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Li K.,University of California at Berkeley | Rao Y.,Bandwidth10 inc | Chase C.,Bandwidth10 inc | Yang W.,University of California at Berkeley | Chang-Hasnain C.J.,University of California at Berkeley
2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2016 | Year: 2016

Various far-field emission patterns are demonstrated for single-mode 1550-nm VCSELs, incorporating high-contrast gratings as both the reflective laser mirror and transmission modulation plate. This approach opens new avenues to engineer a VCSEL's emission properties. © 2016 OSA.


Li K.,University of California at Berkeley | Chase C.,Bandwidth10 inc | Rao Y.,Bandwidth10 inc | Chang-Hasnain C.J.,University of California at Berkeley
2016 Compound Semiconductor Week, CSW 2016 - Includes 28th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, IPRM and 43rd International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors, ISCS 2016 | Year: 2016

We report monolithic, electrically-pumped tunable 1060-nm VCSELs with a high-contrast grating metastructure as the highly reflective tunable mirror. Single-mode lasing with CW operation is demonstrated up to 85°C providing output power larger than 1.3 mW at room temperature. A continuous tuning range of 35 nm is achieved with microelectromechanical actuation of the high-contrast grating mirror, showing a 3-dB bandwidth of 667 kHz in the tuning response. This is promising for the realization of a high-speed and widely wavelength tunable source with cost-effective fabrication processes, for applications in optical coherence tomography, LIDAR, and wavelength-division-multiplexed optical communication. © 2016 IEEE.


Rao Y.,University of California at Berkeley | Yang W.,University of California at Berkeley | Chase C.,Bandwidth10 inc | Huang M.C.Y.,Bandwidth10 inc | And 6 more authors.
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics | Year: 2013

Recent advances in high-contrast grating (HCG) vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) emitting at 1550 nm is reported in this paper. The novel near-wavelength HCG has an ultrathin structure and broadband reflectivity. It enables a monolithic, simple fabrication process for realizing InP-based VCSELs emitting at ∼1550 nm. We report 2.4-mW single-mode output under continuous-wave operation at 15 °C. We show that, despite broadened by the Brownian motion, the HCG-VCSEL has a total linewidth of 60 MHz or a coherent length of 5 m in air, and an intrinsic linewidth <20 MHz. Transmission of directly modulated 10 Gbps over 100-km dispersion-compensated single-mode fiber is demonstrated. Tunable HCG-VCSEL is demonstrated with the HCG integrated with a micro-electro-mechanical structure. Continuous wavelength tuning as wide as 26.3 nm is achieved. The tunable VCSEL was used as a source for external modulation for 40-Gbps differential-phase-shift-keyed signal and transmitted over 100-km dispersion-compensated link with negligible power penalty. © 1995-2012 IEEE.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Fixed Price Award | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 199.88K | Year: 2014

Intellectual Merit

This Small-Business ERC Collaborative Opportunity transitioning agile broadband
transmitter for integrated access networks to market will address the challenge of achieving high
bandwidth (100+ Gb/s), low power, low cost wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) optical
communications links of distances up to 2 km for applications such as data centers and
aggregation networks. These links are necessary for next generation data center and
supercomputing applications that are a focus of the CIAN ERC?s research.
Specifically, this project will improve the lasers in these systems, which drive much of
the cost, performance, and power requirements for the links, to meet current commercial
specifications. The tunable VCSELs offer a 10X reduction in power and cost over conventional
solutions and enable high bandwidth links within data centers that not economically feasible with
current technologies.

Broader Impacts

The broader impact/commercial potential of this project is a drastic reduction in the cost
and energy requirements of optical links inside of data centers and supercomputers. Companies
such as Google, Microsoft and other large data-centric companies have been clamoring for this
type of product in the last year to maintain the rate of growth in their data center facilities.
Present WDM laser array solutions using DFB lasers require 10X the power and 10X the cost of
a VCSEL-based approach and are not economically feasible. Present 850-nm VCSEL-based
links, on the other hand, cannot be made into a WDM source without power-hungry TEC coolers
due to their lack of precise, gridded, wavelength control, limiting the overall link speed. Using a
1550 nm tunable VCSEL solves both the problem of gridded wavelength control and allows the
use of low cost single mode fiber and the developed infrastructure for 1550 nm WDM optical
links. The realization of tunable VCSELs in WDM systems will result in a 10X reduction in
both cost and energy requirements in high-speed optical links for data centers, enabling the
further scaling of computational power for next generation data center and supercomputer
applications.

