Bangkok, Thailand
Bangkok, Thailand

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Suntharasamai P.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | Martin M.,Thailand MOPH U.S. CDC Collaboration | Martin M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Choopanya K.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: Rapid easy-to-use HIV tests offer opportunities to increase HIV testing among populations at risk of infection. We used the OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 antibody test (OraQuick) in the Bangkok Tenofovir Study, an HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis trial among people who inject drugs. Methods: The Bangkok Tenofovir Study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. We tested participants' oral fluid for HIV using OraQuick monthly and blood using a nucleic-acid amplification test (NAAT) every 3 months. We used Kaplan-Meier methods to estimate the duration from a positive HIV NAAT until the mid-point between the last non-reactive and first reactive oral fluid test and proportional hazards to examine factors associated with the time until the test was reactive. Results: We screened 3678 people for HIV using OraQuick. Among 447 with reactive results, 436 (97.5%) were confirmed HIV-infected, 10 (2.2%) HIV-uninfected, and one (0.2%) had indeterminate results. Two participants with non-reactive OraQuick results were, in fact, HIVinfected at screening yielding 99.5% sensitivity, 99.7% specificity, a 97.8% positive predictive value, and a 99.9% negative predictive value. Participants receiving tenofovir took longer to develop a reactive OraQuick (191.8 days) than participants receiving placebo (16.8 days) (p = 0.02) and participants infected with HIV CRF01-AE developed a reactive OraQuick earlier than participants infected with other subtypes (p = 0.04). Discussion: The oral fluid HIV test performed well at screening, suggesting it can be used when rapid results and non-invasive tools are preferred. However, participants receiving tenofovir took longer to develop a reactive oral fluid test result than those receiving placebo. Thus, among people using pre-exposure prophylaxis, a blood-based HIV test may be an appropriate choice.


Martin M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Vanichseni S.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | Suntharasamai P.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | Sangkum U.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | And 13 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir) has been associated with renal dysfunction in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. We reviewed data from an HIV preexposure prophylaxis trial to determine if tenofovir use was associated with changes in renal function in an HIV-uninfected population. Methods. During the trial, 2413 HIV-uninfected people who inject drugs were randomized to receive tenofovir or placebo. We assessed the renal function of trial participants with the Cockcroft-Gault, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations using t tests for cross-sectional analysis and linear regression for longitudinal analysis. Results. Creatinine clearance and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) results were lower at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months in the tenofovir group compared with the placebo group. Results declined more in the tenofovir group than in the placebo group during follow-up using the Cockcroft-Gault (P < .001) and CKD-EPI (P = .007) equations, but not MDRD (P = .12). Creatinine clearance measured when study drug was stopped was lower in the tenofovir group than the placebo group (P < .001), but the difference resolved when tested a median of 20 months later (P = .12). Conclusions. We found small but significant decreases in cross-sectional measures of creatinine clearance and GFR in the tenofovir group compared with the placebo group and modest differences in downward trends in longitudinal analysis using the Cockcroft-Gault and CKD-EPI equations. These results suggest that with baseline assessments of renal function and routine monitoring of creatinine clearance during follow-up, tenofovir can be used safely for HIV preexposure prophylaxis. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00119106.


Vanichseni S.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | Martin M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Suntharasamai P.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | Sangkum U.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2015

Objectives. We examined the causes of hospitalization and death of people who inject drugs participating in the Bangkok Tenofovir Study, an HIV preexposure prophylaxis trial. Methods. The Bangkok Tenofovir Study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted during 2005 to 2012 among 2413 people who inject drugs. We reviewed medical records to define the causes of hospitalization and death, examined participant characteristics and risk behaviors to determine predictors of death, and compared the participant mortality rate with the rate of the general population of Bangkok, Thailand. Results. Participants were followed an average of 4 years; 107 died: 22 (20.6%) from overdose, 13 (12.2%) from traffic accidents, and 12 (11.2%) from sepsis. In multivariable analysis, older age (40-59 years; P = .001), injecting drugs (P = .03), and injecting midazolam (P < .001) were associated with death. The standardized mortality ratio was 2.9. Conclusions. People who injected drugs were nearly 3 times as likely to die as were those in the general population of Bangkok and injecting midazolam was independently associated with death. Drug overdose and traffic accidents were the most common causes of death, and their prevention should be public health priorities. © 2015, American Public Health Association Inc. All rights reserved.


