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Varanasi, India

Banaras Hindu University ) is a public central university located in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. Established in 1916 by Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya, BHU is one of the largest residential universities in Asia, with over 20,000 students.The university's main campus spread over 1,300 acres was built on land donated by the Kashi Naresh, the hereditary ruler of Banaras . The Rajiv Gandhi South Campus, spread over 2,700 acres , hosts the Krishi Vigyan Kendra and is located in Barkachha in Mirzapur district, about 60 km from Banaras. The University is also planning to set up a campus in Bihar.BHU is organised into 4 institutes and 14 faculties and more than 140 departments. Total student enrolment at the university exceeds 20,000, and includes students from over 34 nations. It has over 60 hostels for resident students. Several of its colleges, including engineering , science, linguistics, journalism & mass communication, performing arts, law, agriculture , medicine and Institute of Environment And Sustainable Development , are ranked among the best in India. The university is well known for hosting an IIT. The university's engineering institute was designated an IIT in June 2012. Wikipedia.


Chaubey R.,Banaras Hindu University
Astrophysics and Space Science | Year: 2012

The Bianchi type-V cosmological model with viscous fluid and creation particle in Brans-Dicke theory has been considered. The present paper deals with Bianchi type-V cosmological model with bulk viscosity and particle creation described by full causal thermodynamics in Brans-Dicke theory. We have discussed two types of solutions of the average scale factor for a Bianchi type-V model by using a variation law of Hubble's parameter, which yields a constant value of the deceleration parameter. The exact solutions to the corresponding field equations are obtained in quadrature form. The solutions to the Einstein field equations are obtained for power law and exponential form. The cosmological parameters have been discussed in detail. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Dhillon G.S.,University of Quebec | Kaur S.,Banaras Hindu University | Brar S.K.,University of Quebec
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

The fruit processing industries are experiencing surge due to the increasing demand of food products as a result of burgeoning human population. Apple and apple products are one of the major fruit and fruit products consumed all over the world. Apple processing industries generate huge quantities of solid and liquid sludge wastes. The solid residues consist of a mixture of skin, pulp and seeds derived from the production of concentrated apple juice, jam, and sweets and are collectively known as 'apple pomace'. Being highly biodegradable, the disposal of these wastes represents a serious environmental problem and presents many challenges. Often only 20% is retrieved as animal feed and the rest 80% goes to landfill, is incinerated or is sent to composting sites which results in release of greenhouse gases. However, advancement in technology has led to the alternative options of utilization of apple pomace. It can be used as a promising raw material for direct extraction of bioactive compounds and bioproduction of high value-added products, such as enzymes, organic acids, biofuels, among other products. This article reviews the work done for value-addition of this precious biomass which can help in setting up integrated process in the existing apple industries itself or separate small scale industries. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Dumka U.C.,Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational science | Kaskaoutis D.G.,Shiv Nadar University | Srivastava M.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Devara P.C.S.,Amity University
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2015

Light scattering and absorption properties of atmospheric aerosols are of vital importance for evaluating their types, sources and radiative forcing. This is of particular interest over the Gangetic-Himalayan (GH) region due to uplift of aerosol from the plains to the Himalayan range, causing serious effects on atmospheric heating, glaciology and monsoon circulation. In this respect, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) was initiated in Nainital from June 2011 to March 2012 with the aim of examining the aerosol properties, source regions, uplift mechanisms and aerosol-radiation-cloud interactions. The present study examines the temporal (diurnal, monthly, seasonal) evolution of scattering (σsp) and absorption (σap) coefficients, their wavelength dependence, and the role of the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP), boundary-layer dynamics (BLD) and long-range transport (LRT) in aerosol evolution via the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility. The analysis is separated for particles 10μm and <1 μm in diameter in order to examine the influence of particle size on optical properties. The σsp and σap exhibit a pronounced seasonal variation between the monsoon low and post-monsoon (November) high, while the scattering wavelength exponent exhibits higher values during the monsoon, in contrast to the absorption Ångström exponent which maximizes in December-March. The elevated-background measuring site provides the advantage of examining the LRT of natural and anthropogenic aerosols from the IGP and southwest Asia and the role of BLD in the aerosol lifting processes. The results reveal higher aerosol concentrations at noontime along with an increase in mixing height, suggesting influence from IGP. The locally emitted aerosols present higher wavelength dependence of the absorption in October-March compared to the rather well-mixed and aged transported aerosols. Monsoon rainfall and seasonally changing air masses contribute to the alteration of the extensive and intensive aerosol properties. Source


Patwardhan K.,Banaras Hindu University | Patwardhan K.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
American Journal of Physiology - Advances in Physiology Education | Year: 2012

Ayurveda, the nativehealthcare system of India, is a rich resource of well-documentedancient medical knowledge. Although the roots of this knowledge dateback to the Vedic and post-Vedic eras, it is generally believed that adedicated branch for healthcare was gradually established approximatelybetween 400 BCE and 200 CE. Probably because the languageof documentation of these early textbooks is in Sanskrit, a languagethat is not in day-to-day use among the general population even inIndia, many significant contributions of Ayurveda have remainedunrecognized in the literature related to the history of medicine. In thiscommunication, the discovery of blood circulation has been taken upas a case, and a few important references from the representativeAyurveda compendia that hint at a preliminary understanding of thecardiovascular system as a "closed circuit" and the heart acting as apump have been reviewed. The central argument of this review is thatthese contributions from Ayurveda too must be recorded and creditedwhen reviewing the milestones in the history of medicine, asAyurveda can still possibly guide various streams of the currentsciences, if revisited with this spirit. Source


Singh A.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Opto-electronics Review | Year: 2012

Amorphous semiconductors or chalcogenide glasses are the key materials in modern optoelectronics to make comfortable life of our society. Understanding of physical properties (like microstructure, thermal, optical, electrical) of these materials is important for their different uses. Predominant study of physical properties of the metal containing multicomponent chalcogenide glasses have attracted much attention, due to their interesting variable features and wide range of structural network modifications. Structural modifications in these materials are usually described with respect to the values of structural units (or average coordination number). In significance to this, the present work demonstrates the chronological development in the field of chalcogenide glasses along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) morphologies. Optical, electrical and thermal correlative properties of recent developed Se93-xZn2Te5Inx (0 ≤ x ≤ 10) metallic multicomponent chalcogenide glasses are discussed. Variation in SEM morphology, refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (K), optical energy band gap (Eg), electrical conductivity (σav), crystallization activation energy (Ec) and glass forming ability (GFA) with structural units of Se-Zn-Te-In glasses have been demonstrated in this study. Subjected materials thermal, optical and electrical parameters have been achieved higher and lower in a respective manner at the threshold structural unit value 〈r〉. © 2012 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien. Source


Meshram M.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Animeh R.K.,McMaster University | Pimpale A.T.,Research in Motion Ltd | Nikolova N.K.,McMaster University
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation | Year: 2012

A novel quad-band diversity antenna is presented with two radiating elements suitable for long-term evolution (LTE) and wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) applications in handheld devices. The radiating elements are two planar inverted F-shaped antennas (PIFA) constructed by a meandered line and folded patch with interdigitated capacitive strips connected to the folded patch. To achieve high isolation between the two radiating elements, a defected ground plane (a combination of rectangular slot ring and inverted T-shaped slot stub) is employed. The antenna is designed to operate in the 746-787 MHz, 1850-1990 MHz, 1920-2170 MHz, and 3600-3700 MHz frequency bands. The characterization of the antenna in free-space as well as in the proximity of the user head and hand is presented. The results confirm the excellent performance of the proposed diversity antenna. © 1963-2012 IEEE. Source


Lakhotia S.C.,Banaras Hindu University
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: RNA | Year: 2012

Following the initial discovery of the heat shock RNA omega (hsrω) gene of Drosophila melanogaster to be non-coding (nc) and also inducible by cell stress, other stress-inducible long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) have been described in diverse organisms. In view of the rapid sequence divergence of lncRNAs, present knowledge of stress trasncriptome is limited and fragmented. Several known stress-related lncRNAs, associated with specific nuclear speckled domains or nucleolus, provide structural base for sequestering diverse RNA-processing/regulatory proteins. Others have roles in transcriptional or translational inhibition during stress or in signaling pathways; functions of several other lncRNAs are not yet known. Most stress-related lncRNAs act primarily by modulating activity of the proteins to which they bind or by sequestering specific sets of proteins away from the active pool. A common emerging theme is that a given lncRNA targets one or more protein/s with key role/s in the cascade of events triggered by the stress and therefore has a widespread integrative effect. Since proteins associate with RNA through short sequence motifs, the overall base sequence of functionally similar ncRNAs is often not conserved except for specific motifs. The rapid evolvability of ncRNA sequences provides elegant modules for adaptability to changing environment as binding of one or the other protein to ncRNA can alter its structure and functions in distinct ways. Thus the stress-related lncRNAs act as hubs in the cellular networks to coordinate activities of the members within and between different networks to maintain cellular homeostasis for survival or to trigger cell death. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Kiran A.M.,University College Cork | O'Mahony J.J.,University College Cork | Sanjeev K.,Banaras Hindu University | Baranov P.V.,University College Cork
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2013

DARNED (DAtabase of RNa EDiting, available at http://darned.ucc.ie) is a centralized repository of reference genome coordinates corresponding to RNA nucleotides having altered templated identities in the process of RNA editing. The data in DARNED are derived from published datasets of RNA editing events. RNA editing instances have been identified with various methods, such as bioinformatics screenings, deep sequencing and/or biochemical techniques. Here we report our current progress in the development and expansion of the DARNED. In addition to novel database features the DARNED update describes inclusion of Drosophila melano-gaster and Mus musculus RNA editing events and the launch of a community-based annotation in the RNA WikiProject. © The Author(s) 2012. Source


