Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies

Gulshan, Bangladesh

Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies

Gulshan, Bangladesh
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Arfanuzzaman M.,Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies | Abu Syed M.,Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies
Environment, Development and Sustainability | Year: 2017

The water demand in the upstream and downstream of a transboundary river basin varies based on the water use by the irrigation projects, dam, hydroelectricity, ecosystem, livelihood practices and household activities of the people. The study considered the case of Teesta river basin and estimates the water demand of upstream, downstream region as well as entire Teesta river basin shared by India and Bangladesh. The water productivity method exercised in the study demonstrates that 2648 and 1971 cumec water is required to fulfill the irrigation demand of command and irrigable areas, respectively, of entire Teesta basin throughout the year against 198, 1472, 793 cumec water discharge in dry, monsoon and lean season. Although there is a substantial water demand for the hydropower projects in the upstream, it is appeared that water required only by the upstream irrigation project is beyond the water supply capacity of the Trans-Himalayan river Teesta during dry and lean season. This may underpin the shortage of water in the lower riparian country, which fuels the zero-sum game in the river basin, where one player is affected by the intervention of the another player. The result from this analysis with zero-sum game perspective may be useful for reviewing transboundary water policies, basin management and development, sustainable water resource management and water sharing mechanism among countries in the transboundary river basin. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Arfanuzzaman M.,Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies | Atiq Rahman A.,Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies
Global Ecology and Conservation | Year: 2017

Necessity of Sustainable water demand management (SWDM) is immensely higher in the rapidly urbanized mega cities of the world where groundwater depletion and water deficit are taking place perilously. This paper focuses on the present condition of water demand, supply, system loss, pricing strategy, groundwater level, and per capita water consumption of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. The study founds population growth has a large influence on water demand to rise and demand of water is not responsive to the existing pricing rule adopted by DWASA. It emerges that, water demand is increasing at 4% rate an average in the Dhaka city since 1990 and groundwater table goes more than 70 m down in central capital due to extensive withdrawal of water. The study suggests an integrated SWDM approach, which incorporates optimum pricing, ground and surface water regulation, water conservation, sustainable water consumption and less water foot print to ease groundwater depletion. In order to attain sustainability in water demand management (WDM) the study recommends certain criteria under economic, social and environmental segment to administer the increasing water demand of growing population and conserve the fresh water resources of the world's mega cities for social–ecological resilience building. © 2017

Porras I.,International Institute for Environment and Development IIED | Mohammed E.Y.,International Institute for Environment and Development IIED | Ali L.,Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies | Ali M.S.,Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies | Hossain M.B.,Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies
Marine Policy | Year: 2017

Commitments for sustainable growth often look good on paper but are messy in the practice. The Government of Bangladesh shows huge initiative towards SDG 14 (conservation and sustainable use of marine resources) by establishing measures to improve the stock of hilsa fish in the country, thus ensuring the supply of a valuable and charismatic fish species. Initial reports of the measures are optimistic, suggesting larger sizes of fish caught across the seasons. Bigger hilsa fetches better prices – as high as US$25 per kilo in niche markets. It is conservation business with profits. Yet the costs of these regulations are falling squarely on the shoulders of small fishermen who are poor, uneducated and in permanent debt. The government offers a small in-kind payment for ecosystem service (PES) in the form of rice, which is good but does not compensate for the loss of revenues and household protein during bans. These small fishers have no bargaining power and no voice in the design of policies that affect them. A common problem in policy design is the lack of clarity of the markets they affect, especially if they are informal. This study uses value chain models to unpick the hilsa value chain. It study provides hard data and evidence on processes, power, and profit creation. This consultation can help policy makers design better strategies to re-govern markets in more inclusive ways and help to achieve Sustainable Development Goals commitments. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Arfanuzzaman Md.,Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies
Water Policy | Year: 2016

Bangladesh is losing huge food production from the Teesta catchment area due to a lack of availability of irrigation water in the dry and lean period because of unilateral water withdrawal in the upstream country, India. The area, which is directly dependent on the irrigation water of the Teesta river, is the study area for this paper. The study reveals that rice production in Dalia, Nilphamari, Sayedpur and Rangpur regions is badly affected by the irrigation water scarcity. It appears that production is particularly severely affected in Rangpur, making it a relatively more food insecure area in the Teesta basin. The major finding of this study is that more than 4.45 million metric tons of rice production have been missed from the Teesta catchment area since 2006-07, triggered by the massive irrigation failure of the Teesta Barrage Irrigation Project (TBIP) due to reduced water flow in the Teesta river. The total rice production missed in the north-western region since 2006-07 is more than the country's total rice import during 2008/09-2013/14 fiscal years and nearly one quarter of the total boro production in the 2012/13 fiscal year. This reduced food production renders the north-western part of the country a food insecure region from its own production. © IWA Publishing 2016.

