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Martin M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Vanichseni S.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | Suntharasamai P.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | Sangkum U.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: The Bangkok Tenofovir Study was launched in 2005 to determine if pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir will reduce the risk of HIV infection among injecting drug users (IDUs). We describe recruitment, screening, enrollment, and baseline characteristics of study participants and contrast risk behavior of Tenofovir Study participants with participants in the 1999-2003 AIDSVAX B/E Vaccine Trial. Methods: The Bangkok Tenofovir Study is an ongoing, phase-3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis trial of daily oral tenofovir. The Tenofovir Study and the Vaccine Trial were conducted among IDUs at 17 drug-treatment clinics in Bangkok. Tenofovir Study sample size was based on HIV incidence in the Vaccine Trial. Standardized questionnaires were used to collect demographic, risk behavior, and incarceration data. The Tenofovir Study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number-NCT00119106. Results: From June 2005 through July 2010, 4094 IDUs were screened and 2413 enrolled in the Bangkok Tenofovir Study. The median age of enrolled participants was 31 years (range, 20-59), 80% were male, and 63% reported they injected drugs during the 3 months before enrollment. Among those who injected, 53% injected methamphetamine, 37% midazolam, and 35% heroin. Tenofovir Study participants were less likely to inject drugs, inject daily, or share needles (all, p<0.001) than Vaccine Trial participants. Discussion: The Bangkok Tenofovir Study has been successfully launched and is fully enrolled. Study participants are significantly less likely to report injecting drugs and sharing needles than participants in the 1999-2003 AIDSVAX B/E Vaccine Trial suggesting HIV incidence will be lower than expected. In response, the Bangkok Tenofovir Study enrollment was increased from 1600 to 2400 and the study design was changed from a defined 1-year follow-up period to an endpoint-driven design. Trial results demonstrating whether or not daily oral tenofovir reduces the risk of HIV infection among IDUs are expected in 2012.


Choopanya K.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | Martin M.,Health-U | Martin M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Suntharasamai P.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | And 16 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2013

Background Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis reduces sexual transmission of HIV. We assessed whether daily oral use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir), an antiretroviral, can reduce HIV transmission in injecting drug users. Methods In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled volunteers from 17 drug-treatment clinics in Bangkok, Thailand. Participants were eligible if they were aged 20-60 years, were HIV-negative, and reported injecting drugs during the previous year. We randomly assigned participants (1:1; blocks of four) to either tenofovir or placebo using a computer-generated randomisation sequence. Participants chose either daily directly observed treatment or monthly visits and could switch at monthly visits. Participants received monthly HIV testing and individualised risk-reduction and adherence counselling, blood safety assessments every 3 months, and were off ered condoms and methadone treatment. The primary effi cacy endpoint was HIV infection, analysed by modifi ed intention-to-treat analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00119106. Findings Between June 9, 2005, and July 22, 2010, we enrolled 2413 participants, assigning 1204 to tenofovir and 1209 to placebo. Two participants had HIV at enrolment and 50 became infected during follow-up: 17 in the tenofovir group (an incidence of 0.35 per 100 person-years) and 33 in the placebo group (0.68 per 100 person-years), indicating a 48.9% reduction in HIV incidence (95% CI 9.6-72.2; p=0.01). The occurrence of serious adverse events was much the same between the two groups (p=0.35). Nausea was more common in participants in the tenofovir group than in the placebo group (p=0.002). Interpretation In this study, daily oral tenofovir reduced the risk of HIV infection in people who inject drugs. Preexposure prophylaxis with tenofovir can now be considered for use as part of an HIV prevention package for people who inject drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Shah N.S.,National Center for HIV | Shiraishi R.W.,National Center for HIV | Subhachaturas W.,Bangkok Metropolitan Administration | Anand A.,National Center for HIV | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Urban Health | Year: 2011