Rastogi R.P.,Chulalongkorn University | Sinha R.P.,Banaras Hindu University | Incharoensakdi A.,Chulalongkorn University
Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

The monocyclic heptapeptides microcystins (MCs), are a group of hepatotoxins, produced worldwide by some bloom-forming cyanobacterial species/strains both in marine and freshwater ecosystems. MCs are synthesized non-ribosomally by large multi-enzyme complexes consisting of different modules including polyketide synthases and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, as well as several tailoring enzymes. More than 85 different variants of MCs have been reported to exist in nature. These are chemically stable, but undergo bio-degradation in natural water reservoirs. Direct or indirect intake of MCs through the food web is assumed to be a highly exposed route in risk assessment of cyanotoxins. MCs are the most commonly found cyanobacterial toxins that cause a major challenge for the production of safe drinking water and pose a serious threat to global public health as well as fundamental ecological processes due to their potential carcinogenicity. Here, we emphasize recent updates on different modes of action of their possible carcinogenicity. Besides the harmful effects on human and animals, MC producing cyanobacteria can also present a harmful effect on growth and development of agriculturally important plants. Overall, this review emphasizes the current understanding of MCs with their occurrence, geographical distribution, accumulation in the aquatic as well as terrestrial ecosystems, biosynthesis, climate-driven changes in their synthesis, stability and current aspects on its degradation, analysis, mode of action and their ecotoxicological effects. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Tarafdar S.,Banaras Hindu University
Nuclear Physics A | Year: 2013

Heavy quarks are one of the most valuable probes for the matter produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. PHENIX experiment @ RHIC is designed specifically to study leptons, so electrons from the decay of heavy quarks are one of the most important tools in PHENIX for the study of heavy flavour production. Measurements of electron spectra at mid rapidity region has been done by PHENIX in broad p T regions for various collision species starting from p+p to Au+Au.The techniques used by PHENIX for measuring electrons from heavy quarks and the latest results in collision species p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au will be discussed in this article. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Singh S.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Indore | Pandey D.S.,Banaras Hindu University
RSC Advances | Year: 2014

Biological properties of the arene-ruthenium complexes have attracted substantial current interest. Their activity is appreciably defined and controlled by the arene moieties, organic ligands and the metal center. In this review, we discuss the interaction of arene-ruthenium complexes with significant biomolecular targets (DNA and enzymes). Principally, active complexes may interact with the biomolecular targets DNA or nucleobases either by direct coordination facilitated by aquation of the complex or by intercalation/stacking of the pendant planar part of the complex, usually from the planar ancillary ligands or arenes with extended rings, between the DNA base pairs. On the other hand, kinetically inert metal complexes can also provide a potential tool (as enzyme inhibitors) for the targeting of important biomolecules (other than DNA), such as protein kinases. At the same time, coordination with a metal facilitates the outreach of the organic molecules in the intracellular region. This review also highlights the photodriven activation of arene-ruthenium complexes, important metal-drug interactions and the potential of multinuclear scaffolds as important drug candidates (e.g., metallodendrimers) and drug carriers (e.g. metallacages) for targeted delivery and activity. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


The introductory aspect of this review starts with a prologue on bioimaging in general and optical imaging in particular, and finally focuses on the most recently explored red and near infrared (NIR) emitting persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNPs) for bioimaging applications. Accordingly, a pre-requisite towards a better understanding of the subject makes it vital to talk about persistent luminescence, and the developments in red and NIR emitting persistent phosphors. In this context, different synthesis techniques to design nanoparticles and chemically modified (surface modification) nanostructures have also been summarized. Finally, the use of these nanostructures as bioimaging and targeting probes, both for in vitro and in vivo studies, in diverse frameworks, has been reviewed in detail. The significant findings suggest that, Mn2+ and/or Cr3+ doped nanostructures, particularly gallogermanates, are able to give an intense red-near infrared persistent emission with a longer afterglow time for more than 2 weeks and are suitable for bio-imaging applications. The review also talks about the remaining challenges, new dimensions and future course of research in this field. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014. Source


Kumar R.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) is being employed for transgenic expression in selected crops such as cotton, brinjal, and corn. For regulatory compliance, there is a need for a sensitive and reliable detection method, which can distinguish between approved and nonapproved genetically modified (GM) events and quantify GM contents as well. A quantitative immunopolymerase chain reaction (IPCR) method has been developed for the detection and quantification of Vip protein in GM crops. The developed assay displayed a detection limit of 1 ng/mL (1 ppb) and linear quantification range between 10 and 1000 ng/mL of Vip-S protein. The sensitivity of the assay was found to be 10 times higher than an analogous enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Vip-S protein. The results suggest that IPCR has the potential to become a standard method to quantify GM proteins. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source


Tyagi R.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Tyagi R.,Banaras Hindu University | Xiong D.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Li J.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology
Wear | Year: 2011

Sliding wear of behavior of Ni-based composites, prepared by powder metallurgy route and containing different (0, 8, 12, 16 and 20. wt.%) amounts of silver, was investigated under different loads and speeds by conducting wear tests against a counterface of AISI 52100 ring using a ring-on-disk set up. One composite containing 12. wt.% silver and 4. wt.% h-BN was also prepared and tested under same conditions to investigate the synergistic action of Ag and h-BN. The friction coefficients and the wear rates are significantly reduced by addition of silver and h-BN. The friction coefficient reduced from 0.36 to 0.21 by addition of solid lubricants whereas the reduction was 3-5 times in the wear rates. The friction coefficients of composites decreased with increasing load and sliding speed whereas the wear rates increased marginally. No noticeable synergy could be observed between silver and h-BN because h-BN fails to form strongly adherent transfer film on counterface surface. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Agarwal S.,Banaras Hindu University | Bhadauria B.S.,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University
Transport in Porous Media | Year: 2011

In the present article, we study the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium on the linear and non-linear thermal instability in a nanofluid saturated rotating porous layer. The Darcy Model has been used for the porous medium, while the nanofluid layer incorporates the effect of Brownian motion along with thermophoresis. A three-temperature model is been used for the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium among the particle, fluid, and solid-matrix phases. The linear stability analysis is based on normal mode technique, while for nonlinear analysis a minimal representation of the truncated Fourier series analysis involving only two terms has been used. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Rao N.V.C.,Banaras Hindu University | Lehmann B.,Clausthal University of Technology
Earth-Science Reviews | Year: 2011

A clear-cut temporal and spatial relationship between small-volume, volatile-rich and highly potassic continental melt fractions, such as kimberlites and related rocks, and large-volume continental flood basalts exists in several Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). Many of these LIPs are also widely regarded as products of mantle plume-lithosphere interactions. The small-volume melts either immediately pre-date or post-date or even are co-eval with the main flood basalt event. The overlap of ages between the flood basalts and the kimberlites very likely reflects a cause and effect relationship via mantle plumes. Recently discovered end-Cretaceous diamondiferous kimberlites (orangeites) in the Bastar craton of central India which are synchronous with the flood basalts, carbonatites, lamprophyres and alkaline rocks of the Deccan LIP provide an opportunity to re-evaluate the role of mantle plume-lithosphere interactions in the generation of these disparate magmas. The geographical zonation of the kimberlite-lamprophyre-carbonatite-alkaline rock spectrum in the Deccan LIP is inferred to reflect variable thickness of the pre-Deccan Indian lithosphere with a thinner lithosphere along the known rift zones of northwestern and western India and a thickened lithosphere underlying the Bastar craton of central India. This heterogeneity is thought to have controlled the volume of melt generation and melt ascent, as well as the ultimate alkaline magma type. These findings are supported by the regional lithospheric thickness map, generated from converting seismic shear wave velocities into temperature profiles, which clearly depicts that the present-day lithosphere beneath the Bastar craton is thicker than that in western and NW India where the centre of the Deccan plume-head was located. Thermal weakening of the sub-Bastar craton due to mantle plume-lithosphere interaction at the end-Cretaceous resulting in a thin-spot is suggested to have controlled the Deccan-related mafic dyke emplacement in the Bastar craton. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Mishra R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Singh S.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Singh S.K.,Banaras Hindu University
BMC Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Background: Human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMVECs) are integral part of the blood brain barrier. Post-translational modifications of adherens junction proteins regulate the permeability of human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Pro-inflammatory signals can induce tyrosine phosphorylation of adherens junction proteins. The primary objective of this work is to provide a molecular model; how the HIV-1 Tat protein can compromise the BBB integrity and eventually lead to neurological consequences. We exposed hBMVECs to recombinant HIV-1 clade C Tat protein to study the effect of HIV-1 Tat C on permeability of hBMVECs. Trans-endothelial electrical resistance and fluorescent dye migration assay have been used to check the permeability of hBMVECs. DCFDA staining has been used for intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection. Western blotting has been used to study the expression levels and co-immunoprecipitation has been used to study the interactions among adherens junction proteins.Results: HIV-1 Tat C protein induced NOX2 and NOX4 expression level and increased intracellular ROS level. Redox-sensitive kinase; PYK2 activation led to increased tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and β-catenin, leading to disruption of junctional assembly. The dissociation of tyrosine phosphatases VE-PTP and SHP2 from cadherin complex resulted into increased tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and β-catenin in HIV-1 Tat C treated hBMVECs.Conclusion: Unrestricted phosphorylation of junctional proteins in hBMVECs, in response to HIV-1 Tat C protein; leads to the disruption of junctional complexes and increased endothelial permeability. © 2014 Mishra and Singh; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Singh A.K.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Pandey D.S.,Banaras Hindu University | Xu Q.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Braunstein P.,CNRS Coordination Chemistry
Coordination Chemistry Reviews | Year: 2014

