Varanasi, India
Varanasi, India

Banaras Hindu University ) is a public central university located in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. Established in 1916 by Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya, BHU is one of the largest residential universities in Asia, with over 20,000 students.The university's main campus spread over 1,300 acres was built on land donated by the Kashi Naresh, the hereditary ruler of Banaras . The Rajiv Gandhi South Campus, spread over 2,700 acres , hosts the Krishi Vigyan Kendra and is located in Barkachha in Mirzapur district, about 60 km from Banaras. The University is also planning to set up a campus in Bihar.BHU is organised into 4 institutes and 14 faculties and more than 140 departments. Total student enrolment at the university exceeds 20,000, and includes students from over 34 nations. It has over 60 hostels for resident students. Several of its colleges, including engineering , science, linguistics, journalism & mass communication, performing arts, law, agriculture , medicine and Institute of Environment And Sustainable Development , are ranked among the best in India. The university is well known for hosting an IIT. The university's engineering institute was designated an IIT in June 2012. Wikipedia.

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Kumar S.,Banaras Hindu University | Li M.S.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Physics Reports | Year: 2010

Recent advances in single molecule experiments have raised many challenges. These challenges can be met by a proper understanding of the inter- and intra-molecular interactions in the framework of physics followed by suitable theoretical models substantiated by extensive numerical simulations. In this review, we briefly discuss experimental, theoretical and numerical techniques used to examine the dynamics of biomolecules under the application of external mechanical force. We focus on issues which require special attention: the relationship between the mechanical stability of a protein and the secondary structure of its native conformation, the dependence of the free energy landscape on the pulling direction and secondary structure content, unfolding of a protein through a pore, protein re-folding under quenched force etc. We pay special attention to a single stranded DNA, where the force-extension curve shows a multi-step plateau for the chain made up of adenine while poly-thymine exhibits entropic response only. There are many interesting predictions related to unzipping of double stranded DNA e.g. re-entrance in the force-temperature phase diagram, existence of an "Eye-phase", effects of random disorder etc. based on model studies which require further investigation. We will also discuss cases where the theoretical descriptions of the models fail to explain the experimentally observed behavior and when further refinement is needed in order to describe the outcomes of experiments. Finally we suggest certain experimental protocols to observe theoretical predictions in vitro. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Mishra S.,Banaras Hindu University
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Helicobacter pylori remains a controversial organism with regards to humans, with its epidemiology still being unclear nearly two decades after its discovery. The association between H. pylori infection and subsequent development of chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric cell carcinoma, and B cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma has been well established. Current studies, however, suggest that fewer than 20 % of all infected patients will develop any consequences from their infection. Hence, should the infection be considered a disease not at all or, on the contrary, is the microorganism harmful in only some circumstances? This article attempts to weigh the currently available evidence supporting that H. pylori may be good and not always bad. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Kumar P.,Banaras Hindu University | Gupta R.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Pandey D.S.,Banaras Hindu University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Half-sandwich arene ruthenium complexes exhibit versatile chemistry, serve as excellent precursors and find potential applications in many organic transformations. This review mainly focuses on the chemistry of piano-stool ruthenium complexes with special emphasis on the achiral or chiral-at-ruthenium center. Also, it deals with the synthesis, nomenclature and stereochemistry of arene ruthenium complexes along with mechanistic insights into the epimerization reactions and their applications in catalytic organic transformations with some selected examples. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

The introductory aspect of this review starts with a prologue on bioimaging in general and optical imaging in particular, and finally focuses on the most recently explored red and near infrared (NIR) emitting persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNPs) for bioimaging applications. Accordingly, a pre-requisite towards a better understanding of the subject makes it vital to talk about persistent luminescence, and the developments in red and NIR emitting persistent phosphors. In this context, different synthesis techniques to design nanoparticles and chemically modified (surface modification) nanostructures have also been summarized. Finally, the use of these nanostructures as bioimaging and targeting probes, both for in vitro and in vivo studies, in diverse frameworks, has been reviewed in detail. The significant findings suggest that, Mn2+ and/or Cr3+ doped nanostructures, particularly gallogermanates, are able to give an intense red-near infrared persistent emission with a longer afterglow time for more than 2 weeks and are suitable for bio-imaging applications. The review also talks about the remaining challenges, new dimensions and future course of research in this field. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

Lakhotia S.C.,Banaras Hindu University
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: RNA | Year: 2012

