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Mojid M.A.,Bangladesh Agricultural University | Rannu R.P.,Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute | Karim N.N.,Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2015

Climate change is a critical global environmental challenge that has rigorous impacts on crop-water demand and a number of other systems, such as hydrological systems and ecosystems. Reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) being a hydrological parameter reflects the integrated effects of various climatic parameters. Consequently, any variations in the climatic parameters induce variability in ETo. This study identified the accountable climatic parameters for the variability of ETo in Dinajpur and Bogra districts of the North-West hydrological region of Bangladesh. ETo was determined by FAO Penman-Monteith method from the daily weather parameters of the two districts for a period of 21 years (1990-2010). Trends of ETo and its governing climatic parameters over the years were detected and quantified. Correlations between ETo and the governing parameters were determined. The results revealed decreasing trends of ETo in most of the months of the year during the study period in both districts. The climatic parameters causing the observed trends in ETo differed over the months of the year. The combine effects of decreasing net radiation and wind speed, and increasing mean daily air temperature and saturation vapour pressure deficit contributed reducing ETo in the study area. These results, by enhancing our understanding of the effects of climate variability and climate change on ETo, will help sustainable planning of water resources utilization in agriculture of the region. © 2015 Royal Meteorological Society. Source

Hossain M.A.,Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute | Hassan M.S.,Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute | Mottalib M.A.,Regional Agricultural Research Station | Ahmmed S.,Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2015

This paper presents the technical and economic suitability of solar pump irrigations of rice and no-rice crops. Four submersible solar pumps (1050 Wp) were installed in different locations of Bangladesh for irrigating rice, wheat and vegetables. The solar pump was used for drip irrigation and furrow irrigation for cultivation of brinjal and tomato during 2010-13. Water savings by drip irrigation over furrow irrigation for brinjal and tomato were 53.25% and 56.16%, respectively. For cultivation of wheat about 430 mm water was required and the yield was 3.00 t/ha. Water required for boro rice cultivation in Magura was 1024 mm and in Barisal it was 1481 mm. Cultivations of solar irrigated wheat (BCR 2.31), tomato (BCR 2.22) and brinjal (BCR 2.34) were economically profitable but boro rice was not economically profitable (BCR 0.31). Diesel engine operated irrigation pump emits carbon dioxide but solar pump is an environment friendly irrigation technology. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Motiar Rohman M.,Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute | Talukder M.Z.A.,Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute | Hossain M.G.,Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute | Uddin M.S.,Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Plant OMICS | Year: 2016

The oxidative stress, antioxidant and glyoxalase systems in two differently saline sensitive maize inbreds (i.e., CZ-27; tolerant and CZ-37; susceptible) in presence of proline and betaine were studied for better understanding of salinity tolerance mechanism. Five days old seedlings were imposed to 16 dSm-1 salinity for 10 days. Water content, chlorophyll (Chl), reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, methylglyoxal (MG), lipoxigenase (LOX) activity, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and glyoxalases were investigated in fully expanded leaves. Salinity caused higher reduction in leaf water and chlorophyll content as well as increased in levels of superoxide (O2 •-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), melondialdehyde (MDA), LOX and MG in both inbreds. However, the levels were higher in CZ-37 as compared to CZ-27. Proline and betaine treatments in salinity made significantly delay in loss of leaf water and breakdown of chlorophyll. The salinity caused more oxidation of reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASA) as well as inhibited the synthesis of cysteine in CZ-37. The levels of glutathione- and ascorbate-redox suggested that use of both proline and betaine helped better maintenance of GSH and ASA under salinity in CZ-37 compared to CZ-27. Under salinity, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) increased in both inbreds, but the magnitude was higher in CZ-37 than in CZ-27. On the other hand, the activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glyoxalase-II (Gly-II) decreased in both inbreds, but the levels were higher in CZ-27. Though the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) decreased in CZ-37, the activity of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) increased. The application of proline and betaine increased the activities of SOD, POD, APX, GPX, glutathione reductase (GR), DHAR, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and Gly-II in both inbreds, however, the increments were higher for SOD, POD, DHAR, GST and Gly-II in CZ-37. The higher enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and glyoxalases under salinity in presence of proline and betaine in CZ-37 suggested better cellular protection from excess accumulation of ROS, MG and other toxic metabolites. Source

Noman M.S.,Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council | Maleque M.A.,Sylhet Agricultural University | Alam M.Z.,Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University | Afroz S.,Dhumki | Ishii H.T.,Kobe University
International Journal of Pest Management | Year: 2013

We conducted a study on the intercropping of mustard with four spice crops to evaluate whether intercropping is effective in suppressing the abundance of the mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.). Eight intercropping systems (various combinations of mustard with onion, garlic, coriander and ajwain) were compared with mustard monoculture as the control. At different stages of crop growth, aphid abundance was significantly suppressed in the mustard + two rows of coriander intercropping system, while the abundance of the predator, ladybird beetle, increased relative to the control. Among the intercropping systems, mustard + two rows of coriander recorded the highest mustard equivalent yield (2311.5 kg/ha), gross return (US$ 1433.2/ha) and benefit-cost ratio (3.14: 1.00), while these values were lowest for the control (987.5 kg/ha, $612.3/ha, and 1.27: 1.00, respectively). © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source

Nath T.K.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Jashimuddin M.,Chittagong University | Kamrul Hasan M.,Chittagong University | Shahjahan M.,Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council | Pretty J.,University of Essex
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2015

Shifting cultivation is now considered a largely unsustainable type of agroecosystem because of declines in productivity that come with increasing population pressure, shortening of fallow periods and non-availability of alternative land. Efforts to promote the adoption of agroforestry to improve shifting cultivation systems have been increasing. Here, we discuss intensification of agroforestry in shifting cultivation areas of Bangladesh through community participation. Drawing on field data from a collaborative agroforestry research project implemented in Chittagong hill tracts (CHT), it describes the use of agroforestry development, its sustainability, the challenges and opportunities of agroforestry development. We worked with villagers in three para (hamlets) to develop a participatory approach to the development of agroforestry options. On the basis of a combination of participants’ preferences and expert opinion, crop combinations were selected and agri-horti-silvicultural agroforestry systems developed. These participants now cultivate agricultural crops continuously year-on-year on slopes formerly subject to shifting systems. The benefit-cost ratio for agricultural crops was 3:1. Seedlings are growing well and average survival rates at more than 70 %. More than 80 % participants are now interested in agroforestry, and 54 % desire to expand agroforestry to other areas. For the future development and promotion of agroforestry by tribal communities in the CHT, conclusions are drawn about modes of collaborative working with local partners. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Source

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