Martin M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Vanichseni S.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | Suntharasamai P.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | Sangkum U.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: The Bangkok Tenofovir Study was launched in 2005 to determine if pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir will reduce the risk of HIV infection among injecting drug users (IDUs). We describe recruitment, screening, enrollment, and baseline characteristics of study participants and contrast risk behavior of Tenofovir Study participants with participants in the 1999-2003 AIDSVAX B/E Vaccine Trial. Methods: The Bangkok Tenofovir Study is an ongoing, phase-3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis trial of daily oral tenofovir. The Tenofovir Study and the Vaccine Trial were conducted among IDUs at 17 drug-treatment clinics in Bangkok. Tenofovir Study sample size was based on HIV incidence in the Vaccine Trial. Standardized questionnaires were used to collect demographic, risk behavior, and incarceration data. The Tenofovir Study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number-NCT00119106. Results: From June 2005 through July 2010, 4094 IDUs were screened and 2413 enrolled in the Bangkok Tenofovir Study. The median age of enrolled participants was 31 years (range, 20-59), 80% were male, and 63% reported they injected drugs during the 3 months before enrollment. Among those who injected, 53% injected methamphetamine, 37% midazolam, and 35% heroin. Tenofovir Study participants were less likely to inject drugs, inject daily, or share needles (all, p<0.001) than Vaccine Trial participants. Discussion: The Bangkok Tenofovir Study has been successfully launched and is fully enrolled. Study participants are significantly less likely to report injecting drugs and sharing needles than participants in the 1999-2003 AIDSVAX B/E Vaccine Trial suggesting HIV incidence will be lower than expected. In response, the Bangkok Tenofovir Study enrollment was increased from 1600 to 2400 and the study design was changed from a defined 1-year follow-up period to an endpoint-driven design. Trial results demonstrating whether or not daily oral tenofovir reduces the risk of HIV infection among IDUs are expected in 2012.


Choopanya K.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | Martin M.,Health-U | Martin M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Suntharasamai P.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | And 16 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2013

Background Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis reduces sexual transmission of HIV. We assessed whether daily oral use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir), an antiretroviral, can reduce HIV transmission in injecting drug users. Methods In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled volunteers from 17 drug-treatment clinics in Bangkok, Thailand. Participants were eligible if they were aged 20-60 years, were HIV-negative, and reported injecting drugs during the previous year. We randomly assigned participants (1:1; blocks of four) to either tenofovir or placebo using a computer-generated randomisation sequence. Participants chose either daily directly observed treatment or monthly visits and could switch at monthly visits. Participants received monthly HIV testing and individualised risk-reduction and adherence counselling, blood safety assessments every 3 months, and were off ered condoms and methadone treatment. The primary effi cacy endpoint was HIV infection, analysed by modifi ed intention-to-treat analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00119106. Findings Between June 9, 2005, and July 22, 2010, we enrolled 2413 participants, assigning 1204 to tenofovir and 1209 to placebo. Two participants had HIV at enrolment and 50 became infected during follow-up: 17 in the tenofovir group (an incidence of 0.35 per 100 person-years) and 33 in the placebo group (0.68 per 100 person-years), indicating a 48.9% reduction in HIV incidence (95% CI 9.6-72.2; p=0.01). The occurrence of serious adverse events was much the same between the two groups (p=0.35). Nausea was more common in participants in the tenofovir group than in the placebo group (p=0.002). Interpretation In this study, daily oral tenofovir reduced the risk of HIV infection in people who inject drugs. Preexposure prophylaxis with tenofovir can now be considered for use as part of an HIV prevention package for people who inject drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Colby D.,Red Cross | Srithanaviboonchai K.,Chiang Mai University | Vanichseni S.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | Ongwandee S.,Ministry of Public Health | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2015

Introduction: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended by the World Health Organization as an effective method of HIV prevention for individuals at risk for infection. In this paper, we describe the unique role that Thailand has played in the global effort to combat the HIV epidemic, including its role in proving the efficacy of PrEP, and discuss the opportunities and challenges of implementing PrEP in a middle-income country. Discussion: Thailand was one of the first countries in the world to successfully reverse a generalized HIV epidemic. Despite this early success, HIV prevalence has remained high among people who inject drugs and has surged among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). Two pivotal trials that showed that the use of oral antiretroviral medication as PrEP can reduce HIV transmission were conducted partially or entirely at Thai sites. Demonstration projects of PrEP, as well as clinical trials of alternative PrEP regimens, began or will begin in 2014-2015 in Thailand and will provide additional data and experience on how to best implement PrEP for high-risk individuals in the community. Financing of drug costs, the need for routine laboratory monitoring and lack of awareness about PrEP among at-risk groups all present challenges to the wider implementation of PrEP for HIV prevention in Thailand. Conclusions: Although significant challenges to wider use remain, PrEP holds promise as a safe and highly effective method to be used as part of a combined HIV prevention strategy for MSM and TGW in Thailand. © 2015 Colby D et al.