The aim of this study is to estimate HIV prevalence and assess sexual behaviors in a high-risk and difficult-to-reach population of clients of female sex workers (FSWs). A modified variation of respondent-driven sampling was conducted among FSWs in Bangkok, where FSWs recruited 3 FSW peers, 1 client, and 1 nonpaying partner. After informed consent was obtained, participants completed a questionnaire, were HIV-tested, and were asked to return for results. Analyses were weighted to control for the design of the survey. Among 540 FSWs, 188 (35%) recruited 1 client, and 88 (16%) recruited 1 nonpaying partner. Clients' median age was 38 years. HIV prevalence was 20% and was associated with younger age at first sexual experience [relative risk (RR)=3.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-8.24] and condom use during last sexual encounter with regular partner (RR=3.97, 95% CI 1.09-14.61). Median age of nonpaying partners was 34 years, and HIV prevalence was 15.1%. There were 56 discordant FSW-client pairs and 14 discordant FSW-nonpaying partner pairs. Condom use was relatively high among discordant FSW-client pairs (90.1%) compared to discordant FSW-nonpaying partner pairs (18.7%). Results suggest that sexual partners of FSWs have a high HIV prevalence and can be a bridge for HIV transmission to other populations. Findings also highlight the importance of initiating surveillance and targeted programs for FSW partners, and demonstrate a recruitment method for hard-to-reach populations. © 2011 The New York Academy of Medicine.


Komalamisra N.,Mahidol University | Srisawat R.,Mahidol University | Phanbhuwong T.,Mahidol University | Oatwaree A.S.,Bangkok Metropolitan Administration
Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health | Year: 2011

Mosquito larvae were collected from the houses of dengue infected patients in Bangkok, Thailand from 55 sites (36 out of the 50 districts of Metropolitan Bangkok). Aedes aegypti larvae were tested against temephos using WHO bioassay techniques. Adult mosquitoes were tested for susceptibility to permethrin, deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, malathion and DDT using WHO diagnostic doses. Most of the larvae tested were susceptible to temephos. Only few specimens were resistant to temephos. Most adult mosquitoes were highly susceptible to malathion. Deltamethrin resistance was seen in 6 districts of Bangkok. Variable levels of susceptibility were seen with cyfluthrin. Most of the specimens showed resistance to permethrin and all specimens were resistant to DDT.


Martin M.,Thailand MOPH U.S. CDC Collaboration | Martin M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Vanichseni S.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | Suntharasamai P.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Introduction: HIV spread rapidly among people who inject drugs in Bangkok in the late 1980s. In recent years, changes in drug use and HIV-associated risk behaviors have been reported. We examined data from the Bangkok Tenofovir Study, an HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis trial conducted among people who inject drugs, to assess participant risk behavior and drug use, and to identify risk factors for HIV infection. Methods: The Bangkok Tenofovir Study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. HIV status was assessed monthly and risk behavior every 3 months. We used generalized estimating equations logistic regression to model trends of injecting, needle sharing, drugs injected, incarceration, and sexual activity reported at follow-up visits; and proportional hazards models to evaluate demographic characteristics, sexual activities, incarceration, drug injection practices, and drugs injected during follow-up as predictors of HIV infection. Results: The proportion of participants injecting drugs, sharing needles, and reporting sex with more than one partner declined during follow-up (p<0.001). Among participants who reported injecting at enrollment, 801 (53.2%) injected methamphetamine, 559 (37.1%) midazolam, and 527 (35.0%) heroin. In multivariable analysis, young age (i.e., 20-29 years) (p = 0.02), sharing needles (p<0.001), and incarceration in prison (p = 0.002) were associated with incident HIV infection. Participants reporting sex with an opposite sex partner, live-in partner, casual partner, or men reporting sex with male partners were not at a significantly higher risk of HIV infection compared to those who did not report these behaviors. Conclusion: Reports of HIV-associated risk behavior declined significantly during the trial. Young age, needle sharing, and incarceration were independently associated with HIV infection. Sexual activity was not associated with HIV infection, suggesting that the reduction in HIV incidence among participants taking daily oral tenofovir compared to those taking placebo was due to a decrease in parenteral HIV transmission.


Bhidayasiri R.,Chulalongkorn University | Bhidayasiri R.,University of California at Los Angeles | Wannachai N.,Chulalongkorn University | Limpabandhu S.,Bureau of Health Administration | And 9 more authors.
Neuroepidemiology | Year: 2011