Since the synthesis of the first arene ruthenium complexes in 1967, various groups have systematically investigated the chemistry of this family of complexes because of their appealing structural diversity, related to the ways in which the arene ligand can be functionalized, their role as versatile stereochemical controlling elements in areas such as catalysis, chemical and photochemical sensing, biology and supramolecular chemistry, and their potential as metalloligands. This review is focused on the recent developments of arene ruthenium complexes towards both supramolecular chemistry and biology. Arene ruthenium complexes can form various supramolecular structures with applications as chemical/photochemical sensors, in medicine and for drug transport inside the cell. Recent developments in the chemistry of arene ruthenium complexes will likely give access to a variety of metal-based drugs/sensors within the next few years. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Prasad R.,Banaras Hindu University
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

Crop variables were estimated using ground-based multi-temporal, multi-angle and co-polarized scatterometer X-band data at 9.89 GHz. An outdoor crop-bed was prepared to observe the scatterometer response at VV andHHpolarizations in the incidence angle range from 20° to 70°. Soil moisture (SM) and crop variables, including leaf area index (LAI), leaf water area index (LWAI) and plant height (PH), of a kidney bean crop at different stages of growth were measured. The aim of this study was to estimate the crop variables and to determine how the variables interact with microwaves. We found that LAI correlated better than LWAI with the microwave backscattering coefficient σ° (at 9.89 GHz) and the correlation with PH was lower, at the most suitable incidence angle of 40°. The value of σ0 increased with an increase in LAI at both polarizations. The crop variables retrieved by inversion of the cloud model and a polarization-based model were compared with another model based on least squares optimization. The results are promising for the estimation of crop variables, particularly LAI. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source


Rab11, an evolutionary conserved, ubiquitously expressed subfamily of small monomeric GTPase has been known to regulate diverse cellular and developmental events, by regulating the exocytotic and transcytotic events inside the cell. Our studies show that Rab11 regulates Drosophila adult myogenesis by controlling proliferation and differentiation of the Adult muscle precursors (AMPs). Blocking Rab11 in the AMPs, which fuse to form the Indirect Flight Muscles (IFMs) of fly, renders flies completely flightless and non-viable. The indirect flight musculature, comprising of the differentially patterned dorsal longitudinal muscles (DLMs) and dorsal ventral muscles (DVMs), is affected to different extents. Abrogating or knocking down normal Rab11 function results in severely disrupted IFMs. DLMs forming from larval templates are reduced in number along with a significant reduction in their fibre size. The de novo developing DVMs are frequently absent. The DLMs in Rab11 hypomorphs are highly reduced, showing as a small constricted mass in one half of the thorax. Further, Rab11 function is essential for growth of these muscles during later half of adult myogenesis, as down regulation of Rab11 in IFMs results in degenerated muscles and broken fibres. Finally, we show that loss of Rab11 activity in the AMPs result in acquisition of migratory characteristic of myoblast as they show cellular protrusion at their polar ends accompanied with loss of cell-cell contacts. Our data provide the first evidence of a trafficking protein playing an indispensable role in regulating early stages of adult muscle development. Source


Parchur A.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Ningthoujam R.S.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center
RSC Advances | Year: 2012

The effect of Li+ co-doping on the photoluminescence properties of YPO4:Eu is discussed. Interesting behaviours, such as the presence of intermediate bands, shifting of the Eu-O charge transfer band (Eu-O CTB) to a lower wavelength, variation in intensities of magnetic (5D 0 → 7F1) and electric dipole ( 5D0 → 7F2) transitions of Eu3+ and shift of 5D0 → 7F 0 to higher energy with increasing excitation wavelengths are observed. The Eu3+ ion does not have an absorption band in the range 340-350 nm, but after excitation at these wavelengths, a broad emission band (370-570 nm), as well as sharp peaks of Eu3+, could be observed. This is due to strong energy transfer from the intermediate band of the host to the Eu3+ ion. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study also confirms that intermediate band emission is not due to Eu2+ ion emission. The blue shifting of Eu-O CTB is because of the increase in the optical electronegativity of the Eu3+ ion on Li+ co-doping. The variation in intensities of the 5D0 → 7F2 and 5D0 → 7F1 dipole transitions is related to (i) overlapping interaction parameters within the ground and excited states, (ii) exchange interaction among atoms/ions and (iii) density of the incoming photons. Shift of 5D0 → 7F0 to a higher energy with increasing excitation wavelengths is because of change in the second order crystal field parameter B20 with excitation wavelength. The significant enhancement of luminescence intensity is found with Li+ co-doping due to the increase in crystallinity. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Singh A.,Banaras Hindu University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2011

Objective: To assess the sero-positivity rate of HIV infection among clinically suspected subjects of reproductive age group (15-49 years), biological and behavioral characteristics of the subjects gender specific variation of sero-positivity rate, and the differentials of the sero-positivity rate for the history of blood transfusion or blood products or other organs, history of needle exposure and symptoms of morbidity. Methods: Study is based on the retrospective data of the calendar year 2005 obtained from Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre (VCTC) (now renamed as ICTC), Department of Microbiology, I.M.S., B.H.U., Varanasi. These cases were either referred by the consultants of different OPD'S of Sir Sunderlal Hospital or came voluntarily for knowing their HIV status. About 2-3 mL of blood samples were collected in a plain vial and tested for HIV status by strategy II/III as per WHO/NACO guidelines. Results: Overall sero-positivity of HIV was 15.3% (18.1% in males and 12.2% in females) which increased 6-7 folds in the age group 35-49 years as compared to 15-24 years in both the sexes. Sero-positivity rate in male migrants was 43.1%, while in female migrants it was 18.7%. The history of multiple sexual contacts was about 3 times higher in males as compared to females; predominantly it was very high in male migrants (67.7%) as compared to male non-migrants (15.8%). History of multiple sexual contacts was not uncommon in females and it was 25.0% in female migrants and 9.7% in non-migrant females. The sero-positivity rate with the history of multiple sexual contacts was 45.4% in males and 60.3% in females, while without history of multiple sexual contacts these were only 2.8% and 5.3% respectively. Sero-positive cases had on an average 3.6±26290;1.7 various morbidity symptoms as compared to 0.7±26290;1.1 in sero-negatives. It is to be noted that sero-positivity rate was more in those females who seemed apparently healthy compared to those presenting with some of the symptoms; vice versa, in males presenting with some symptoms HIV infection was 7 times higher than those without symptoms. Conclusions: The findings indicate a high sero-positivity among both the genders. Multiple heterosexual contacts, especially, in migrants are the main root of transmission of HIV. These are causing spread of HIV to their spouses. The multiple sexual contacts in the society, especially, among non migrant females of this region are indicating the distortion of traditions and cultures which are a serious concern and may lead to HIV infection on the rise. Awareness program to the susceptible group is the need to reduce further spread of HIV. © 2011 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Source


Recent measurements have demonstrated unprecedented increase in atmospheric deposition of nutrients in many parts of India. To determine whether atmospheric nutrient inputs would increase phytoplankton growth and catchment dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flushing to constrain benthic algae, we analyzed NO3 - and PO4 -3 in atmospheric deposits; nutrients and DOC in runoff and lake water and standing crop biomass of phytoplankton and periphyton at Jaisamand Lake of Rajasthan, India. Atmospheric deposition of NO3 - (7. 18-29. 95 kg ha-1year-1) and PO4 -3 (0. 56-2. 15 kg ha-1year-1) showed a consistently rising trend across the year. Microbial biomass and activity in catchment increased in response to atmospheric deposition. Lake DOC and nutrients showed strong coherence with their terrestrial and atmospheric fluxes. Phytoplankton development showed significant linearity with atmospheric input of nutrients. Air-driven input appeared to have compensated the nutrient constraints to phytoplankton during drought. The N:P stoichiometry of deposition and that of lake water indicated that, although there was a seasonal switchover to N- or P-limitation, phytoplankton were mainly co-limited by N and P due probably to the synergistic effects of combined N + P enrichment in the pelagic zone of the lake. Periphyton standing crop showed inverse relationship with phytoplankton and lake DOC. The study indicated that enhanced phytoplankton development and terrestrial DOC flushing in response to atmospheric nutrient input attenuated light penetration to constrain algal periphyton. We suggests that data on these issues may be considered in developing aquatic ecosystem models to establish future links between changing air-water-land interactions and associated shifts in lake ecosystem functioning for more accurately predicting climate change drivers and designing integrated lake basin management strategies. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Singh R.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Singh R.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Mishra S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2013

This paper presents a magnetically coupled feedback-clamped optimal bidirectional battery charger. The proposed charger acts as a current source, i.e., acts in constant-current (CC) mode with a controlled output current in case of deep discharge of a battery, and as a voltage source, i.e., acts in constant-voltage (CV) mode with a controlled output voltage for near-100% battery state of charge. The proposed circuit is universal from the battery voltage point of view, i.e., can charge a battery with any given voltage rating, and adaptive from the optimum charging current requirement viewpoint, i.e., can adapt to the optimum battery charging current. The presented solution uses a magnetically coupled bidirectional converter topology. In order to make the system feedback controlled during the whole cycle of charging, the regulation loop is clamped, and hence, automatic and smooth transition from the CC to CV mode is achieved without the need of any extra switching circuit or control loop. Experimental and simulation results for a 250-W prototype are presented to verify the proposed system. The prototype shows maximum efficiencies of 90.24% under boost mode and 92.7% under buck mode of operation. The performance of the charger is verified using two different 12-V-7-Ah and 12-V-32-Ah lead-acid batteries. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Murawski K.,Group of Astrophysics | Srivastava A.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Musielak Z.E.,University of Texas at Arlington | Musielak Z.E.,Kiepenheuer Institute for Solar Physics
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

