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Kolkata, India

Mandal G.C.,Bangabasi College | Bose K.,Vidyasagar University | Koziel S.,Polish Academy of Sciences
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy

Purpose: Developing countries like India, accounts for about 40 percent of undernourished children in the World and it is largely due to the result of dietary inadequacy in relation to their needs. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the changes in the nutritional status of the children, from their preschool days to the present primary school days.Design/methodology/approach: The present investigation was conducted at 20 Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) centers (Center-A) and 15 primary schools (Center-B) in Bali Gram Panchayat, Arambag, Hooghly District of West Bengal, India, at an interval of three to four years. A total of 1,012 children (boys=498; girls=514) aged two to six years old enrolled in these ICDS centers and a total of 603 children (boys=300, girls=303), aged five to ten years were studied from the 15 primary schools who were the beneficiaries of ICDS centers. Underweight (weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ)) and wasting (weight-for height Z-score (WHZ)) were used to assess the nutritional status. Findings: The nutritional situation (both in case of underweight and wasting) was better in Center B as compared with Center A. In general, the nutritional condition of boys was better than girls. Center had a very significant effect on both WAZ as well as WHZ, irrespective of age and sex. Sex has a significant impact only on WAZ. Interestingly, there was no significant sex-center interaction for both WAZ as well as WHZ. The children of the area were getting Mid Day Meal supplied through the school authorities which was comparatively better than the ICDS centers' food supplementation. Better monitoring of nutritional supplementation at primary schools may be an important factor. Practical implications: In ICDS centers, only the Anganwari worker is responsible in running and implementing the programs offered by the Government. However, at primary schools, the active involvement of all the teachers to run the program may have effectively led to have better results. Furthermore, the Government's focus should not be only on the increase the area covered by the ICDS program, but focus should be to increase the quality of food supplied, proper monitoring of the implementation and increase the allocation of funds. Appropriate measures may be taken by the authorities regarding this. Originality/value: The results of the study will help in policy making in reducing the prevalence of undernutrition. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

Banerjee A.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Banerjee A.,Bangabasi College | De M.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Ali N.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by the parasite Leishmania donovani is a potentially fatal disease. Available limited drugs are toxic, require prolonged treatment duration, and are costly. A low-cost parenteral formulation of paromomycin sulfate (PM) has recently been approved for the treatment of VL. Monotherapy with PM runs the risk of development of resistance. Hence, efforts are needed to develop a combination therapy of PM with other drugs to shorten the duration of treatment and prolong the effective life of the drug. PM was formulated with leishmanicidal stearylamine (SA)-bearing phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes for low-dose therapy. In vitro and in vivo antileishmanial effects of the combination drug were determined. The immunomodulatory role of PC-SA - PM was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and flow cytometry. Excluding the spleen, for which the therapeutic effect was additive, a remarkable synergistic activity toward cure and prophylaxis with a single-shot low-dose treatment with PC-SA-associated PM was achieved with BALB/c mice. PC-SA - PM showed an immunomodulatory effect on CD4 + and CD8 + T cells for gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production and downregulated disease-associated interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) to almost negligible levels. Such combination chemotherapy may provide a promising alternative for the cure of leishmaniasis, with a plausible conversion of the host immune response from a disease-promoting pattern to a Th1-biased response indicative of long-term resistance. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Shit M.,R K Mission Residential College | Bera S.,R K Mission Residential College | Maity S.,R K Mission Residential College | Maji S.,Bangabasi College | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry

