Hossain A.,Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute |
Da Silva J.A.T.,Kagawa University
AoB PLANTS | Year: 2013
Background and aims The most fundamental activity of the people of Bangladesh is agriculture. Modelling projections for Bangladesh indicate that warmer temperatures linked to climate change will severely reduce the growth of various winter crops (wheat, boro rice, potato and winter vegetables) in the north and central parts. In summer, crops in south-eastern parts of the country are at risk from increased flooding as sea levels increase. Key facts Wheat is one of the most important winter crops and is temperature sensitive and the second most important grain crop after rice. In this review, we provide an up-to-date and detailed account of wheat research of Bangladesh and the impact that global warming may have on agriculture, especially wheat production. Although flooding is not of major importance or consequence to the wheat crop at present, some perspectives are provided on this stress since wheat is flood sensitive and the incidence of flooding is likely to increase. Projections This information and projections will allow wheat breeders to devise new breeding programmes to attempt to mitigate future global warming. We discuss what this implies for food security in the broader context of South Asia. © The Authors 2012.
Talukder A.S.M.H.M.,University of Adelaide |
Meisner C.A.,Phnom Penh International University |
Sarkar M.A.R.,Bangladesh Agricultural University |
Islam M.S.,Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2011
High arsenic (As) concentrations in soil may lead to elevated concentrations of arsenic in agricultural products. Field experiments were conducted to examine the effects of water management (WM) and Phosphorus (P) rates on As uptake, rice growth, yield and yield attributes of winter (boro) and monsoon (aman) rice in an As contaminated soil-water at Gobindagonj, Gaibandha, Bangladesh in 2004 and 2005. Significantly, the highest average grain yields (6.88±0.07tha-1 in boro 6.38±0.06tha-1 in aman) were recorded in permanent raised bed (PRB; aerobic WM: Eh=+360mV) plus 100% P amendment. There was a 12% yield increase over conventional till on flat (CTF; anaerobic WM: Eh=-56mV) at the same P level. In boro, the As content in grain and As content in straw were about 3 and 6 times higher in CTF compared to PRB, respectively. The highest total As content (0.646±0.01ppm in grain and 10.93±0.19ppm in straw) was recorded under CTF, and the lowest total As content (0.247±0.01 and 1.554±0.09ppm in grain and straw, respectively) was recorded under PRB (aerobic WM). The results suggest that grain and straw As are closely associated in boro rice. The furrow irrigation approach of the PRB treatments consistently reduced irrigation input by 29-31% for boro and 27-30% for aman rice relative to CTF treatments in 2004 and 2005, respectively, thus reducing the amount of As added to the soil from the As-contaminated irrigation water. Yearly, 30% less As was deposited to the soil compared to CTF system through irrigation water during boro season. High As concentrations in grain and straw in rice grown using CTF in the farmers' field, and the fact that using PRB reduced grain As concentrations to value less than half of the proposed food hygiene standard. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
News Article | April 27, 2016
Update: On 26 April, a team led by microbial population geneticist Daniel Croll, who is at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, reported on github.com that the Bangladeshi wheat-blast strain is closely related to those collected in Brazilian wheat fields and on nearby weeds. His team’s analysis, which uses the data on the website Open Wheat Blast, reveals that the sample is not closely related to known rice-blast-causing strains of M. oryzae. Croll’s team concludes that wheat blast was probably introduced to Bangladesh from Brazil, and warns that other Asian countries that import Brazilian wheat, including Thailand, the Philippines and Vietnam, should be on the lookout for the disease. Fields are ablaze in Bangladesh, as farmers struggle to contain Asia’s first outbreak of a fungal disease that periodically devastates crops in South America. Plant pathologists warn that wheat blast could spread to other parts of south and southeast Asia, and are hurrying to trace its