We present results of three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations of a fast magnetic twister excited above a foot-point of the potential solar coronal arcade that is embedded in the solar atmosphere with the initial VAL-IIIC temperature profile, which is smoothly extended into the solar corona. With the use of the FLASH code, we solve 3D ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations by specifying a twist in the azimuthal component of magnetic field in the solar chromosphere. The imposed perturbation generates torsional Alfvén waves as well as plasma swirls that reach the other foot-point of the arcade and partially reflect back from the transition region. The two vortex channels are evident in the generated twisted flux-tube with a fragmentation near its apex which results from the initial twist as well as from the morphology of the tube. The numerical results are compared to observational data of plasma motions in a solar prominence. The comparison shows that the numerical results and the data qualitatively agree even though the observed plasma motions occur over comparatively large spatio-temporal scales in the prominence. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Source


Dash A.,Banaras Hindu University
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2010

Two orders of green alga (Cladophorales and Charales) were investigated for the presence of protein tyrosine kinase activity. Proteins of 70 and 85 kDa were found to be tyrosine phosphorylated in Cladophora fracta, with an additional phosphorylated band evident at the 120-kDa region in Chara vulgaris, suggestive of the presence of putative tyrosine kinase activity in these algal species. A 70-kDa protein was immunoprecipitated from both species using a polyclonal antibody against non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase Syk. The protein was found to be phosphorylated on tyrosine, which was prevented upon pretreatment of algal cells with piceatannol. The extent of phosphorylation directly correlated with algal growth, suggesting a link between Syk kinase activity and growth signaling. These observations supported the presence of Syk-like kinase in the green algal species, which could have critical role in the algal growth and development. © Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2009. Source


Banerjee G.,Banaras Hindu University
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy | Year: 2011

A long-term field study was undertaken under different hydro-geological conditions at some locations of the state of West Bengal (India) to understand the phenomenon of underground pollution movement, and to assess safe horizontal distance of water sources from on-site sanitation leach pits. The study showed that pollution travel from leach pits, both in horizontal and vertical directions, is dependent on soil type, permeability, hydraulic gradient, grain size, and position of groundwater table with respect to the leach pits. A minimum travel of pollutant of 2.055 m was found in clayey silt soil, whereas a maximum travel of 10.20 m was observed in gravel-sand composition of soils in 10-day period. The study also demonstrated that clay envelop around leach pit arrests the movement of pollutant (both chemical and bacteriological) to a considerable extent. In the present study, graphical technique has been suggested for estimating underground travel of bacteriological contamination under given soil composition. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Pathak R.S.,Banaras Hindu University
International Journal of Wavelets, Multiresolution and Information Processing | Year: 2011

Translation and convolution associated with the discrete wavelet transform are investigated using properties of Calderón-Zygmund operator and Riesz fractional integral operator. Dual convolution is also studied. The wavelet convolution is applied to approximate functions belonging to certain L p-spaces. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source


Banerjee G.,Banaras Hindu University
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy | Year: 2012

Owing to lack of rational basis, design of radial collector (RC) well often becomes a confusing task for the designers arising out of a wide difference between the anticipated yield and the observed yield from RC wells. In this study, a long-term pumping test was carried out at three different sites (near Kharagpur City, India) on Kasai river bed and in its close proximity in order to design subsurface RC well for water supply to Kharagpur City. The appropriate hydrological approaches were employed to estimate values of aquifer parameters, viz. storage coefficient (S) and coefficient of transmissibility (T) for the aforesaid sites under study, which were found to be in the ranges of 0.00129-0.068 and 810-2573 m3/day-m, respectively. This article reports the rationality of design methods of sub-surface RC well, based on image theory and model study, which was adequately supported with geophysical investigations. An RC well-system was designed following the aforesaid two methods and was constructed at the proposed Site-II, which was found to be the most favourable one based on remote sensing survey, geophysical studies, and hydrological investigations. In the trial operating stage of the RC well, commissioned at Site II, the observed yield was compared with the designed (predicted) values. Trial field (yield) test data at Site II showed that the designed yield of 24 million litres per day (MLD) based on model study was closer to field data (21 MLD) than that (8 MLD) obtained based on image theory. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source


Chaurasia R.N.,Banaras Hindu University
BMJ case reports | Year: 2013

Cysticercosis in humans is caused by Taenia solium larvae infestation. Oral cysticercosis is a rare condition and is challenging to diagnose. We present a case of masseter cysticercosis in a young woman who presented with painful recurrent cheek swelling. Diagnosis confirmed it after neuroimaging and histopathological examination of the excised lesion from masseter muscle. Source


Upadhyay S.,Banaras Hindu University
Bulletin of Materials Science | Year: 2013

Polycrystalline powder of BaSnO3 was prepared at 1300 °C using a high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the formation of a single-phase cubic structure with lattice parameter: a = (4.1158 ± 0.0003) Å. The synthesized powder was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) scanning electron micrographs, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared techniques. Electrical properties were studied using a.c. impedance spectroscopy technique in the temperature range of 50-650 °C and frequency range of 10 Hz-13 MHz. The complex impedance plots at temperature ≥300 °C show that total impedance is due to the contributions of grains, grain boundaries and electrode. Resistance of these contributions has been determined. Variation of these resistances with temperature shows the presence of two different regions with different slopes. The nature of variation for the above three resistances, in both the temperature regions confirms that conducting species (phases) responsible for grain, grain boundaries and electrode are the same. Based on the value of activation energy, it is proposed that conduction via hopping of doubly ionized oxygen vacancies (V••o) is taking place in the temperature region of 300-450 °C, whereas in the temperature region of 450-650 °C, hopping of proton, i.e. OH• ions occurs. © 2013 Indian Academy of Sciences. Source


The intracellular redox environment plays an important role in the maintenance of proper cellular homeostasis and functions. Disturbances in redox equilibrium of cells result in pro-inflammatory conditions, and these inflammatory conditions can induce carcinogenesis or increase the malignant potential of the tumor. Oxidative stress or tissue damage can trigger toll-like receptor (TLR) family of receptors that are involved in altering the innate immune system. The present study was aimed at evaluating the level of oxidative damage markers in breast diseases by measuring the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), protein carbonyl (PC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant status (TAS) alterations in relation to expression of TLR-9. A significant increase in the level of oxidative damage markers was observed in breast carcinoma patients in comparison to benign and normal controls, which was accompanied by a significant decrease in TAS and expression of TLR-9 concentrations. 8-OHdG, PC, and MDA were negatively correlated with expression of TLR-9 and TAS levels. Altered levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress and TLR-9 among the malignant, benign, and controls suggest a correlation of oxidative stress and TLR signaling in the progression of disease in breast carcinoma patients. Receiver operating characteristic analysis depicts that expression of TLR-9 is a good indicator for distinguishing cancer patients from benign and normal controls. High accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity of oxidative stress markers and expression of TLR-9 can be used as discriminatory marker/s for efficient diagnosis. Source


Tripathi M.M.,Banaras Hindu University
Differential Geometry and its Application | Year: 2011

We present Chen-Ricci inequality and improved Chen-Ricci inequality for curvature like tensors. Applying our improved Chen-Ricci inequality we study Lagrangian and Kaehlerian slant submanifolds of complex space forms, and C-totally real submanifolds of Sasakian space forms. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Sharma Y.C.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data | Year: 2011

Adsorption characteristics of a low-cost activated carbon, rice husk activated carbon (RHAC), for the removal of malachite green (MG), a basic dye from aqueous solutions, have been investigated. Rice husk is peel-off from paddies and is a well-known agricultural waste material. Characterization of the activated carbon was carried out using different sophisticated methods. RHAC was characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). A nitrogen adsorption isotherm study revealed that the RHAC possessed micropores and mesopores. The porous properties of activated carbon were determined, and its surface area was found to be 180.50 m2/g. The RHAC was used for the removal of MG from its aqueous solutions. The effect of initial concentration and contact time, temperature, and pH on the removal of MG was investigated. The removal of MG decreased from (94.91 to 93.75) % by increasing the initial dye concentration from (60 to 100) mg/L. A study of the effect of temperature revealed the process of removal of dye to be endothermic. Kinetic studies of the process of adsorption were also carried out. The experimental data were used to study the Langmuir and Frendulich adsorption isotherms. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source


Abhishek V.,Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute | Avinash V.,Banaras Hindu University
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals | Year: 2012

Hydatid disease is endemic to various regions of the world, with an incidence of 0.4 per 100,000 persons. Isolated cardiac involvement is rare and occurs in only 0.02%-2% of cases. As the majority of cases are asymptomatic, can present catastrophically, and lead to high mortality, it has become increasingly important to identify the disease in an early stage and treat it with surgical excision. This review aims to familiarize the readers with the varied presentations, early diagnosis, and management of cardiac hydatid disease. © The Author(s) 2012. Source


Mishra S.,Banaras Hindu University
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Helicobacter pylori remains a controversial organism with regards to humans, with its epidemiology still being unclear nearly two decades after its discovery. The association between H. pylori infection and subsequent development of chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric cell carcinoma, and B cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma has been well established. Current studies, however, suggest that fewer than 20 % of all infected patients will develop any consequences from their infection. Hence, should the infection be considered a disease not at all or, on the contrary, is the microorganism harmful in only some circumstances? This article attempts to weigh the currently available evidence supporting that H. pylori may be good and not always bad. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


In this paper, the approximate analytical solutions of BenneyLin equation with fractional time derivative are obtained with the help of a general framework of the reduced differential transform method (RDTM) and the homotopy perturbation method (HPM). RDTM technique does not require any discretization, linearization or small perturbations and therefore it reduces significantly the numerical computation. Comparing the methodology (RDTM) with some known technique (HPM) shows that the present approach is effective and powerful. The numerical calculations are carried out when the initial conditions in the form of periodic functions and the results are depicted through graphs. The eight different cases have studied and proved that the method is extremely effective due to its simplistic approach and performance. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Gupta P.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Singh M.,Dehradun Institute of Technology
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2011