Besides the technological impact, this collaboration program will offer CIAN students
insight and experience with the real world commercial product development process. The
students will be testing and giving feedback into the product development process, enhancing
their educational experience. The enhanced capabilities of the VCSELs will enable new
applications and enhance CIAN in it?s mission of supporting transparency wherever possible
with flexible wavelength conversion and optical switches, and supporting dynamically
reconfigurable heterogeneous traffic in the network.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 180.00K | Year: 2012

This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project will address the problem of high bandwidth (100+ Gb/s), low power, low cost wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) optical communications links of distances up to 2 km inside of data centers. These links are necessary for next generation internet/cloud/supercomputing applications. Specifically, this project will examine the lasers, which make up much of the cost and power requirements. The project will address the problem by improving an existing low cost, low power laser structure, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), to be suitable for uncooled WDM operation. Specifically, this project will study tunable VCSELs and their combination with a high contrast grating (HCG) optical coupler, which can couple surface-normal VCSELs to an in-plane waveguide with very high efficiency. The chip will include a directly modulated wavelength-tunable VCSEL and a surface-normal to in-plane waveguide coupler, which can be extended into an array for WDM multiplexing an array of VCSELs into one single-mode fiber. The Phase I goals include a theoretical model and design tools for tunable VCSELs with efficient coupler design suitable for WDM applications, and experimental demonstration and characterization of a 1550-nm VCSEL with 10 Gbps direct modulation.

The broader impact/commercial potential of this project is a drastic reduction in the cost and energy requirements of optical links inside of data centers and supercomputers. Companies such as Google and other large data-centric companies have been asking for this type of product in the last year to maintain the rate of growth in their data center facilities. Present WDM laser array solutions using DFB lasers require 10X the power and 10X the cost of a VCSEL-based approach. Present 850-nm VCSEL-based links, on the other hand, cannot be made into a WDM source without power-hungry TEC coolers due to their lack of precise, gridded, wavelength control. Additionally they cannot easily be combined into a single mode fiber using present device structures, so they cannot be multiplexed. Using a tunable VCSEL solves both the problem of gridded wavelength control, and an efficient coupler can combine the laser outputs without significant loss. The realization of tunable VCSELs in WDM systems will result in a 10X reduction in both cost and energy requirements in high-speed optical links for data centers, enabling the further scaling of computational power for next generation data center and supercomputer applications.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Missile Defense Agency | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 125.00K | Year: 2015

Bandwidth10 (BW10) proposes to design and implement its high-speed wavelength tunable vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) technology at 1060 nm for use as a seed source for high energy laser systems using ytterbium-based (Yb) fiber amplifiers. Presently, the output power in ytterbium fiber amplifiers is typically limited by stimulated Brillioun scattering (SBS). By varying the seed source in the fiber amplifier either through phase or wavelength variation, the SBS can be significantly suppressed, allowing for significantly higher total output power from the laser system. Since the VCSELs are wavelength tunable, they are easily extendable to create a multi-channel system, which can be spectrally combined for an overall higher system power. Bandwidth10 has demonstrated wavelength-tunable lasers with wavelength tuning speeds in excess of 20 MHz, operating at 850 nm. Under this program, the company proposes to redesign their high-speed wavelength tunable VCSEL to operate at 1060 nm, making it compatible with high power ytterbium (Yb) fiber amplifier technology. The goal of this program is to deliver a low cost, low power, compact 1060 nm tunable VCSEL seed source with integrated phase/wavelength modulation suitable for ultra high power laser systems. Approved for Public Release 14-MDA-8047 (14 Nov 14)


Patent
Bandwidth10 inc and The Regents Of The University Of California | Date: 2014-05-29