Martin M.,Thailand MOPH U.S. CDC Collaboration | Martin M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Vanichseni S.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | Suntharasamai P.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Introduction: HIV spread rapidly among people who inject drugs in Bangkok in the late 1980s. In recent years, changes in drug use and HIV-associated risk behaviors have been reported. We examined data from the Bangkok Tenofovir Study, an HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis trial conducted among people who inject drugs, to assess participant risk behavior and drug use, and to identify risk factors for HIV infection. Methods: The Bangkok Tenofovir Study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. HIV status was assessed monthly and risk behavior every 3 months. We used generalized estimating equations logistic regression to model trends of injecting, needle sharing, drugs injected, incarceration, and sexual activity reported at follow-up visits; and proportional hazards models to evaluate demographic characteristics, sexual activities, incarceration, drug injection practices, and drugs injected during follow-up as predictors of HIV infection. Results: The proportion of participants injecting drugs, sharing needles, and reporting sex with more than one partner declined during follow-up (p<0.001). Among participants who reported injecting at enrollment, 801 (53.2%) injected methamphetamine, 559 (37.1%) midazolam, and 527 (35.0%) heroin. In multivariable analysis, young age (i.e., 20-29 years) (p = 0.02), sharing needles (p<0.001), and incarceration in prison (p = 0.002) were associated with incident HIV infection. Participants reporting sex with an opposite sex partner, live-in partner, casual partner, or men reporting sex with male partners were not at a significantly higher risk of HIV infection compared to those who did not report these behaviors. Conclusion: Reports of HIV-associated risk behavior declined significantly during the trial. Young age, needle sharing, and incarceration were independently associated with HIV infection. Sexual activity was not associated with HIV infection, suggesting that the reduction in HIV incidence among participants taking daily oral tenofovir compared to those taking placebo was due to a decrease in parenteral HIV transmission.


Martin M.,Health-U | Martin M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Vanichseni S.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | Suntharasamai P.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | And 14 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2015

Objective: To describe participant adherence to daily oral tenofovir in an HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trial, examine factors associated with adherence, and assess the impact of adherence on the risk of HIV infection. Design: The Bangkok Tenofovir Study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted among people who inject drugs, 2005-2012. Methods: Participants chose daily visits or monthly visits. Study nurses observed participants swallow study drug and both initialed a diary. We assessed adherence using the diary. We examined adherence by age group and sex and used logistic regression to evaluate demographics and risk behaviors as predictors of adherence and Cox regression to assess the impact of adherence on the risk of HIV infection. Results: A total of 2413 people enrolled and contributed 9665 person-years of follow-up (mean 4.0 years, maximum 6.9 years). The risk of HIV infection decreased as adherence improved, from 48.9% overall to 83.5% for those with at least 97.5% adherence. In multivariable analysis, men were less adherent than women (P = 0.006) and participants 20-29 years old (P < 0.001) and 30-39 years old (P = 0.01) were less adherent than older participants. Other factors associated with poor adherence included incarceration (P = 0.02) and injecting methamphetamine (P = 0.04). Conclusion: In this HIV PrEP trial among people who inject drugs, improved adherence to daily tenofovir was associated with a lower risk of HIV infection. This is consistent with trials among MSM and HIV-discordant heterosexual couples and suggests that HIV PrEP can provide a high level of protection from HIV infection. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, Thailand Ministry of Public Health, Thailand MOPH U.S. CDC Collaboration and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Rapid easy-to-use HIV tests offer opportunities to increase HIV testing among populations at risk of infection. We used the OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 antibody test (OraQuick) in the Bangkok Tenofovir Study, an HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis trial among people who inject drugs.The Bangkok Tenofovir Study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. We tested participants oral fluid for HIV using OraQuick monthly and blood using a nucleic-acid amplification test (NAAT) every 3 months. We used Kaplan-Meier methods to estimate the duration from a positive HIV NAAT until the mid-point between the last non-reactive and first reactive oral fluid test and proportional hazards to examine factors associated with the time until the test was reactive.We screened 3678 people for HIV using OraQuick. Among 447 with reactive results, 436 (97.5%) were confirmed HIV-infected, 10 (2.2%) HIV-uninfected, and one (0.2%) had indeterminate results. Two participants with non-reactive OraQuick results were, in fact, HIV-infected at screening yielding 99.5% sensitivity, 99.7% specificity, a 97.8% positive predictive value, and a 99.9% negative predictive value. Participants receiving tenofovir took longer to develop a reactive OraQuick (191.8 days) than participants receiving placebo (16.8 days) (p = 0.02) and participants infected with HIV CRF01_AE developed a reactive OraQuick earlier than participants infected with other subtypes (p = 0.04).The oral fluid HIV test performed well at screening, suggesting it can be used when rapid results and non-invasive tools are preferred. However, participants receiving tenofovir took longer to develop a reactive oral fluid test result than those receiving placebo. Thus, among people using pre-exposure prophylaxis, a blood-based HIV test may be an appropriate choice.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00119106.

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