This article presents the approximate analytical solutions to solve the nonlinear FornbergWhitham equation with fractional time derivative. By using initial values, the explicit solutions of the equations are solved by using a reliable algorithm like homotopy perturbation method. The fractional derivatives are taken in the Caputo sense. Numerical results show that the HPM is easy to implement and accurate when applied to time-fractional PDEs. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Singh P.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects | Year: 2011

Coal bed methane occupies pores and cleats of coal. The cleats are generated during the bituminous rank stage while their abundance decreases at high rank due to an increase in the thermal maturation. It is the organic component of coal that stores methane, whereas the inorganic component reduces the gas sorption capacity. At a given rank, the vitrinite-rich bright coals have a higher sorption capacity. This phenomenon is not prominent at the low rank stage. The moisture content of coal hinders the coal bed methane production. Recovery of coal bed methane from low rank coals has opened new windows for the future of coal bed methane exploration programs. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Saxena A.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of Experimental Therapeutics and Oncology | Year: 2012

Genomic integrity of the cancer cell is doubt-full because of fragility on chromosome. Fragile - sites are non-randomly distributed on human genome prone to form gaps or breaks at either pre/or metaphase chromosome arise when cells are exposed to a perturbation of DNA replication process. Cancer cells commonly show various form of "hot spots" including point mutation, chromosome copy number and translocation involving specific gene mutation but the genetic diversity of fragile sites are still not clear. The chromosomal fragile sites (rare & common fragile sites) make the cancer cells not only susceptible to genomic instability but also contribute the process of malignancy due to expansions of microsatellite CGG or AT rich minisatellite. Fragile sites have been implicated due to inter chromosomal amplification events by initiation breakage - fusion cycles. The mechanisms behind these changes give raise to new insight the cytogenetic manifestation of oncogenesis. Fragile sites loci are associated with activation of oncogenesis during cell - cycle analysis. However, these mutations at fragile sites loci might have play a causative or functional role in tumor biology. The topography organization and informatics complexity of the fragile sites remained unexplored due to lack of systematic approach towards molecular cloning of the fragile sites DNA sequences and specific models as not are under taken. The information regarding mode of inheritance of fragile sites are still lacking but the first degree relative specially young proband and maternal side having variable prevalence in different population could be uses as suitable marker for determining genetic predisposition to cancer. This comprehensive review of fragile sites in tumor biology probably helpful to explore to understand the molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis or tumorgenesis. © 2012 Old City Publishing, Inc. Source


Singh V.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Singh M.P.,Allahabad University
Cellular and Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

Pleurotus ostreatus was grown on paddy straw as well as other vegetable and agricultural wastes i.e. pea pod shell, cauliflower leaves, radish leaves and brassica straw in various combinations with paddy straw. The mushroom did not grow on the vegetable wastes separately. The cumulative yield and biological efficiency of the edible oyster mushroom P. ostreatus grown on substrate containing paddy straw in various combinations with different vegetable wastes i.e. 20% and 30 % vegetable wastes mixed with 80% and 70% (w/w) of paddy straw was found to be better, when compared with yield and biological efficiency obtained on paddy straw (100%) alone. The protein content and six essential amino acid contents (Leu, Ile, Val, Thr, Met, Phe) showed a significant increase and total sugar and reducing sugar contents showed decrease in the mushroom fruit bodies grown at different combinations of vegetable wastes with paddy straw as compared to paddy straw alone. However, there was not any significant change in moisture content of mushroom cultivated on different groups of wastes. Hence, results of this investigation suggest that the vegetable wastes which are generally left to rot in situ in many cities and villages causing outbreak of diseases can be bioremediated by edible mushroom P. ostreatus. The added advantage is that we get edible mushroom fruit body with improved nutrition. © 2014. Source


Khare G.N.,Banaras Hindu University
Musculoskeletal Surgery | Year: 2011

The indications for surgery in 116 cases of osteochondroma included cosmetic problem in 38, pain (on hitting some object or continuous pain due to bursitis) in 50, pressure (on adjacent nerves) in 18, hindrances of joint movements in 8, fracture of the growth in 1 and malignant change in 1 patient. The complications of surgical excision included infection in 2 patients (which was controlled with antibiotics and dressings) and injury to posterior tibial artery in one case (which was repaired with the help of vascular surgeon immediately). In 94 patients, the tumour was excised before epiphyseal fusion (done carefully so as to prevent damage to the growth plate). It is not essential to wait until skeletal maturity as many patients want to get it excised as early as possible for cosmetic reasons. All the cases were relieved of their symptoms. There was no recurrence. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Mittal A.K.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Bhaumik J.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Kumar S.,Banaras Hindu University | Banerjee U.C.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2014

The synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was accomplished using Syzygium cumini fruit extract at room temperature. Various techniques were used to characterize the newly synthesized silver nanoparticles and their size was determined to be 10-15. nm. Important findings of this study were the identification of biomolecules responsible for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and elucidate the mechanism of biosynthesis. Flavonoids present in S. cumini were mainly responsible for the reduction and the stabilization of nanoparticles. The antioxidant properties of AgNPs were evaluated using various assays. The nanoparticles were also found to destroy Dalton lymphoma cell lines under in vitro condition. Silver nanoparticles (100. μg/mL) decreased the viability of Dalton lymphoma (DL) cell lines up to 50%. The studies describing the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by fruit extract followed by the investigation of synthesis mechanism and anti-cancer activities may be useful for nanobiotechnology research opening a new arena in this field. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Yuvaraj M.,Banaras Hindu University
Annals of Library and Information Studies | Year: 2014

The paper analyses the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in order to examine the librarians' behavioural intentions to use cloud computing applications. A questionnaire was developed using three TAM instruments: attitude, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness to measure the librarian's behavioural intentions of cloud computing applications use. Four hundred and seven library professionals completed the survey that measured their responses on perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude and the behavioural intentions on the use of cloud computing applications. Results show that librarians' perceived ease of use had significant impact on the attitude towards use. Further, perceived ease of use severely influenced the perceived usefulness of the cloud computing applications. The findings validate the implications of cloud computing applications in a library setting. Source


Tripathi S.,Banaras Hindu University
Annals of Library and Information Studies | Year: 2014

This paper is an attempt to explore the relationship shared by library professionals with their users. Some popular models were studied to understand the basics of building long term relationship. Issues regarding continuing librarian-client relationship are discussed along with the measures to be adopted by the libraries to gain the loyalty of their users. Indian library scenario is discussed in the light of changing needs of their users. Source


Goyal N.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2010

To compare the accuracy of artificial neural network (ANN) analysis and multi-variate regression analysis (MVRA) for renal stone fragmentation by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). A total of 276 patients with renal calculus were treated by ESWL during December 2001 to December 2006. Of them, the data of 196 patients were used for training the ANN. The predictability of trained ANN was tested on 80 subsequent patients. The input data include age of patient, stone size, stone burden, number of sittings and urinary pH. The output values (predicted values) were number of shocks and shock power. Of these 80 patients, the input was analyzed and output was also calculated by MVRA. The output values (predicted values) from both the methods were compared and the results were drawn. The predicted and observed values of shock power and number of shocks were compared using 1:1 slope line. The results were calculated as coefficient of correlation (COC) (r2 ). For prediction of power, the MVRA COC was 0.0195 and ANN COC was 0.8343. For prediction of number of shocks, the MVRA COC was 0.5726 and ANN COC was 0.9329. In conclusion, ANN gives better COC than MVRA, hence could be a better tool to analyze the optimum renal stone fragmentation by ESWL. Source


Dwivedi S.,Banaras Hindu University
Annals of Library and Information Studies | Year: 2016

An analysis of 34783 papers published by countries on different aspects of allergy during 1994-2013 as indexed by Science Citation Index-Expanded indicates that the output generally increased over the years with maximum publications in 2013. The highest number of publications came from USA, followed by Germany. The publication activity increased significantly for Poland, Turkey and South Korea and went down for Finland, Sweden and Japan in the second block. Data indicates that total output is concentrated in 8 sub-disciplines. Highest output (38.9%) is in the sub-discipline of immunology followed by food allergy (23.9%). During the period of study 718546 citations were received by 34783 papers and the average rate of citations per paper is 20.7. England followed by Sweden, Netherlands and Finland has made the highest impact and Thailand has the lowest impact as seen by the values of Citation per Paper (CPP) and Relative Citation Impact (RCI). Harvard University of USA had published highest 872 papers. © 2016, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved. Source


Bhadauria B.S.,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University | Bhadauria B.S.,Banaras Hindu University | Kiran P.,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University
Transport in Porous Media | Year: 2013

Thermal instability in a horizontal porous medium saturated with temperature-dependant viscous fluid has been considered, and the effect of time-periodic temperature modulation has been investigated. The amplitudes of temperature modulation at the lower and upper surfaces are considered to be very small and the disturbances are expanded in terms of power series of amplitude of convection. A weak non-linear stability analysis has been performed for the stationary mode of convection, and heat transport in terms of the Nusselt number, which is governed by the non-autonomous Ginzburg-Landau equation, is calculated. The effects of thermo-rheological parameter, amplitude and frequency of modulation, thermo-mechanical anisotropies, and Vadasz number on heat transport have been analyzed and depicted graphically. It is found that an increment in the value of thermo-rheological parameter results in the enhancement of heat transport in the system. Further, the study establishes that the heat transport can be controlled effectively by a mechanism that is external to the system. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Pandey V.C.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Bajpai O.,Banaras Hindu University | Singh N.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