Following the initial discovery of the heat shock RNA omega (hsrω) gene of Drosophila melanogaster to be non-coding (nc) and also inducible by cell stress, other stress-inducible long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) have been described in diverse organisms. In view of the rapid sequence divergence of lncRNAs, present knowledge of stress trasncriptome is limited and fragmented. Several known stress-related lncRNAs, associated with specific nuclear speckled domains or nucleolus, provide structural base for sequestering diverse RNA-processing/regulatory proteins. Others have roles in transcriptional or translational inhibition during stress or in signaling pathways; functions of several other lncRNAs are not yet known. Most stress-related lncRNAs act primarily by modulating activity of the proteins to which they bind or by sequestering specific sets of proteins away from the active pool. A common emerging theme is that a given lncRNA targets one or more protein/s with key role/s in the cascade of events triggered by the stress and therefore has a widespread integrative effect. Since proteins associate with RNA through short sequence motifs, the overall base sequence of functionally similar ncRNAs is often not conserved except for specific motifs. The rapid evolvability of ncRNA sequences provides elegant modules for adaptability to changing environment as binding of one or the other protein to ncRNA can alter its structure and functions in distinct ways. Thus the stress-related lncRNAs act as hubs in the cellular networks to coordinate activities of the members within and between different networks to maintain cellular homeostasis for survival or to trigger cell death. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Vanjari R.,Banaras Hindu University | Singh K.N.,Banaras Hindu University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2015

The development of practical and efficient methods for C-C and C-X bond formation has attracted a great deal of current attention with the advent of C-H functionalization reactions. Hydrocarbons are perhaps the most inexpensive and readily available materials, and utilisation of such materials for the synthesis of essential chemicals is virtually and economically pragmatic. The means to utilize easily accessible hydrocarbons not only represents a useful, potent and straightforward alternative, but also constitutes an excellent opportunity to improve our chemical knowledge about a relatively unexplored domain. Early examples using alkylarenes are generally limited to their conversion to aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and nitriles. This review intends to focus on the latest developments adopting modern strategies for sp3 C-H functionalization of methylarenes to achieve a diverse range of important organic compounds. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Intramolecular Morita-Baylis-Hillman and Rauhut-Currier reactions are important tools which have constantly grown over several years. This review summarizes and highlights their various aspects such as development of activated alkenes, electrophiles and catalysts both in achiral and chiral fashion, use of non conventional electrophiles, applications in total synthesis. Selected miscellaneous reports of internal promoters, cycloadditions, and non conventional routes for IMBH adduct have also been presented, along with future projections. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Ram J.,Banaras Hindu University
Physics Reports | Year: 2014

In this article we review equilibrium theory of molecular fluids which includes structure and freezing transitions. The application of the theory to evaluate the pair correlation functions using Integral Equation methods and Computer Simulations have been discussed. Freezing of classical complex fluids based on the density functional approach is also discussed and compare a variety of its versions. Transitions discussed are sensitive to the value of direct correlation functions of the effective liquid which is required as an input information in the theory. Accurate evaluation of pair correlation functions is emphasized. Calculation of these correlation functions which pose problems in the case of ordered phases is discussed. The pair correlation functions of the ordered phase, which are supposed to be made up of two contributions, one that preserves the symmetry of the isotropic phase and a second that breaks it, are discussed. A new free-energy functional developed for an inhomogeneous system that contains both symmetry conserved and symmetry broken parts of the direct pair correlation function is discussed. The most useful three dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) and its extension done recently by many workers is discussed. Application of this theory to a large variety of complex systems in combination with the density functional theory method implemented in the Amsterdam density functional software package is discussed. Coupling of the 3D-RISM salvation theory with molecular dynamics in the Amber molecular dynamics package is also given.The importance of the density functional theory for the study of the structure and phase behaviour of hard polyhedral is also discussed. The dynamical density functional and its generalized form applied for many important class of problems such as binary mixture, anisotropic particles dynamics of freezing and wetting, colloidal samples, particle self diffusion in complex environment, colloidal sedimentation and active self-propelled particles is discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Srivastava V.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Materials and Design | Year: 2012

The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) addition on mechanical properties of epoxy resin was investigated to obtain the tensile strength, compressive strength and Young's modulus from load versus displacement graphs. The result shows that the tensile strength, compressive strength and Young's modulus of epoxy resin were increased with the addition of MWCNT fillers. The significant improvements in tensile strength, compressive strength and Young's modulus were obtained due to the excellent dispersion of MWCNT fillers in the epoxy resin. The dispersion of MWCNT fillers in epoxy resin was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Also, Halpin-Tsai model was modified by considering the average diameter of internal/external of multi-walled nanotube and orientation factor (α) to calculate the Young's modulus of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/epoxy resin composite. There was a good correlation between the experimentally obtained Young's modulus and modified Halpin-Tsai model. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Mehta N.,Banaras Hindu University
Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science | Year: 2010

The phenomenon of Meyer-Neldel rule (MNR) can occur in any situation which involves an activated process. However, the rule is still most commonly referred to in connection with diffusion and electrical conduction phenomena. As the rule still tends to exist in an indeterminate state between fully accepted physical law and unexplained correlation, this review presents a survey of relevant work done in this direction. The main objective of the review is to highlight the recent observations of MNR in chalcogenide glasses for different types of thermally activated phenomena and their consequences. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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