Coirolo C.,University of Sussex | Rahman A.,Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies
Climate and Development | Year: 2014

This article draws on research findings from fieldwork undertaken in Gaibandha District of Northwest Bangladesh from 2009 to 2010 to analyse the influence of power-related factors on climate change vulnerability and adaptation in two rural communities. The principal aim of the research was to explore the factors that shape differentiated vulnerability and adaptive capacity within the two communities, with a focus on extremely poor community members. Findings indicate that climate-related vulnerability is differentiated at the sub-community level, both among different socio-economic, livelihood and social groups, as well as within them. Some of the central factors highlighted by respondents as underpinning differentiation had clear power and inequality dimensions. These include political ties and corruption; community and family networks; and the capability to enforce one's own rights, for example to land, in lieu of access to impartial law enforcement and justice institutions. The article concludes with implications of these findings for supporting adaptive capacity and mainstreaming climate change into planning processes at different levels. In particular, interventions focused on assets may be less important than those directed at power relations, networks and the security dimensions of extreme poverty. © 2014, © 2014 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.

Khan A.E.,Imperial College London | Scheelbeek P.F.,Imperial College London | Shilpi A.B.,Dhaka Childrens Hospital | Chan Q.,Imperial College London | And 4 more authors.
PloS one | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are among the leading causes of maternal and perinatal death in low-income countries, but the aetiology remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between salinity in drinking water and the risk of (pre)eclampsia and gestational hypertension in a coastal community.METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted in Dacope, Bangladesh among 202 pregnant women with (pre)eclampsia or gestational hypertension, enrolled from the community served by the Upazilla Health Complex, Dacope and 1,006 matched controls from the same area. Epidemiological and clinical data were obtained from all participants. Urinary sodium and sodium levels in drinking water were measured. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals.FINDINGS: Drinking water sources had exceptionally high sodium levels (mean 516.6 mg/L, S.D 524.2). Women consuming tube-well (groundwater) were at a higher disease risk than rainwater users (p<0.001). Adjusted risks for (pre)eclampsia and gestational hypertension considered together increased in a dose-response manner for increasing sodium concentrations (300.01-600 mg/L, 600.1-900 mg/L, >900.01 mg/L, compared to <300 mg/L) in drinking water (ORs 3.30 [95% CI 2.00-5.51], 4.40 [2.70-7.25] and 5.48 [3.30-9.11] (p-trend<0.001). Significant associations were seen for both (pre)eclampsia and gestational hypertension separately.INTERPRETATION: Salinity in drinking water is associated with increased risk of (pre)eclampsia and gestational hypertension in this population. Given that coastal populations in countries such as Bangladesh are confronted with high salinity exposure, which is predicted to further increase as a result of sea level rise and other environmental influences, it is imperative to develop and evaluate affordable approaches to providing water with low salt content.

Khan A.E.,Public Health England | Khan A.E.,Imperial College London | Ireson A.,Imperial College London | Kovats S.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2011

Background: Drinking water from natural sources in coastal Bangladesh has become contaminated by varying degrees of salinity due to saltwater intrusion from rising sea levels, cyclone and storm surges, and upstream withdrawal of freshwater. Objective: Our objective was to estimate salt intake from drinking water sources and examine environmental factors that may explain a seasonal excess of hypertension in pregnancy. Methods: Water salinity data (1998-2000) for Dacope, in rural coastal Bangladesh, were obtained from the Centre for Environment and Geographic Information System in Bangladesh. Information on drinking water sources, 24-hr urine samples, and blood pressure was obtained from 343 pregnant Dacope women during the dry season (October 2009 through March 2010). The hospital-based prevalence of hypertension in pregnancy was determined for 969 pregnant women (July 2008 through March 2010). Results: Average estimated sodium intakes from drinking water ranged from 5 to 16 g/day in the dry season, compared with 0.6-1.2 g/day in the rainy season. Average daily sodium excretion in urine was 3.4 g/day (range, 0.4-7.7 g/day). Women who drank shallow tube-well water were more likely to have urine sodium > 100 mmol/day than women who drank rainwater [odds ratio (OR) = 2.05; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-3.80]. The annual hospital prevalence of hypertension in pregnancy was higher in the dry season (OR = 12.2%; 95% CI, 9.5-14.8) than in the rainy season (OR = 5.1%; 95% CI, 2.91-7.26). Conclusions: The estimated salt intake from drinking water in this population exceeded recommended limits. The problem of saline intrusion into drinking water has multiple causes and is likely to be exacerbated by climate change-induced sea-level rise.