A dual usage HCG VCSEL detector is provided with a high contrast grating (HCG) reflector first reflector that has a two dimensional periodic structure. The two dimensional structure is a periodic structure that is a symmetric structure with periodic repeating. The symmetrical structure provides that polarization modes of light are undistinguishable. A second reflector is in an opposing relationship to the first reflector. A tunable optical cavity is between the first and second reflectors. An active region is positioned in the cavity between the first and second reflectors. The photodetector is polarization independent. An MQW light absorber is included converts light to electrons. A dual usage HCG VCSEL-detector includes a high contrast grating (HCG) reflector first reflector, and a second reflector in an opposing relationship to the first reflector. A tunable optical cavity is between the first and second reflectors. An active region is positioned in the cavity between the first and second reflectors. The dual usage HCG VCSEL-detector that operates as a dual usage HCG VCSEL and as a tunable photodetector.


Patent
Bandwidth10 inc and The Regents Of The University Of California | Date: 2014-05-29

A photodetector is provided with a high contrast grating (HCG) reflector first reflector that has a two dimensional periodic structure. The two dimensional structure is a periodic structure that is a symmetric structure with periodic repeating. The symmetrical structure provides that polarization modes of light are undistinguishable. A second reflector is in an opposing relationship to the first reflector. A tunable optical cavity is between the first and second reflectors. An active region is positioned in the cavity between the first and second reflectors. The photodetector is polarization independent. An MQW light absorber is included converts light to electrons.


Grant
Agency: National Science Foundation | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2012

This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project will address the problem of high bandwidth (100+ Gb/s), low power, low cost wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) optical communications links of distances up to 2 km inside of data centers. These links are necessary for next generation internet/cloud/supercomputing applications. Specifically, this project will examine the lasers, which make up much of the cost and power requirements. The project will address the problem by improving an existing low cost, low power laser structure, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), to be suitable for uncooled WDM operation. Specifically, this project will study tunable VCSELs and their combination with a high contrast grating (HCG) optical coupler, which can couple surface-normal VCSELs to an in-plane waveguide with very high efficiency. The chip will include a directly modulated wavelength-tunable VCSEL and a surface-normal to in-plane waveguide coupler, which can be extended into an array for WDM multiplexing an array of VCSELs into one single-mode fiber. The Phase I goals include a theoretical model and design tools for tunable VCSELs with efficient coupler design suitable for WDM applications, and experimental demonstration and characterization of a 1550-nm VCSEL with 10 Gbps direct modulation. The broader impact/commercial potential of this project is a drastic reduction in the cost and energy requirements of optical links inside of data centers and supercomputers. Companies such as Google and other large data-centric companies have been asking for this type of product in the last year to maintain the rate of growth in their data center facilities. Present WDM laser array solutions using DFB lasers require 10X the power and 10X the cost of a VCSEL-based approach. Present 850-nm VCSEL-based links, on the other hand, cannot be made into a WDM source without power-hungry TEC coolers due to their lack of precise, gridded, wavelength control. Additionally they cannot easily be combined into a single mode fiber using present device structures, so they cannot be multiplexed. Using a tunable VCSEL solves both the problem of gridded wavelength control, and an efficient coupler can combine the laser outputs without significant loss. The realization of tunable VCSELs in WDM systems will result in a 10X reduction in both cost and energy requirements in high-speed optical links for data centers, enabling the further scaling of computational power for next generation data center and supercomputer applications.


PubMed | Bandwidth10 inc and University of California at Berkeley
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

Cavity optomechanics explores the interaction between optical field and mechanical motion. So far, this interaction has relied on the detuning between a passive optical resonator and an external pump laser. Here, we report a new scheme with mutual coupling between a mechanical oscillator supporting the mirror of a laser and the optical field generated by the laser itself. The optically active cavity greatly enhances the light-matter energy transfer. In this work, we use an electrically-pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with an ultra-light-weight (130 pg) high-contrast-grating (HCG) mirror, whose reflectivity spectrum is designed to facilitate strong optomechanical coupling, to demonstrate optomechanically-induced regenerative oscillation of the laser optomechanical cavity. We observe >550nm self-oscillation amplitude of the micromechanical oscillator, two to three orders of magnitude larger than typical, and correspondingly a 23nm laser wavelength sweep. In addition to its immediate applications as a high-speed wavelength-swept source, this scheme also offers a new approach for integrated on-chip sensors.

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