Phytoremediation is a holistic approach and can be used in large scale to remediate the contaminated land resources. Although the concept of phytoremediation is few decades old and has been applied on a wide range of pollutants, but their sustainability is still questioned at various scientific forums. Therefore, it is the need of the hour to remediate our valuable resources with due considerations for future generations. Such a synergistic bonding by using potential energy crops in phytoremediation programs would be useful to generate new bioenergy resources along with the remediation of contaminated soil. There are several energy crops in the world, but four promising and dedicated energy crops i.e. Miscanthus, Ricinus, Jatropha, Populus have primarily considered in this review to accomplish energy demands with their phytoremediation potential. These four energy crops also act as potential carbon sink and offer an additional profit as carbon tax credits. In recent time we have been able to improve our understanding in phytoremediation, but use of energy plants were not considered so far to make this venture socio-economically acceptable to the society. The present review provides a strategy for linking energy crops in phytoremediation to resolve the sustainability issues and effectively solve the challenges of ever increasing contaminated sites and biofuel demands now and for future. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Tiwari S.C.,Banaras Hindu University | Tiwari S.C.,Institute of Natural Philosophy
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

The geometric approach based on parallel transport and Wilson lines to gain insight into the decomposition of the gluon gauge 4-vector potential is being developed in the literature to address the proton spin puzzle. Unfortunately, conflicting claims on the uniqueness of the decomposition have been made. We reexamine this controversy and argue that Hodge decomposition and the de Rham theorem resolve this issue in a natural way such that the topological defects acquire a fundamental significance. It is suggested that qualitatively angular momentum holonomy could be an alternative new mechanism to account for the deficit proton spin. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source


Singh D.V.,Banaras Hindu University
International Journal of Modern Physics D | Year: 2015

We study the quantum scalar field in the background of BTZ black hole and evaluate the entanglement entropy of the nonvacuum states. The entropy is proportional to the area of event horizon for the ground state, but the area law is violated in the case of nonvacuum states (first excited state and mixed states) and the corrections scale as power law. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source


Gupta M.,Banaras Hindu University
International Journal of Information and Communication Technology | Year: 2011

Design patterns are used as a software reuse technology, which provides a large scale reuse. During maintenance of a software system, developers can understand and benefit by understanding the idea of which design patterns have been used in the system, if any. Thus, one can say that reuse technologies such as design patterns and frameworks improves the program understanding and software maintenance. Therefore, it is necessary to automate the design pattern discovery process. We first define a multi-labelled graph representation for the design of software. Multi-labelled graph allows multiple labels on vertices and edges. Then we are applying a greedy algorithm on the multi-labelled graphs of design pattern and system design to detect design patterns in it. Using this approach, variants of design patterns as well as all occurrences of a design pattern can be detected. © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source


Dubey K.S.,Banaras Hindu University
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2010

The bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have achieved a great interest due to their scientific and potential technological applications and these are among the most extensively studied advanced materials. The understanding of the glass forming ability (GFA) of these multicomponent metallic alloys is an essential parameter to develop new non-crystalline materials which is an outstanding problem for being adequately solved. The Gibbs free energy difference (ΔG) between the undercooled melt and the corresponding equilibrium solid phases and the viscosity (η) of the undercooled melts are essential parameters for understanding the nucleation and growth processes. The present article deals with the procedures for obtaining the expressions for ΔG as well as the expressions for obtaining the temperature dependence of viscosity of the undercooled melts. The method for evaluation of the Kauzmann temperature T k and its importance has also been discussed. The glass forming ability (GFA) of materials is explained in terms of ratio of specific heat difference ΔC p m and entropy difference ΔS m at the melting temperature T m. The role of various thermodynamic quantities in GFA of materials has also been discussed. The discussion is confined to simple, oxide, polymeric and bulk metallic glasses. © 2010 American Institute of Physics. Source


Sonkar G.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2011

Immunoglobulins (Ig) and complement, which are components of humoral immunity, are supposed to play a role in renal transplant rejection. The present study was undertaken to study the level of complement C3, C4 and IgG, A and M in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and in those with renal transplant rejection (Tx Rej) as well as stable transplant recipients (Tx Stb) and normal healthy controls (NHC) in order to assess their role in transplant rejection and to correlate them with histopathological findings. The mean level of C3 and C4 in the CRF, Tx Rej and Tx Stb groups was not significantly different from the NHC group (P > 0.05). The mean level of C3 in the Tx Rej group was not different from that in the Tx Stb group. However, the C4 level was significantly reduced in the Tx Rej group when compared with the Tx Stb group (P < 0.05). There was no histopathological correlation between C3 levels and acute cellular rejection (ACR) or chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN); however, C4 levels were reduced in about 50% of the cases with CAN. The mean serum IgG level was significantly reduced in patients with CRF and transplant recipients as compared with NHC. The serum IgA level was also significantly reduced in Tx Rej cases. Correlation of serum IgA with histopathology in cases with rejection showed that in ACR, a lower mean level of IgA was seen as compared with that seen in cases with CAN. The serum IgM level was significantly higher in the Tx Rej group as compared with the Tx Stb group. There was no significant correlation between serum IgM levels and renal histopathology in patients with ACR and CAN. The C3 level showed a significant positive correlation with IgG (r = +0.50, P < 0.05) in the Tx Stb group. This study shows that cell-mediated immunity is the main cause of rejection in both ACR and CAN while humoral immunity is also involved along with cellular immunity in some cases with CAN. Source


Saravanan R.S.S.,Physics Research Center | Pukazhselvan D.,Banaras Hindu University | Mahadevan C.K.,Physics Research Center
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2011

Zn(1-x)CdxS and Zn(1-x)Cd xS:Mn2+ semiconductor quantum dots (2-4 nm) have been prepared by a novel solvothermal route assisted microwave heating method. The growth parameters governing the smaller size and higher yield have been optimized. The synthesized QDs exhibit a significant blue shift as compared to their corresponding bulk counterpart in the UV-vis optical absorption spectrum. The dielectric constant value varies from 2.79 to 6.17 (at 40 °C, 1 kHz) depending upon the composition of the alloy; lower value corresponds to Zn 0.75Cd0.25S:Mn2+ and the higher value corresponds to Zn0.25Cd0.75S:Mn2+. The crystallite size to exciton bohr radius ratio being <1 indicates a strong quantum confinement effect in both CdS and ZnS QDs. The quantum confinement effect exists in the sequence of ZnS:Mn2+ < Zn (1-x)CdxS:Mn2+ (x < 0.5) < ZnS < Zn(1-x)CdxS < CdS < CdS:Mn2+. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Mishra O.P.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of tropical pediatrics | Year: 2013

The objective of the present study was to find out the predictors of relapse. One hundred fifty children with a first episode of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome were followed for 12 months after initial treatment. Sixty-one (40.7%) children had no relapse, and 89 (59.3%) had relapses. A significantly higher proportion of children with disease onset between 1 and 3 years were relapsers in comparison with those with disease onset at 4-6 (p < 0.03) and 7-13 (p < 0.001) years. Risk of relapse was 2.99 times higher in this 1-3 year age-group as compared with patients aged >6 years (p = 0.001). Children responding between 1 and 2 weeks after start of treatment had a 0.423 times lesser risk of relapse than those who responded after 4 weeks (p = 0.023). Relapsers had significantly higher incidence of infection at relapse than at other time points (p < 0.001). Onset of disease in younger age and delayed response to prednisolone therapy were found as significant predictors for relapse. Source


Singh R.K.,Central University of Bihar | Singh A.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Acta Mechanica Sinica/Lixue Xuebao | Year: 2012

In the present paper, we have considered the steady fully developed laminar natural convective flow in open ended vertical concentric annuli in the presence of a radial magnetic field. The induced magnetic field produced by the motion of an electrically conducting fluid is taken into account. The transport equations concerned with the considered model are first recast in the non-dimensional form and then unified analytical solutions for the velocity, induced magnetic field and temperature field are obtained for the cases of isothermal and constant heat flux on the inner cylinder of concentric annuli. The effects of the various physical parameters appearing into the model are demonstrated through graphs and tables. It is found that the magnitude of maximum value of the fluid velocity as well as induced magnetic field is greater in the case of isothermal condition compared with the constant heat flux case when the gap between the cylinders is less or equal to 1.70 times the radius of inner cylinder, while reverse trend occurs when the gap between the cylinders is greater than 1.71 times the radius of inner cylinder. These fields are almost the same when the gap between the cylinders is equal to 1.71 times the radius of inner cylinder for both the cases. It is also found that as the Hartmann number increases, there is a flattening tendency for both the velocity and the induced magnetic field. The influence of the induced magnetic field is to increase the velocity profiles. © The Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012. Source


Dhillon G.S.,University of Quebec | Kaur S.,Banaras Hindu University | Brar S.K.,University of Quebec | Verma M.,Institute de Recherche et de Developpement en Agroenvironnement Inc. IRDA
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Chitosan, copolymer of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine is mainly derived from chitin, which is present in cell walls of crustaceans and some other microorganisms, such as fungi. Chitosan is emerging as an important biopolymer having a broad range of applications in different fields. On a commercial scale, chitosan is mainly obtained from crustacean shells rather than from the fungal sources. The methods used for extraction of chitosan are laden with many disadvantages. Alternative options of producing chitosan from fungal biomass exist, in fact with superior physico-chemical properties. Researchers around the globe are attempting to commercialize chitosan production and extraction from fungal sources. Chitosan extracted from fungal sources has the potential to completely replace crustacean-derived chitosan. In this context, the present review discusses the potential of fungal biomass resulting from various biotechnological industries or grown on negative/low cost agricultural and industrial wastes and their by-products as an inexpensive source of chitosan. Biologically derived fungal chitosan offers promising advantages over the chitosan obtained from crustacean shells with respect to different physico-chemical attributes. The different aspects of fungal chitosan extraction methods and various parameters having an effect on the yield of chitosan are discussed in detail. This review also deals with essential attributes of chitosan for high value-added applications in different fields. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source