2,2′-Bipyridine (bpy), 1,10-phenanthronline (phen) and p-nitro-o-aminophenol (NO2LH2) oxidovanadium complexes of the types [(LONO 2-)(VO)(bpy)] (1), [(LONO 2-)(VO)(phen)] (2) and [(LONO 2-)(VO)(NO2LISQ ·-)][NHEt3] (3- NHEt3 +; NO2LISQ ·- = p-nitro-o-iminobenzosemiquinonate radical) were isolated with (E)-2-(3-hydroxy-3-phenyltriaz-1-en-1-yl)benzoic acid (LONOH2) as a coligand. The single-crystal X-ray bond parameters and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra authenticated that 1 and 2 are the oxidovanadium(IV) complexes of bpy and phen, whereas 3- is the NO2LISQ ·- complex of oxidovanadium(IV) and undergoes reversible one-electron oxidation and reduction at lower potentials. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations established that the closed-shell-singlet (CSS) solution of 3- is unstable owing to open-shell-singlet (OSS) perturbation. The CSS → OSS charge-transfer transition that appears at λ = 632 nm is absent for 1 and 2. Complex 3 is a hybrid of the [(LONO 2-)(VO2+)(NO2LIQ)] (NO2LIQ = p-nitro-o-iminobenzoquinone) and [(LONO 2-)(VO3+)(NO2LISQ ·-)] states, whereas 32- is an oxidovanadium(IV) complex of the type [(LONO 2-)(VO2+)(NO2LAP 2-)]2- (NO2LAP 2- = p-nitro-o-amidophenolato). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Dutta S.,Behala College | Ghosh D.,Jadavpur University | Chatterjee S.,Bangabasi College
International Journal of Modern Physics A

In this paper multifractal analysis of fluctuation pattern of pions emitted in 32S-AgBr and 16O-AgBr interactions at 200 GeV and 60 GeV, respectively, is performed in the framework of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA). The pseudorapidity and azimuthal distributions exhibit multifractal scaling properties at both energies. The variation of multifractal width with energy is also studied. The study reveals a dependence of multifractal width on energy in pseudorapidity space while no such dependence is observed in azimuthal space. © World Scientific Publishing Company. Source

Asad M.,Indian Institute of Science | Bhattacharya P.,Indian Institute of Science | Banerjee A.,Bangabasi College | Ali N.,Indian Institute of Science
BMC Infectious Diseases

Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a potentially fatal disease, is most prevalent in the Indian subcontinent, East Africa and South America. Since the conventional antileishmanial drugs have many limitations we evaluated a new ergosterol rich liposomal amphotericin B formulation, KALSOME™10 for its leishmanicidal efficacy, tolerability and immunomodulatory activity. Methods: Normal healthy mice were treated with 3.5 mg/kg single and 7.5 mg/kg single and double doses of KALSOME™10. Liver and kidney function tests were performed fourteen days after treatment. Next, normal mice were infected with Leishmania donovani amastigotes. Two months post infection they were treated with the above mentioned doses of KALSOME™10 and sacrificed one month after treatment for estimation of parasite burden in the liver and spleen by Limiting Dilution Assay. Leishmanial antigen stimulated splenocyte culture supernatants were collected for cytokine detection through ELISA. Flow cytometric studies were performed on normal animals treated with KALSOME™10, Amphotericin B (AmB) and AmBiosome to compare their immunomodulatory activities. Results: The drug was found to induce no hepato- or nephrotoxicities at the studied doses. Moreover, at all doses, it led to significant reduction in parasite burden in two month infected BALB/c mice, with 7.5 mg/kg double dose resulting in almost complete clearance of parasites from both liver and spleen. Interestingly, the drug at 7.5 mg/kg double dose could almost completely inhibit the secretion of disease promoting cytokines, IL-10 and TGFβ, and significantly elevate the levels of IFNγ and IL-12, cytokines required for control of the disease. Mice treated with KALSOME™10 showed elevated levels of IFNγ and suppressed IL-10 secretion from both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets of T cells, as well as from culture supernatants of splenocytes, compared to that of normal, AmB and AmBisome treated animals. Conclusions: Treatment of infected mice with 7.5 mg/kg double dose of KALSOME™10 was safe and effective in clearing the parasites from the sites of infection. The drug maintains the inherent immunomodulatory activities of AmB by effectively suppressing disease promoting cytokines IL-10 and TGFβ, thereby boosting IL-12 and IFNγ levels. This emphasizes KALSOME™10 as a promising drug alternative for lifelong protection from VL. © Asad et al. Source

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