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Rabbani G.,Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies | Rahman S.H.,Jahangirnagar University | Faulkner L.,International Center for Climate Change and Development
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2013

Most climate related hazards in Bangladesh are linked to water. The climate vulnerable poor-the poorest and most marginalized communities living in remote villages along Bangladesh's coastal zone that are vulnerable to climate change impacts and who possess low adaptive capacity are most affected by lack of access to safe water sources. Many climate vulnerable poor households depend on small isolated wetlands (ponds) for daily drinking water needs and other domestic requirements, including cooking, bathing and washing. Similarly, the livelihoods of many of these households also depend on access to ponds due to activities of small-scale irrigation for rice farming, vegetable farming and home gardening. This is particularly true for those poorest and most marginalized communities living in Satkhira, one of the most vulnerable coastal districts in south-west Bangladesh. These households rely on pond water for vegetable farming and home gardening, especially during winter months. However, these pond water sources are highly vulnerable to climate change induced hazards, including flooding, drought, salinity intrusion, cyclone and storm surges, erratic rainfall patterns and variations in temperature. Cyclone Sidr and Cyclone Aila, which hit Bangladesh in 2007 and 2009 respectively, led to a significant number of such ponds being inundated with saline water. This impacted upon and resulted in wide scale implications for climate vulnerable poor households, including reduced availability of safe drinking water, and safe water for health and hygiene practices and livelihood activities. Those households living in remote areas and who are most affected by these climate impacts are dependent on water being supplied through aid, as well as travelling long distances to collect safe water for drinking purposes. © 2013 by the authors.


Khan A.E.,Imperial College London | Scheelbeek P.F.D.,Imperial College London | Shilpi A.B.,Dhaka Childrens Hospital | Chan Q.,Imperial College London | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are among the leading causes of maternal and perinatal death in low-income countries, but the aetiology remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between salinity in drinking water and the risk of (pre)eclampsia and gestational hypertension in a coastal community.Methods: population-based case-control study was conducted in Dacope, Bangladesh among 202 pregnant women with (pre)eclampsia or gestational hypertension, enrolled from the community served by the Upazilla Health Complex, Dacope and 1,006 matched controls from the same area. Epidemiological and clinical data were obtained from all participants. Urinary sodium and sodium levels in drinking water were measured. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals.Findings: Drinking water sources had exceptionally high sodium levels (mean 516.6 mg/L, S.D 524.2). Women consuming tube-well (groundwater) were at a higher disease risk than rainwater users (p<0.0001). Adjusted risks for (pre)eclampsia and gestational hypertension considered together increased in a dose-response manner for increasing sodium concentrations (300.01-600 mg/L, 600.1-900 mg/L, >900.01 mg/L, compared to <300 mg/L) in drinking water (ORs 3.30 [95% C 2.00-5.51], 4.40 [2.70-7.25] and 5.48 [3.30-9.11] (p-trend<0.001). Significant associations were seen for both (pre)eclampsia and gestational hypertension separately.Interpretation: Salinity in drinking water is associated with increased risk of (pre)eclampsia and gestational hypertension in this population. Given that coastal populations in countries such as Bangladesh are confronted with high salinity exposure, which is predicted to further increase as a result of sea level rise and other environmental influences, it is imperative to develop and evaluate affordable approaches to providing water with low salt content. © 2014 Khan et al.


Khan A.E.,Imperial College London | Scheelbeek P.F.,Imperial College London | Shilpi A.B.,Dhaka Childrens Hospital | Chan Q.,Imperial College London | And 4 more authors.
PloS one | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are among the leading causes of maternal and perinatal death in low-income countries, but the aetiology remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between salinity in drinking water and the risk of (pre)eclampsia and gestational hypertension in a coastal community.METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted in Dacope, Bangladesh among 202 pregnant women with (pre)eclampsia or gestational hypertension, enrolled from the community served by the Upazilla Health Complex, Dacope and 1,006 matched controls from the same area. Epidemiological and clinical data were obtained from all participants. Urinary sodium and sodium levels in drinking water were measured. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals.FINDINGS: Drinking water sources had exceptionally high sodium levels (mean 516.6 mg/L, S.D 524.2). Women consuming tube-well (groundwater) were at a higher disease risk than rainwater users (p<0.001). Adjusted risks for (pre)eclampsia and gestational hypertension considered together increased in a dose-response manner for increasing sodium concentrations (300.01-600 mg/L, 600.1-900 mg/L, >900.01 mg/L, compared to <300 mg/L) in drinking water (ORs 3.30 [95% CI 2.00-5.51], 4.40 [2.70-7.25] and 5.48 [3.30-9.11] (p-trend<0.001). Significant associations were seen for both (pre)eclampsia and gestational hypertension separately.INTERPRETATION: Salinity in drinking water is associated with increased risk of (pre)eclampsia and gestational hypertension in this population. Given that coastal populations in countries such as Bangladesh are confronted with high salinity exposure, which is predicted to further increase as a result of sea level rise and other environmental influences, it is imperative to develop and evaluate affordable approaches to providing water with low salt content.


Coirolo C.,University of Sussex | Rahman A.,Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies
Climate and Development | Year: 2014

This article draws on research findings from fieldwork undertaken in Gaibandha District of Northwest Bangladesh from 2009 to 2010 to analyse the influence of power-related factors on climate change vulnerability and adaptation in two rural communities. The principal aim of the research was to explore the factors that shape differentiated vulnerability and adaptive capacity within the two communities, with a focus on extremely poor community members. Findings indicate that climate-related vulnerability is differentiated at the sub-community level, both among different socio-economic, livelihood and social groups, as well as within them. Some of the central factors highlighted by respondents as underpinning differentiation had clear power and inequality dimensions. These include political ties and corruption; community and family networks; and the capability to enforce one's own rights, for example to land, in lieu of access to impartial law enforcement and justice institutions. The article concludes with implications of these findings for supporting adaptive capacity and mainstreaming climate change into planning processes at different levels. In particular, interventions focused on assets may be less important than those directed at power relations, networks and the security dimensions of extreme poverty. © 2014, © 2014 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.


Arfanuzzaman Md.,Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies
Water Policy | Year: 2016

Bangladesh is losing huge food production from the Teesta catchment area due to a lack of availability of irrigation water in the dry and lean period because of unilateral water withdrawal in the upstream country, India. The area, which is directly dependent on the irrigation water of the Teesta river, is the study area for this paper. The study reveals that rice production in Dalia, Nilphamari, Sayedpur and Rangpur regions is badly affected by the irrigation water scarcity. It appears that production is particularly severely affected in Rangpur, making it a relatively more food insecure area in the Teesta basin. The major finding of this study is that more than 4.45 million metric tons of rice production have been missed from the Teesta catchment area since 2006-07, triggered by the massive irrigation failure of the Teesta Barrage Irrigation Project (TBIP) due to reduced water flow in the Teesta river. The total rice production missed in the north-western region since 2006-07 is more than the country's total rice import during 2008/09-2013/14 fiscal years and nearly one quarter of the total boro production in the 2012/13 fiscal year. This reduced food production renders the north-western part of the country a food insecure region from its own production. © IWA Publishing 2016.

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