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) occurs worldwide but prior to this review of data from the Thailand Parkinson's Disease Registry there had been no nationwide PD registry reported globally. Objective: To determine the distribution and prevalence of PD in Thailand and related risk factors in order to more adequately develop and allocate prevention and treatment resources where they are most needed and to ascertain risk factors that are specific to the Thai population. Design: The Thailand Parkinson's Disease Registry is a new resource, and data collection began in March 2008. Data is collected by the Registry from physicians, and a mechanism is also provided for patients to self-report. This data was further analyzed by the capture-recapture methodology (CRM) to assess reporting biases. Methods: The three main sources of data input to the Registry, i.e. (1) public hospitals, (2) private hospitals and (3) self-registration, require checking for duplicates and also allow estimation of completeness of recording (the degree of underreporting) in this disease registry. There is underreporting because of poor record keeping and administrative procedures in some facilities, and there is an unknown number of persons with PD who are not properly diagnosed because of inadequate facilities and staffing in some areas. Since our data sources should be overlapping in some way, and assuming that the likelihood of being detected in one system is independent of the others, we estimated these data sources' actual coverage and the expected total number of patients utilizing the 'capture-recapture' statistical technique. Results: As of March 2011, the Thailand PD Registry had identified 40,049 PD patients. Employing log-linear modeling, the CRM analysis based on the three data sets estimated underreporting of 20,516 cases. The revised estimated total is thus 60,565 cases, resulting in a crude and age-adjusted prevalence of 95.34 and 424.57 PD cases/100,000 population, respectively. The prevalence of PD was 126.83/100,000 in urban areas and 90.82/100,000 in rural areas (p < 0.001). Preliminary regional comparisons revealed a higher prevalence of PD in residents of the central plain valley of Thailand, an area with a large amount of pesticide use. Conclusions: The combination of a passive registry and the CRM technique allowed us to derive population prevalence estimates for PD in Thailand. Thai PD prevalence estimates were similar to previous ones published for Asian countries; in addition, they suggested that urbanization and exposure to pesticides may both be risk factors for PD in the Thai population. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Martin M.,Health-U | Martin M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Vanichseni S.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | Suntharasamai P.,Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group | And 14 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2015

Objective: To describe participant adherence to daily oral tenofovir in an HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trial, examine factors associated with adherence, and assess the impact of adherence on the risk of HIV infection. Design: The Bangkok Tenofovir Study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted among people who inject drugs, 2005-2012. Methods: Participants chose daily visits or monthly visits. Study nurses observed participants swallow study drug and both initialed a diary. We assessed adherence using the diary. We examined adherence by age group and sex and used logistic regression to evaluate demographics and risk behaviors as predictors of adherence and Cox regression to assess the impact of adherence on the risk of HIV infection. Results: A total of 2413 people enrolled and contributed 9665 person-years of follow-up (mean 4.0 years, maximum 6.9 years). The risk of HIV infection decreased as adherence improved, from 48.9% overall to 83.5% for those with at least 97.5% adherence. In multivariable analysis, men were less adherent than women (P = 0.006) and participants 20-29 years old (P < 0.001) and 30-39 years old (P = 0.01) were less adherent than older participants. Other factors associated with poor adherence included incarceration (P = 0.02) and injecting methamphetamine (P = 0.04). Conclusion: In this HIV PrEP trial among people who inject drugs, improved adherence to daily tenofovir was associated with a lower risk of HIV infection. This is consistent with trials among MSM and HIV-discordant heterosexual couples and suggests that HIV PrEP can provide a high level of protection from HIV infection. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Thailand Ministry of Public Health, U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention and Taksin Hospital
Type: | Journal: The lancet. HIV | Year: 2016