origins. “It’s important to know what the strain is,” says Sophien Kamoun, a biologist at the Sainsbury Laboratory in Norwich, UK, who has created a website, Open Wheat Blast (go.nature.com/bkczwf), to encourage researchers to share data. Efforts are also under way to find wheat genes that confer resistance to the disease. First detected in February and confirmed with genome sequencing by Kamoun’s lab this month, the wheat-blast outbreak has already caused the loss of more than 15,000 hectares of crops in Bangladesh. “It’s really an explosive, devastating disease,” says plant pathologist Barbara Valent of Kansas State University in Manhattan, Kansas. “It’s really critical that it be controlled in Bangladesh.” After rice, wheat is the second most cultivated grain in Bangladesh, which has a population of 156 million people. More broadly, inhabitants of south Asia grow 135 million tonnes of wheat each year. Wheat blast is caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Since 1985, when scientists discovered it in Brazil’s Paraná state, the disease has raced across South America. The fungus is better known as a pathogen of rice. But unlike in rice, where M. oryzae attacks the leaves, the fungus strikes the heads of wheat, which are difficult for fungicides to reach. A 2009 outbreak in wheat cost Brazil one-third of that year’s crop. “There are regions in South America where they don’t grow wheat because of the disease,” Valent says. Wheat blast was spotted in Kentucky in 2011, but vigorous surveillance helped to stop it spreading in the United States. In South America, the disease tends to take hold in hot and humid spells. Such conditions are present in Bangladesh, and the disease could migrate across south and southeast Asia, say plant pathologists. In particular, it could spread over the Indo-Gangetic Plain through Bangladesh, northern India and eastern Pakistan, warn scientists at the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) in Nashipur. Bangladeshi officials are burning government-owned wheat fields to contain the fungus, and telling farmers not to sow seeds from infected plots. The BARI hopes to identify wheat varieties that are more tolerant of the fungus and agricultural practices that can keep it at bay, such as crop rotation and seed treatment. It is unknown how wheat blast got to Bangladesh. One possibility is that a wheat-infecting strain was brought in from South America, says Nick Talbot, a plant pathologist at the University of Exeter, UK. Another is that an M. oryzae strain that infects south Asian grasses somehow jumped to wheat, perhaps triggered by an environmental shift: that is what happened in Kentucky, when a rye-grass strain infected wheat. To tackle the question, this month Kamoun’s lab sequenced a fungus sample from Bangladesh. The strain seems to be related to those that infect wheat in South America, says Kamoun, but data from other wheat-infecting strains and strains that plague other grasses are needed to pinpoint the outbreak’s origins conclusively. The Open Wheat Blast website might help. Kamoun has uploaded the Bangladeshi data, and Talbot has deposited M. oryzae sequences from wheat in Brazil. Talbot hopes that widely accessible genome data could help to combat the outbreak. Researchers could use them to screen seeds for infection or identify wild grasses that can transmit the fungus to wheat fields. Rapid data sharing is becoming more common in health emergencies, such as the outbreak of Zika virus in the Americas. Kamoun and Talbot say that their field should follow suit. “The plant-pathology community has a responsibility to allow data to be used to combat diseases that are happening now, and not worry too much about whether they may or may not get a Nature paper out of it,” says Talbot. Last month, Valent’s team reported the first gene variant known to confer wheat-blast resistance (C. D. Cruz et al. Crop Sci. http://doi.org/bfk7; 2016), and field trials of crops that bear the resistance gene variant have begun in South America. But plant pathologists say that finding one variant is not enough: wheat strains must be bred with multiple genes for resistance, to stop M. oryzae quickly overcoming their defences. The work could help in the Asian crisis, says Talbot. “What I would hope for out of this sorry situation,” he says, “is that there will be a bigger international effort to identify resistance genes.”
