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Shanker A.,Banasthali University
OMICS A Journal of Integrative Biology | Year: 2012

High-throughput genome research has long been associated with bioinformatics, as it assists genome sequencing and annotation projects. Along with databases, to store, properly manage, and retrieve biological data, a large number of computational tools have been developed to decode biological information from this data. However, with the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology the sequence data starts generating at a pace never before seen. Consequently researchers are facing a threat as they are experiencing a potential shortage of storage space and tools to analyze the data. Moreover, the voluminous data increases traffic in the network by uploading and downloading large data sets, and thus consume much of the network's available bandwidth. All of these obstacles have led to the solution in the form of cloud computing. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Kaur N.,Banasthali University
Inorganic Chemistry Communications | Year: 2014

In recent decades, a large number of reports related to the synthesis of N, O and S containing heterocycles have appeared owing to a wide variety of their biological activity. The metal catalyzed synthesis of heterocycles is becoming an important and highly rewarding protocol in organic synthesis. This review focuses on the use of palladium as a catalyst for the synthesis of oxygen containing five-membered heterocycles. It describes the formation of different types of heterocyclic rings. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Shekhawat G.S.,Banasthali University | Verma K.,Banasthali University
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2010

Haem oxygenase (HO) degrades free haem released from haem proteins with the generation of ferrous iron (Fe2+), biliverdin-IXα (BV-IXα), and carbon monoxide (CO). The mechanism of haem cleavage has been conserved between plants and other organisms even though the function, subcellular localization, and cofactor requirements of HO differ substantially. The crystal structure of HO1, a monomeric protein, has been extensively reported in mammals, pathogenic bacteria, and cyanobacteria, but no such reports are available for higher plant HOs except a predicted model for pea HO1. Along with haem degradation, HO performs various cellular processes including iron acquisition/mobilization, phytochrome chromophore synthesis, cell protection, and stomatal regulation. To date, four HO genes (HO1, HO2, HO3, and HO4) have been reported in plants. HO1 has been well explored in cell metabolism; however, the divergent roles of the other three HOs is less known. The transcriptional up-regulation of HO1 in plants responds to many agents, such as light, UV, iron deprivation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), abscisic acid (ABA), and haematin. Recently the HO1/CO system has gained more attention due to its physiological cytoprotective role in plants. This review focuses on the recent advances made in plant HO research involving its role in environmental stresses. Moreover, the review emphasizes physiological, biochemical, and molecular aspects of this enzyme in plants. © 2010 The Author(s).


Bhatt I.,Banasthali University | Tripathi B.N.,Banasthali University
Chemosphere | Year: 2011

Nanoparticles are the materials with at least two dimensions between 1 and 100. nm. Mostly these nanoparticles are natural products but their tremendous commercial use has boosted the artificial synthesis of these particles (engineered nanoparticles). Accelerated production and use of these engineered nanoparticles may cause their release in the environment and facilitate the frequent interactions with biotic and abiotic components of the ecosystems. Despite remarkable commercial benefits, their presence in the nature may cause hazardous biological effects. Therefore, detail understanding of their sources, release interaction with environment, and possible risk assessment would provide a basis for safer use of engineered nanoparticles with minimal or no hazardous impact on environment. Keeping all these points in mind the present review provides updated information on various aspects, e.g. sources, different types, synthesis, interaction with environment, possible strategies for risk management of engineered nanoparticles. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Kaur N.,Banasthali University
Synthetic Communications | Year: 2015

The development of new strategies for synthesis of small-sized heterocycles has remained a highly attractive but challenging proposition. An overview of the application of microwave irradiation in the synthesis of six-membered heterocyclic compounds containing two nitrogen atoms is presented, focusing on the developments in the past 5-10 years. This contribution covers the literature concerning the total synthesis of N,N-heterocycles. © 2015 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Kaur N.,Banasthali University
Synthetic Communications | Year: 2015

(Chemical Equation Presented). The development of new strategies for the synthesis of small-sized heterocycles has remained a highly attractive but challenging proposition. An overview of the application of microwave irradiation in the synthesis of five-membered heterocyclic compounds containing two nitrogen atoms is presented, focusing on the developments in the past 5-10 years. This contribution covers the literature concerning the total synthesis of five-membered 1,3-N,N-heterocycles. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


The development of new strategies for synthesis of fused heterocycles has remained a highly attractive but challenging proposition. An overview of the application of microwave irradiation in nitrogen-containing fused six-membered heterocyclic compounds synthesis is presented, focusing on the developments in the past 5 to 10 years. This contribution covers the literature concerning the total synthesis of fused N-heterocycles. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Kaur N.,Banasthali University
Catalysis Reviews - Science and Engineering | Year: 2015

Heterocyclic compounds containing sulfur atom is an important division of compounds which play important role in new drug development. The S-heterocycles synthesis and their chemical and biological behavior have received much importance in past recent decades. This article focuses on the applications of palladium catalysts for the synthesis of heterocylces with sulfur atom. This article covers mostly literature published during the period from 1970-2015. It describes the synthetic pathways to different sized heterocyclic rings. Copyright © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Kaur N.,Banasthali University
Synthetic Communications | Year: 2014

The development of new strategies for synthesis of five-membered O-heterocycles has remained a highly attractive but challenging proposition. An overview of the application of microwave irradiation in oxygen-containing five-membered heterocyclic compound synthesis is presented, focusing on the developments in the past 5-10 years. This contribution covers the literature concerning the total synthesis of five-membered O-heterocycles. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Sharma I.,Banasthali University
Biologia | Year: 2012

Arsenic is a highly toxic metalloid for all forms of life including plants. Arsenic enters in the plants through phosphate transporters as a phosphate analogue or through aquaglycoporins. Uptake of arsenic in plant tissues adversely affects the plant metabolism and leads to various physiological and structural disorders. Photosynthetic apparatus, cell division machinery, energy production, and redox status are the major section of plant system that are badly affected by As (V). Similarly As (III) can react with thiol (-SH) groups of enzymes and inhibits various metabolic processes. Arsenic is also known to induce oxidative stress directly by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) during conversion of its valence forms or indirectly by inactivating antioxidant molecules through binding with their -SH groups. As-mediated oxidative stress causes cellular, molecular and physiological disturbances in various plant species. Activation of enzymatic antioxidants namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR), Glutathione s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) as well as non antioxidant compounds such as, ascorbate, glutathione, carotenoids are reported to neutralize arsenic mediated oxidative stress. Understanding of biochemistry of arsenic toxicity would be beneficial for the development of arsenic tolerant crops and other economically important plants. © 2012 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.

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