Kaur J.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sundar S.,Banaras Hindu University | Singh N.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2010

Objectives: Using the pteridine reductase (PTR1) enzyme of Leishmania as the target, the objective of our study was to find a drug candidate that can enter the clinical development process after being evaluated for safety and efficacy in animals. Methods: Monastrol (R) and (S) enantiomers were docked using the QUANTUM program into the active site of a Leishmania donovani PTR1 (LdPTR1) homology model. A structure-activity relationship based on a homology model of a recombinant enzyme was substantiated by a recombinant enzyme inhibition assay. We adapted an L. donovani (transfected with green fluorescent protein) intramacrophage amastigote screening assay as a cellular model for leishmaniasis. Furthermore, since the clinicopathological features and immunopathological mechanisms of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in a hamster model are remarkably similar to those of human disease, systemic infection of hamsters with L. donovani was utilized to collect in vivo data for monastrol. Results: Both monastrol (R) and (S) enantiomers fit well in the ligand-binding pocket of LdPTR1. Monastrol exhibits a Ki value of 0.428 μM in the recombinant enzyme inhibition assay. We confirm monastrol as a potent inhibitor of PTR1 in Leishmania; it inhibits proliferation of amastigotes with an IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) of 10 μM in macrophage cultures infected with an L. donovani clinical isolate, with no host cytotoxicity. We also show that in experimental animals, oral administration of a 5 mg/kg dose of monastrol on two alternate days inhibits 50% of parasite growth, giving therapeutic backing to the use of monastrol as a potent antileishmanial in human VL cases. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report presenting monastrol as a potent oral antileishmanial. © The Author 2010. Source


Sahu D.R.,Banaras Hindu University | Yao J.C.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Journal of Global Optimization | Year: 2011

It is known, by Rockafellar (SIAM J Control Optim 14:877-898, 1976), that the proximal point algorithm (PPA) converges weakly to a zero of a maximal monotone operator in a Hilbert space, but it fails to converge strongly. Lehdili and Moudafi (Optimization 37:239-252, 1996) introduced the new prox-Tikhonov regularization method for PPA to generate a strongly convergent sequence and established a convergence property for it by using the technique of variational distance in the same space setting. In this paper, the prox-Tikhonov regularization method for the proximal point algorithm of finding a zero for an accretive operator in the framework of Banach space is proposed. Conditions which guarantee the strong convergence of this algorithm to a particular element of the solution set is provided. An inexact variant of this method with error sequence is also discussed. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Lakhotia S.C.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of Biosciences | Year: 2011

The 93D puff of Drosophila melanogaster became attractive in 1970 because of its singular inducibility by benzamide and has since then remained a major point of focus in my laboratory. Studies on this locus in my and several other laboratories during the past four decades have revealed that (i) this locus is developmentally active, (ii) it is a member of the heat shock gene family but selectively inducible by amides, (iii) the 93D or heat shock RNA omega (hsrω) gene produces multiple nuclear and cytoplasmic large non-coding RNAs (hsrω-n, hsrω-pre-c and hsrω-c), (iv) a variety of RNA-processing proteins, especially the hnRNPs, associate with its >10 kb nuclear (hsrω-n) transcript to form the nucleoplasmic omega speckles, (v) its genomic architecture and hnRNP-binding properties with the nuclear transcript are conserved in different species although the primary base sequence has diverged rapidly, (vi) heat shock causes the omega speckles to disappear and all the omega speckle associated proteins and the hsrω-n transcript to accumulate at the 93D locus, (vii) the hsrω-n transcript directly or indirectly affects the localization/stability/activity of a variety of proteins including hnRNPs, Sxl, Hsp83, CBP, DIAP1, JNK-signalling members, proteasome constituents, lamin C, ISWI, HP1 and poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase and (viii) a balanced level of its transcripts is essential for the orderly relocation of various proteins, including hnRNPs, RNA pol II and HP1, to developmentally active chromosome regions during recovery from heat stress. In view of such multitudes of interactions, it appears that large non-coding RNAs like those produced by the hsrω gene may function as hubs to coordinate multiple cellular networks and thus play important roles in maintenance of cellular homeostasis. © 2011 Indian Academy of Sciences. Source


Singh R.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Singh R.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Mishra S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2013

In the modern point-of-load (POL) applications, a number of low- and medium-power converters are used very close to the actual load. These applications require superior dynamic response and better power processing density to save space on the motherboard. Hysteretic modulators are one of the obvious choices for these applications because of their superior dynamic response with minimal number of filter capacitors. This paper presents a new carrier (synthetic ripple based)-generation-based digital hysteretic modulator for POL converters. The proposed structure creates a piecewise linear synthetic ripple using sensed converter voltages, without the need of direct inductor current sensing. The artificial synthetic ripple is then added to the output voltage and fed as a carrier to the hysteretic comparator, which helps in natural load current feedforward. This proposed digital modulator helps in the reduction of the output capacitors and exhibits superior large-signal dynamics for a POL converter. It is a simple solution and gives immediate fault detection (within one switching cycle) in case of the main switch (top MOSFET) failure of the converter, thus providing adequate protection to the microprocessor load. Analysis, simulation, and experimental results on a 2-V/10-A 20-W single-phase prototype are presented to verify the properties of the proposed modulator. © 1982-2012 IEEE. Source


Maken A.,Banaras Hindu University | Maken S.,D. C. R. University of Science and Technology
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry | Year: 2012

Molar excess enthalpies (H E) of 1,4-dioxane (A)+aniline or formamide or N, N-dimethylaniline or N, N-dimethylformamide (B) mixtures have been measured at 308.15K over the entire composition range using flow isothermal micro calorimeter. The H E values for 1,4-dioxane+N, N-dimethylaniline or N, N-dimethylformamide were found to be small and positive and, these are large and negative for mixture containing aniline, whereas these change sign from negative to positive for 1,4-dioxane+formamide. The H E versus mole fraction of 1,4-dioxane (x A) plots for 1,4-dioxane (A)+aniline or N, N-dimethylaniline or N, N-dimethylformamide (B) system are symmetrical about x A=0.5 and for equimolar mixtures, H E for these system follow the sequence: aniline Source


Singh S.P.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Hader D.-P.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Sinha R.P.,Banaras Hindu University
Ageing Research Reviews | Year: 2010

Cyanobacteria are primitive photosynthetic oxygen-evolving prokaryotes that appeared on the Earth when there was no ozone layer to protect them from damaging ultraviolet radiation (UVR). UVR has both direct and indirect effects on the cyanobacteria due to absorption by biomolecules and UVR-induced oxidative stress, respectively. However, these organisms have developed several lines of mitigation strategies/defense mechanisms such as avoidance, scavenging, screening, repair and programmed cell death to counteract the damaging effects of UVR. This review presents an update on the effects of UVR on cyanobacteria and the defense mechanisms employed by these prokaryotes to withstand UVR stress. In addition, recent developments in the field of molecular biology of UV-absorbing compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids and scytonemin, are also added and the possible role of programmed cell death, signal perception as well their transduction under UVR stress is being discussed. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Muthu M.S.,National University of Singapore | Muthu M.S.,Banaras Hindu University | Kulkarni S.A.,National University of Singapore | Raju A.,National University of Singapore | Feng S.-S.,National University of Singapore
Biomaterials | Year: 2012

The aim of this work was to develop a new type of d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate mono-ester (TPGS) coated multi-functional (theranostic) liposomes, which contain both docetaxel and quantum dots (QDs) for cancer imaging and therapy. Non-targeting and folate receptor targeting TPGS coated theranostic liposomes were prepared by the solvent injection method and characterized for their particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential, surface chemistry and drug encapsulation efficiency. MCF-7 breast cancer cells of folate receptor overexpression were employed as an in vitro model to assess cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of the drug and QDs loaded liposomes. The mean particle size of the non-targeting and the targeting liposomes was found to be 202 and 210 nm, respectively. High resolution field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM) confirmed the presence of quantum dots in the peripheral hydrophobic membranes of the liposomes. The qualitative internalization of multi-functional liposomes by MCF-7 cells was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The IC50 value, which is the drug concentration needed to kill 50% cells in a designated time period, was found to be 9.54 ± 0.76, 1.56 ± 0.19 and 0.23 ± 0.05 μg/ml for the commercial Taxotere ®, non-targeting and targeting liposomes, respectively after 24 h culture with MCF-7 cells. The targeting multi-functional liposomes showed greater efficacy than the non-targeting liposomes and thus great potential to improve the cancer imaging and therapy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Vashista M.,Banaras Hindu University | Paul S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Philosophical Magazine | Year: 2012

The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of XRD profiles is used to characterize different material properties and surface integrity features. However, there is no literature available that discusses the nature of the correlation between the FWHM of XRD peaks with induced surface residual stress upon grinding with simultaneous occurrence of plastic deformation, formation of white layer, grain elongation, change in microhardness, etc. AISI 1060 steel samples were ground under different grinding domains, i.e. conventional abusive grinding, conventional grinding, cBN grinding and high speed grinding with moderately deep cut. Induction of tensile and compressive residual stress, microstructural changes, white layer formation, grain refinement, plastic deformation, grain elongation and change in microhardness were observed upon grinding AISI 1060 steel. A correlation was established between the FWHM of XRD peaks and surface residual stress when simultaneous changes in microhardness and microstructure, grain elongation, plastic deformation and formation of white layer take place due to grinding. The correlation between FWHM of XRD peak and residual stress appears to be nonlinear due to simultaneous change in other aspects of surface integrity. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Singh R.,Banaras Hindu University | Akhtar N.,Case Western Reserve University | Haqqi T.M.,Case Western Reserve University
Life Sciences | Year: 2010