Shah M.M.R.,Northwest University, China |
Shah M.M.R.,Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute |
Liu T.-X.,Northwest University, China
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B is extremely polyphagous with >600 species of host plants. We hypothesized that previous experience of the whitefly on a given host plant affects their host selection and performance on the plants without previous experience. We investigated the host selection for feeding and oviposition of adults and development and survival of immatures of three host-plant-experienced populations of B. tabaci, namely Bemisia-eggplant, Bemisia-tomato and Bemisia-cucumber, on their experienced host plant and each of the three other plant species (eggplant, tomato, cucumber and pepper) without previous experience. We found that the influence of previous experience of the whiteflies varied among the populations. All populations refused pepper for feeding and oviposition, whereas the Bemisia-cucumber and the Bemisia-eggplant strongly preferred cucumber. Bemisia-tomato did not show strong preference to any of the three host palnts. Development time from egg to adult eclosion varied among the populations, being shortest on eggplant, longest on pepper, and intermediate on tomato and cucumber except for the Bemisia-cucumber developed similarly on tomato and pepper. The survivorship from egg to adult eclosion of all populations was highest on eggplant (80-98%), lowest on pepper (0-20%), and intermediate on tomato and cucumber. In conclusion, the effects of previous experience of whiteflies on host selection for feeding and oviposition, development, and survivorship varied depending on host plants, and host plants play a stronger role than previous experience. Preference of feeding and oviposition by adults may not accurately reflect host suitability of immatures. These results provided important information for understanding whitefly population dynamics and dispersal among different crop systems. © 2013 Shah et al.
Khan A.A.,Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus | Year: 2015
Experiment was designed to establish a more definitive relationship of phenological and physiological traits with yield in wheat using twenty five spring wheat genotypes. Because many of these traits are interrelated, correlation coefficient, path analysis and principal component analysis were used to expose these relationships more clearly. Experiment was conducted at the Wheat Research Center, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur during the Rabi season of 2009-10. The analysis of variances showed highly significant variations among the genotypes for all the traits studied. The results revealed that moderate to high heritability along with moderate genetic advances for ground coverage, biomass, grain filling duration and grain filling rate offer chances of expected response to selection. The association of phenological traits with grain yield suggests selecting the genotypes with early maturity and relatively long grain filling duration for the development of high yielding wheat cultivars. Significant negative correlation of physiological maturity and canopy temperature with biomass, grain filling rate and grain yield revealed that early maturing genotypes having high biomass can change their physiology to suit with variable environments to attain a high grain yield. Path analysis confirmed physiological maturity, grain filling duration and grain filling rate as major contributing characters for improvement of wheat grain yield through their direct effects. The rest of the traits contributed indirectly either via grain filling duration or grain filling rate. The latent vectors obtained from principal component analysis also identified grain filling attributes, biomass and physiological maturity as major contributors to the differentiation of studied genotypes. Screening of wheat genotypes on the basis of these traits may be more fruitful and may have long lasting effect to supplement empirical breeding approach. © 2015, University of Zagreb. All rights reserved.
Hasan M.K.,Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute
Bangladesh Journal of Botany | Year: 2016
Antiporter activity in the plant cell is one of the most important salt tolerance mechanisms. Studies proved that introduction of the Arabidopsis vacuolar membrane Na+/H+ antiporter (AtNHX1) conferred salt stress tolerance in many plants. Arabidopsis was treated with four different salinity levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM) in MS medium. Expression of AtNHX1 was measured by quantitative real time PCR. It was found that AtNHX1 gene was up regulated under different salinity levels. Due to the imposition of 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl, expression level was higher 25, 90 and 110%, respectively compared to control.