Results of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled Bangkok Tenofovir Study (BTS) showed that taking tenofovir daily as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can reduce the risk of HIV infection by 49% in people who inject drugs. In an extension to the trial, participants were offered 1 year of open-label tenofovir. We aimed to examine the demographic characteristics, drug use, and risk behaviours associated with participants uptake of and adherence to PrEP.In this observational, open-label extension of the BTS (NCT00119106), non-pregnant, non-breastfeeding, HIV-negative BTS participants, all of whom were current or previous injecting drug users at the time of enrolment in the BTS, were offered daily oral tenofovir (300 mg) for 1 year at 17 Bangkok Metropolitan Administration drug-treatment clinics. Participant demographics, drug use, and risk behaviours were assessed at baseline and every 3 months using an audio computer-assisted self-interview. HIV testing was done monthly and serum creatinine was assessed every 3 months. We used logistic regression to examine factors associated with the decision to take daily tenofovir as PrEP, the decision to return for at least one PrEP follow-up visit, and greater than 90% adherence to PrEP.Between Aug 1, 2013, and Aug 31, 2014, 1348 (58%) of the 2306 surviving BTS participants returned to the clinics, 33 of whom were excluded because they had HIV (n=27) or grade 2-4 creatinine results (n=6). 798 (61%) of the 1315 eligible participants chose to start open-label PrEP and were followed up for a median of 335 days (IQR 0-364). 339 (42%) participants completed 12 months of follow-up; 220 (28%) did not return for any follow-up visits. Participants who were 30 years or older (odds ratio [OR] 18, 95% CI 14-22; p<00001), injected heroin (OR 15, 11-21; p=0007), or had been in prison (OR 17, 13-21; p<00001) during the randomised trial were more likely to choose PrEP than were those without these characteristics. Participants who reported injecting heroin or being in prison during the 3 months before open-label enrolment were more likely to return for at least one open-label follow-up visit than those who did not report injecting heroin (OR 30, 95 % CI 13-73; p=001) or being in prison (OR 23, 14-37; p=00007). Participants who injected midazolam or were in prison during open-label follow-up were more likely to be greater than 90% adherent than were those who did not inject midazolam (OR 22, 95% CI 12-43; p=002) or were not in prison (OR 47, 31-72; p<00001). One participant tested positive for HIV, yielding an HIV incidence of 21 (95% CI 005-117) per 1000 person-years. No serious adverse events related to tenofovir use were reported.More than 60% of returning, eligible BTS participants started PrEP, which indicates that a substantial proportion of PWID who are knowledgeable about PrEP might be interested in taking it. Participants who had injected heroin or been in prison were more likely to choose to take PrEP, suggesting that participants based their decision to take PrEP, at least in part, on their perceived risk of incident HIV infection.US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration.


PubMed | Bangkok Tenofovir Study Group, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, Thailand Ministry of Public Health, Thailand MOPH U.S. CDC Collaboration and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Rapid easy-to-use HIV tests offer opportunities to increase HIV testing among populations at risk of infection. We used the OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 antibody test (OraQuick) in the Bangkok Tenofovir Study, an HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis trial among people who inject drugs.The Bangkok Tenofovir Study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. We tested participants oral fluid for HIV using OraQuick monthly and blood using a nucleic-acid amplification test (NAAT) every 3 months. We used Kaplan-Meier methods to estimate the duration from a positive HIV NAAT until the mid-point between the last non-reactive and first reactive oral fluid test and proportional hazards to examine factors associated with the time until the test was reactive.We screened 3678 people for HIV using OraQuick. Among 447 with reactive results, 436 (97.5%) were confirmed HIV-infected, 10 (2.2%) HIV-uninfected, and one (0.2%) had indeterminate results. Two participants with non-reactive OraQuick results were, in fact, HIV-infected at screening yielding 99.5% sensitivity, 99.7% specificity, a 97.8% positive predictive value, and a 99.9% negative predictive value. Participants receiving tenofovir took longer to develop a reactive OraQuick (191.8 days) than participants receiving placebo (16.8 days) (p = 0.02) and participants infected with HIV CRF01_AE developed a reactive OraQuick earlier than participants infected with other subtypes (p = 0.04).The oral fluid HIV test performed well at screening, suggesting it can be used when rapid results and non-invasive tools are preferred. However, participants receiving tenofovir took longer to develop a reactive oral fluid test result than those receiving placebo. Thus, among people using pre-exposure prophylaxis, a blood-based HIV test may be an appropriate choice.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00119106.


News Article | March 15, 2016
Site: www.reuters.com

File photo of revelers using water guns as they participate in a water fight during Songkran Festival celebrations at Silom road in Bangkok April 13, 2015. Thailand is facing its worst water shortage in two decades, with 14 out of 76 provinces hit and large swathes of agricultural land at risk. Thailand has entered its annual dry season, which typically runs from March to May, meaning the drought is likely to get worse. The Bangkok Metropolitan Administration's solution? Be a wet blanket by cutting festival days down from four to three and imposing a curfew. "This is partly symbolic, but we hope to save water too because our lakes have become deserts," said deputy Bangkok governor Amorn Kijchawengjul. "We don't want city folk splashing water around carelessly while farmers struggle." The Songkran festival, which marks Thai New Year, is often referred to as the world's biggest water fight - a time when revelers splashing water on each other and everyone, young and old, is fair game. But this year all splashing will have to stop at 9 p.m. sharp. "We'll just shut down the party," said Amorn.

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