Ruane A.C.,NASA | Major D.C.,Columbia University | Yu W.H.,The World Bank | Alam M.,Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies | And 8 more authors.
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2013

Diverse vulnerabilities of Bangladesh's agricultural sector in 16 sub-regions are assessed using experiments designed to investigate climate impact factors in isolation and in combination. Climate information from a suite of global climate models (GCMs) is used to drive models assessing the agricultural impact of changes in temperature, precipitation, carbon dioxide concentrations, river floods, and sea level rise for the 2040-2069 period in comparison to a historical baseline. Using the multi-factor impacts analysis framework developed in Yu et al. (2010), this study provides new sub-regional vulnerability analyses and quantifies key uncertainties in climate and production. Rice (aman, boro, and aus seasons) and wheat production are simulated in each sub-region using the biophysical Crop Environment REsource Synthesis (CERES) models. These simulations are then combined with the MIKE BASIN hydrologic model for river floods in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Basins, and the MIKE21 Two-Dimensional Estuary Model to determine coastal inundation under conditions of higher mean sea level. The impacts of each factor depend on GCM configurations, emissions pathways, sub-regions, and particular seasons and crops. Temperature increases generally reduce production across all scenarios. Precipitation changes can have either a positive or a negative impact, with a high degree of uncertainty across GCMs. Carbon dioxide impacts on crop production are positive and depend on the emissions pathway. Increasing river flood areas reduce production in affected sub-regions. Precipitation uncertainties from different GCMs and emissions scenarios are reduced when integrated across the large GBM Basins' hydrology. Agriculture in Southern Bangladesh is severely affected by sea level rise even when cyclonic surges are not fully considered, with impacts increasing under the higher emissions scenario. © 2012.

Stiller-Reeve M.A.,University of Bergen | Syed Md.A.,Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies | Spengler T.,University of Bergen | Spinney J.A.,University of Western Ontario | Hossain R.,Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society | Year: 2015

The monsoon onset is a critical event in the Bangladesh calendar, especially for the domestic agricultural sector. Providing information about the monsoon onset for the past, present, and future has potential benefit for a country so vulnerable to changes in climate. But, when does the monsoon start? To produce any scientific information about monsoon onsets, lengths, and withdrawals, we first need to apply a monsoon definition to our data. Choosing a scientific definition is not such a simple exercise in Bangladesh. Different definitions lead to different monsoon onsets and thereby also monsoon lengths. If a climate application aims to provide information about the monsoon onset, then we need to understand how the people who might use this information perceive the monsoon onset. We then need to understand how their perceptions compare with previous scientific work. In this study we carried out a structured questionnaire in six rural regions around Bangladesh and asked the local agriculturists how they defined the monsoon and when they thought it started. It turns out that the agriculturists and previous scientific publications do not necessarily agree. Our results do not undermine previous scientific work on the monsoon in Bangladesh, but they do carry an important message about how we should design, implement, and evaluate climate applications in Bangladesh that encompass the monsoon onset. ©2015 American Meteorological Society.

Rabbani G.,Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies | Rahman A.,Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies | Mainuddin K.,Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies
International Journal of Global Warming | Year: 2013

Salinity intrusion in soil caused by climate-induced hazards, especially cyclones and sea level rise (SLR), is adversely affecting rice production in coastal Bangladesh. The southwest coastal district of Satkhira is one of the most vulnerable areas because of its high exposure to salinity intrusion and widespread poverty. Based on a survey of 360 farming households in four villages and on focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and community consultations, this paper explores how salinity intrusion affects rice production. This research demonstrates that salinity levels in the soil have increased sharply over the last 20 years. The introduction of saline-tolerant rice cultivars has been the most important adaptation measure being practised. These adaptation measures, however, have not been enough to deal with the sudden increase in salinity after cyclone Aila hit the area in 2009, with devastating consequences. In that year, farmers in the study areas lost their entire potential yield of aman rice production. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

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