Amer B.M.A.,Cairo University |
Hossain M.A.,Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute |
Gottschalk K.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2010
A hybrid solar dryer was designed and constructed using direct solar energy and a heat exchanger. The dryer consists of solar collector, reflector, heat exchanger cum heat storage unit and drying chamber. The drying chamber was located under the collector. The dryer was operated during normal sunny days as a solar dryer, and during cloudy day as a hybrid solar dryer. Drying was also carried out at night with stored heat energy in water which was collected during the time of sun-shine and with electric heaters located at water tank. The efficiency of the solar dryer was raised by recycling about 65% of the drying air in the solar dryer and exhausting a small amount of it outside the dryer. Under Mid-European summer conditions it can raise up the air temperature from 30 to 40 °C above the ambient temperature. The solar dryer was tested for drying of ripe banana slices. The capacity of the dryer was to dry about 30 kg of banana slices in 8 h in sunny day from an initial moisture content of 82% to the final moisture content of 18% (wb). In the same time it reduced to only 62% (wb) moisture content in open sun drying method. The colour, aroma and texture of the solar dried products were better than the sun drying products. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bala B.K.,Bangladesh Agricultural University |
Hossain M.A.,Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute
Environment, Development and Sustainability | Year: 2010
This paper presents a computer model of integrated management of coastal zones of Bangladesh. This model predicts that expanding shrimp aquaculture industry ensures high food security at upazila levels with increasing environmental degradation. The model also predicts that if shrimp aquaculture industry continues to boom from the present status to super intensive shrimp aquaculture, a collapse of the shrimp aquaculture industry will ultimately occur turning shrimp aquaculture land neither suitable for shrimp culture nor crop production. The control of growth of the shrimp production intensity stabilizes the system at least in the short run. The control of population and growth of the shrimp production intensity should be considered for stabilization of the system in the long run. The sustainable development of the coastal zone of Bangladesh in the long run without control of both the growth of shrimp production intensity and the population will remain mere dream. It is now high time to design an integrated management system for the coastal zones of Bangladesh for sustainable development. This model can be used to assist the policy planners to assess different policy issues and to design a policy for sustainable development of the coastal zones of Bangladesh. The boost up of coastal agriculture and restriction on rapid growth of shrimp culture and its intensity to reduce ecological footprints are two pathways for sustainable development of food security in the coastal zones of Bangladesh. This study also examines the short-term and long-term policy options for sustainable food security. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Mojid M.A.,Bangladesh Agricultural University |
Rannu R.P.,Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute |
Karim N.N.,Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2015
Climate change is a critical global environmental challenge that has rigorous impacts on crop-water demand and a number of other systems, such as hydrological systems and ecosystems. Reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) being a hydrological parameter reflects the integrated effects of various climatic parameters. Consequently, any variations in the climatic parameters induce variability in ETo. This study identified the accountable climatic parameters for the variability of ETo in Dinajpur and Bogra districts of the North-West hydrological region of Bangladesh. ETo was determined by FAO Penman-Monteith method from the daily weather parameters of the two districts for a period of 21 years (1990-2010). Trends of ETo and its governing climatic parameters over the years were detected and quantified. Correlations between ETo and the governing parameters were determined. The results revealed decreasing trends of ETo in most of the months of the year during the study period in both districts. The climatic parameters causing the observed trends in ETo differed over the months of the year. The combine effects of decreasing net radiation and wind speed, and increasing mean daily air temperature and saturation vapour pressure deficit contributed reducing ETo in the study area. These results, by enhancing our understanding of the effects of climate variability and climate change on ETo, will help sustainable planning of water resources utilization in agriculture of the region. © 2015 Royal Meteorological Society.
Alam M.K.,Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014
An experiment was conducted at the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) central farm to evaluate the efficiency of conventional compost (CC) and vermicompost (VC) on the yield of tomato and thereafter to estimate their cost-return. There were ten treatments replicated three times. It was observed that 75% RDCF (Recommended Dose of Chemical Fertilizer)+VC at 2.0 t/ha gave the tallest plant and maximum number of fruit per plant and thereby produced the highest yield (61.1 t/ha) of tomato. The yield was statistically identical with 100% RDCF (58.1 t/ha); and 75% RDCF+CC at 2.0 t/ha (56.6 t/ha). The lowest yield (19.0 t/ha) was observed in native fertility (no fertilizer) which was followed by 0% RDCF+CC at 10 t/ha (38.9 t/ha). Vermicompost exhibited better performance than conventional compost in all studied parameters except individual fruit weight. The highest (2.59) benefit cost ratio (BCR) was recorded in 75% RDCF+VC at 2.0 t/ha fertilizer combination which was followed by 100% RDCF (2.45); and 75% RDCF+CC at 2.0 t/ha (2.34) respectively. The least BCR (0.58) was obtained from the control (no fertilizer) which was followed by 0% RDCF+CC at 10 t/ha (1.10) and 0% RDCF+VC at 10 t/ha (1.21). Although the sole use of VC and CC gave lower BCR, they play a vital role in organic and chemical-free production system. In that case, they (sole VC and CC at 10 t/ha) have potential to give higher BCR due to higher market value of chemical-free products.