a more important off-farm food sector-in particular, milling, retailing, and branding-as well as a transformed milling industry. We further find that the labor rewards for growing different rice varieties are not significantly different and that farmers do not benefit directly from consumers' increased willingness to pay for rice. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Ahmed N.,University of South Australia | Toufique K.A.,Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2015

Rapid development of small-scale freshwater aquaculture in the Mymensingh district of north-central Bangladesh has been linked to a 'blue revolution'. Mymensingh is ranked first among districts of pond fish production in Bangladesh. Aquaculture in Mymensingh plays an important role in the local economy, contributing to food production, livelihood opportunities, income generation, poverty alleviation and social transformation. However, a number of challenges, particularly social, economic and environmental issues, will need to be overcome to translate its benefits effectively. We propose a conceptual framework for greening the blue revolution of aquaculture, which links social, economic and ecological aspects for promoting the importance of socio-ecological, ecological-economic and socio-economic interactions. We conclude that active community participation, institutional collaboration and policy support are needed for greening the blue revolution of aquaculture in Mymensingh. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Luoto J.,RAND Corporation | Najnin N.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research | Mahmud M.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research | Mahmud M.,Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: There is evidence that household point-of-use (POU) water treatment products can reduce the enormous burden of water-borne illness. Nevertheless, adoption among the global poor is very low, and little evidence exists on why. Methods: We gave 600 households in poor communities in Dhaka, Bangladesh randomly-ordered two-month free trials of four water treatment products: dilute liquid chlorine (sodium hypochlorite solution, marketed locally as Water Guard), sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets (branded as Aquatabs), a combined flocculant-disinfectant powdered mixture (the PUR Purifier of Water), and a silver-coated ceramic siphon filter. Consumers also received education on the dangers of untreated drinking water. We measured which products consumers used with self-reports, observation (for the filter), and chlorine tests (for the other products). We also measured drinking water's contamination with E. coli (compared to 200 control households). Findings: Households reported highest usage of the filter, although no product had even 30% usage. E. coli concentrations in stored drinking water were generally lowest when households had Water Guard. Households that self-reported product usage had large reductions in E. coli concentrations with any product as compared to controls. Conclusion: Traditional arguments for the low adoption of POU products focus on affordability, consumers' lack of information about germs and the dangers of unsafe water, and specific products not meshing with a household's preferences. In this study we provided free trials, repeated informational messages explaining the dangers of untreated water, and a variety of product designs. The low usage of all products despite such efforts makes clear that important barriers exist beyond cost, information, and variation among these four product designs. Without a better understanding of the choices and aspirations of the target end-users, household-based water treatment is unlikely to reduce morbidity and mortality substantially in urban Bangladesh and similar populations. © 2011 Luoto et al.

Murshid K.A.S.,Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies
Journal of Agrarian Change | Year: 2015

This paper explores the unaddressed question of how the large, complex paddy-rice market in Bangladesh is able to transform itself and evolve, in the face of changing risks and incentives, into a better-functioning market system. It notes significant but opposing trends over two decades in different areas, particularly in terms of market structure, trade circuits and exchange relations. Evidence of a sharp decline in tied transactions points to the growing importance of impersonal exchange. The underlying causes of these changes are explored, with particular reference to microfinance, remittances, rural roads and mobile telephony. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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