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Bennadi D.,Tumkur University | Kshetrimayum N.,Bangalore Institute of Dental science | Sibyl S.,SRM University | Reddy C.V.K.,JSS Dental College and Hospital
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2014

Background: Oral healthcare for pre-school children is given due priority, as their oral health will determine the oral health status of future generations. Generally, the type, frequency and quantity of toothpaste used by children are based purely on parental preferences. Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among mothers of preschool children by using a questionnaire. Results: Sixty two percent (n=154) mothers started brushing their children's teeth more than one year after eruption of their teeth. A majority of the mothers used adult toothpaste to brush their children's teeth and supervised their children while brushing. Fiftytwo percent mothers were aware about presence of fluoride in tooth paste but its clinical significance. Half the mothers applied full length of tooth paste to their children's brushes and most mothers made their children brush their teeth twice daily. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it appears that there is still much lack of awareness on the proper guidelines on the selection and usage of toothpastes in children. Dental professionals should use this knowledge to help and motivate parents to properly supervise and assist their children's brushing, with the goal of reducing the potential risk of fluorosis. Source

Nair S.C.,Bangalore Institute of Dental science | Spencer N.J.,University of Cincinnatti | Nayak K.P.,B.M. Jain Hospital | Balasubramaniam K.,B.M. Jain Hospital
International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2011

Vascular anomalies are amongst the most common congenital abnormalities observed in infants and children. Their occurrence in the head and neck region is a source of functional and aesthetic compromise. This article reviews the surgical management of 115 cases of vascular anomalies involving the head and neck area treated by the authors between 1998 and 2009. It discusses the diagnostic aids, treatment protocol and the results obtained. A new classification based on the anatomical location and depth of the lesion has been proposed. This allows guidelines for surgical ablation of the vascular lesions. The complications encountered are discussed. The use of external carotid artery control as opposed to pre-surgical embolization has proved effective and the technique is described. The location and extent of a vascular malformation should dictate the preoperative investigations, surgical procedure and subsequent outcome. © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Source

Srirangarajan S.,Bangalore Institute of Dental science
Oral health & preventive dentistry | Year: 2011

This case report is of a rare occurrence of necrotic ulcerative changes in a female patient with Fanconi's anaemia and its successful periodontal management. The response of the periodontium to certain genetic and haematological disorders may vary from bleeding, ulcerations and necrosis to a more severe form of periodontitis. Periodontal management in such conditions still remains an enigma with respect to the timing of the periodontal intervention with regard to the systemic wellbeing of the patient. Necrotising ulcerative lesions in a patient with Fanconi's anaemia (FA) progressed rapidly in a week's time necessitating early preliminary periodontal care, which included scaling and root planning using ultrasonic equipment supplemented with hydrogen peroxide irrigation, in conjunction with systemic antibiotics and blood transfusion. Following 1 unit (500ml) of fresh whole blood transfusion 24 hours preoperatively, basic periodontal therapy, comprising of removal of necrotic slough and thorough scaling was done. There was marked resolution of the necrotic ulceration and related symptoms when the patient was followed up for a period of 1 month. This report reconfirms most oral manifestations of Fanconi's anaemia and is the first of its kind to associate necrotic ulcerative changes of the gingiva with FA. It also goes a step further to emphasise the clinical significance of multidisciplinary approach towards successful patient management, which was the primary objective. Source

Pandeshwar P.,Vydehi Institute of Dental science | Jayanthi K.,Bangalore Institute of Dental science | Raghuram P.,Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology
Indian Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Aims: This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) criteria in detecting cervical lymph node metastasis in 50 patients with an oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSQCC). Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients with OSQCC who underwent clinical assessment, routine CECT scanning of cervical lymph node and radical neck dissection were analyzed. Radiologic criteria for diagnosing nodal metastasis in this imaging study were: A nodal size of 1 cm, the presence of central lucency despite the size of the lymph node and grouping of lymph nodes. These criteria were based on modified American Joint Committee on Cancer Radiological Nodal Staging Guidelines. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test/Fisher Exact test has been used to find the significant association of findings. Diagnostic statistics viz.: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were obtained. The results were considered significant when P value was less than 0.05. Results: On using a nodal size of 1 cm and the presence of central nodal necrosis (CNN) as radiological criteria for nodal metastasis CT scanning staged 23 of the 27 histopathologically positive necks, providing accuracy of 88%, sensitivity of 92%, and specificity of 84% in detection of nodal metastasis. A significant relationship between the incidence of CNN, different nodal densities, and primary tumor differentiation was observed. Conclusions: The nodal size cut-off of 1-1.5 cm had a maximal sensitivity of 90.91% and PPV of 86.96%. Furthermore, observation of nodal densities in the absence of frank CNN on the CT scan may be necessary especially in low grade primary tumor. CT assessment of cervical node metastasis was found acceptable, although adjuncts like ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration may further increase efficacy of CT scan in nodes lesser than 1 cm in size. Source

Rai K.,Bangalore Institute of Dental science | Hegde A.M.,Ab Shetty Memorial Institute Of Dental Science | Shetty S.,K S Hegde Medical Academy
The Journal of clinical pediatric dentistry | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the in vitro mineral loss and surface microhardness (SMH) changes in human enamel specimens following supplementation of acidic carbonated beverages with low iron concentrations than when treated without.STUDY DESIGN: 180 enamel blocks each from primary and permanent teeth were prepared and equally subdivided (n=10) for their respective treatments in Group 1 (Coca Cola and Sprite without iron supplementation) and Group 2 (beverages supplemented with 2/5 mmol/L FeSO₄.7H₂O). Following initial SMH estimation, the blocks were subjected to 3 treatment cycles of 5/20 minute incubation periods, equally interspaced by a 5-min treatment in artificial saliva. The calcium and phosphate released after each cycle were analyzed spectrophotometrically and the final SMH was recorded. The results were tested using student's T test, One-way ANOVA and Kruskal Walli's test (p<0.05).RESULTS: Two and five mmol/L FeSO₄.7H₂O supplementation produced a highly significant SMH change and calcium and phosphate reduction than when treated without (p<.0005). Both the enamel specimens showed similar patterns of mineral loss and SMH reduction, with pronounced effects in the twenty minute incubation cycles.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that 2 mmol/L FeSO₄.7H₂O supplementation to acidic beverages is beneficial in reducing mineral loss and preserving surface microhardness of human enamel. Source

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