A number of factors including inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to play a role in the development of chronic joint diseases. Green tea has become a popular drink and is consumed throughout the world. Extracts of green tea and polyphenols present therein have been shown to inhibit the inflammatory responses in vitro in different cell types and the development of arthritis in animal model studies. There is considerable evidence that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the predominant green tea polyphenol which mimic its effects, inhibits enzyme activities and signal transduction pathways that play important roles in inflammation and joint destruction in arthritis. After oral consumption EGCG become bioavailable and proteomic studies suggest that EGCG may directly interact with a large set of protein targets and alter the physiological response of the cells. Taken together these and other studies identify and support the use of EGCG as a possible chemopreventive agent with a potential to inhibit the development of arthritis. Here we review the biological effects of EGCG in an attempt to understand its pivotal molecular targets that directly affect the inflammation and joint destruction process for prevention and/or for the development of new therapeutics for arthritis in humans. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source


Faizal M.,University of Waterloo | Upadhyay S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Mandal B.P.,Banaras Hindu University
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2015

In this paper we will analyze the anti-BRST symmetries of Bagger-Lambert-Gustavsson (BLG) theory in presence of a boundary. We will analyze these symmetries in both linear and nonlinear gauges. We will also derive the finite field version of the anti-BRST transformations for the BLG theory in presence of a boundary. These finite field transformations will be used to relate generating functional in linear gauge to the generating functional in the nonlinear gauge. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source


Upadhyay S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Mandal B.P.,Banaras Hindu University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2015

We develop the finite field-dependent BRST (FFBRST) transformation for arbitrary spin-s conformal field theories. We discuss the novel features of the FFBRST transformation in these systems. To illustrate the results we consider the spin-1 and spin-2 conformal field theories in two examples. Within the formalism we found that FFBRST transformation connects the generating functionals of spin-1 and spin-2 conformal field theories in linear and non-linear gauges. Further, the conformal field theories in the framework of FFBRST transformation are also analyzed in Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formulation to establish the results. © 2015 The Authors. Source


Singh S.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences | Rai G.,Banaras Hindu University | Aggarwal A.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Rheumatology International | Year: 2014

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNA that modulate the expression of multiple target genes at the post-transcriptional level. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pre-miRNAs can alter miRNA expression, and polymorphism in target molecules can affect binding to target mRNA. Studies have shown an association between miR-146a gene polymorphism and autoimmune diseases. A target for miR-146a is IRAK1. We studied the SNPs of miRNA-146 and IRAK1 to see their association with susceptibility to juvenile idiopathic arthritis–enthesitis-related arthritis (JIA-ERA). One hundred and fifty patients with JIA-ERA (ILAR criteria) were included in the study. A total of 216 blood donors (201 male) with a mean age of 30.5 years served as controls. miR-146a (rs2910164) and its target IRAK1 (rs1059703) at exon-12 region and IRAK1 (rs3027898) at 3′UTR polymorphisms were analyzed using PCR-RFLP method. Among 150 patients, 133 were males and the mean age at onset of disease was 11 (4–16) years, mean disease duration was 4.5 (0.3–12) years. Twenty-two had uveitis and 21 had positive family history of spondyloarthropathy, 73 had enthesitis, 75 had inflammatory back pain, and all had arthritis. HLA B27 was present in 116 patients. Genotype frequency of miR-146a gene was in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in healthy controls. The genotype frequency for miR-146a was different in controls and patients [GG (51.85 vs. 50.0 %), GC (42.13 vs. 37.29 %) and CC (6.02 vs. 12.71 %), OR = 2.18; 95 % CI 1.02–4.68; p value = 0.0418]. The allele frequencies of IRAK1 (rs1059703) and IRAK1 (rs3027898) in males and genotype frequency in females were similar in controls and patients. The C allele of IRAK1 (rs1059703) was in linkage disequilibrium with T allele of IRAK1 (rs3027898). The CC genotype of the miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism was significantly associated with the susceptibility to JIA-ERA. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Bhuin T.,University of Burdwan | Roy J.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Experimental Cell Research | Year: 2014

Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Saxena P.K.,Jaypee Institute of Information Technology | Saxena P.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Infrared Physics and Technology | Year: 2011

In the present paper the performance of p+-n-n+ Hg1-xCdxTe long wavelength infrared (LWIR) homojunction photodetector (x ≈ 0.22) has been analyzed theoretically and simulated numerically using ATLAS software from SILVACO®. The results obtained in the two cases are compared and contrasted with the available experimental results. The energy band diagram, electric field profile, carrier concentration, dark current, dynamic resistance, quantum efficiency and detectivity have been calculated and optimized as a function of different variables such as device thickness, reverse voltage and operating wavelength in order to optimize the performance of p+-n-n+ photodetector at 77 K. The dependence of the p+-n junction position within homostructure on bandgap energy profiles and the influence of doping concentration on photodetector parameters have been studied. In the present model the Johnson-Nyquist and shot noise have been considered in calculation of detectivity. Results of our study reveal that under suitable biasing conditions the photodetector exhibits a dark current, ID ≈ 10-7 A, and a zero bias resistance, R0 = 106 Ω and a detectivity 8 × 109 mHz1/2/W. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Kumar R.,Banaras Hindu University
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2012

The adaptation and production of transgenic crops harboring Cry1Ab protein is increasing every year globally due to their potent insecticidal activity. The Cry1Ab protein produced by Bacillus thuringiensis confers resistance against several lepidopteran insect pests. The release of transgenic crops/produce in the market worldwide has increased the need of regulatory affairs to monitor and verify the presence of transgenic protein in crops/produce. In this regard, the real-time immuno-PCR (IPCR) assay was developed for the detection and quantification of Cry1Ab protein. The IPCR assay showed high sensitivity with minimum detection limit of 100 pg/mL (0.1 ppb) and found to be 10 times more sensitive than sandwich ELISA. Under the optimized assay conditions, Cry1Ab protein can be determined in the concentration ranged from 100 pg/mL to 100 ng/mL. As results suggest, this assay could be a powerful tool for the detection of even trace amounts of Cry1Ab protein in transgenic crops. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Verma V.C.,Banaras Hindu University | Kharwar R.N.,Royal Holloway, University of London | Gange A.C.,Royal Holloway, University of London
Nanomedicine | Year: 2010

Aim: To induce the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Aspergillus clavatus and evaluate their antimicrobial potential. Materials & methods: Aspergillus clavatus (AzS-275), an endophytic fungus isolated from sterilized stem tissues of Azadirachta indica A. Juss., was challenged with 1 mM AgNO3 solution. The characterization of the AgNPs was carried out by x-ray diffraction spectrometry, transmission-electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Results & discussion: The synthesized AgNPs were found to be extracellular, polydispersed spherical or hexagonal particles ranging from 10 to 25 nm in size. Antimicrobial activity was performed using a disc-diffusion method against Candida albicans, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Escherichia coli. The results showed an average minimum inhibitory concentration of 5.83μg ml-1 and minimum fungicidal concentration of 9.7 μg ml -1 against C. albicans. Conclusions: AgNPs can be mycosynthesized extracellularly using A. clavatus as the fungal system, which is highly advantageous over chemical synthesis not only because it can be synthesized on a large scale, but because of the ease of downstream processing and its biomedical application in antimicrobial activity. © 2010 Future Medicine Ltd. Source


Rastogi N.,Banaras Hindu University
Asian Myrmecology | Year: 2011

The present review assesses the role of ants in providing ecosystem provisioning services in the form of products such as food and medicine. Many species of ants constitute an inexpensive, protein-and mineral-rich, unconventional human food source. Some ant species are also utilised in traditional entomotherapy by indigenous people, or as a complementary and/or alternative medicine, in many parts of the world. Recent biochemical and pharmacological investigations are increasingly providing evidence regarding the medicinal significance of ant species. The well-developed immune system and anti-microbial chemicals that evolved in ants for defence against pathogens can be exploited for the treatment of human diseases. This important taxon may have enormous potential for providing future benefits to mankind as a source of pharmaceuticals and as rapidly and conveniently farmed minilivestock, for an increasing human population. Source


Mondal M.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2010

A basic investigation on the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions by using activated tea waste was conducted in batch conditions. An inexpensive and effective adsorbent was developed from waste tea leaves for the uptake of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The influence of different experimental parameters-shaking time, particle size, adsorbent dose, initial pH, temperature, etc.-on lead uptake was evaluated. Lead is adsorbed by the developed adsorbent up to maximum of 99. 7%. The initial Pb(II) concentrations were 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/l in the experiment. The adsorption was found to be exothermic in nature. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherm models were tried to represent the equilibrium data of Pb(II) adsorption. The adsorption data was fitted very well to the Langmuir isotherm model in the studied concentration range of Pb(II) adsorption. Isotherms have been used to determine thermodynamic parameters of the process: free energy change (ΔG°), enthalpy change (ΔH°) and entropy change (ΔS°). Column experiments were performed to study the practical applicability of the system. The kinetics and the factors controlling the adsorption process were also discussed. Activated tea waste is a better adsorbent compared to other adsorbents available in literature. © 2010 Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers, Seoul, Korea. Source


Mishra B.,Banaras Hindu University
Current drug targets | Year: 2015

Drug nanocrystals have been studied since the 1990s and there are already six therapeutic nanocrystal products on market and many more in clinical trials. Nanocrystals are encapsulating-carrier free nanoparticles wherein 100% drug loading could be achieved. This signifies that nanocrystals, among other nanoparticulate products, could be more easily manufactured even at the initial formulation development stages to evaluate the effect of size reduction on the bioavailability of drugs. Additionally, a drug nanocrystal is considered not as a generic product but as a "new drug" by FDA. Process characterization, equipment choice, robust formulation and stability are discussed as four basic prerequisites for formulation development and scale-up of drug nanocrystals. The fast growing and relatively superior market profile of nanocrystals amongst other nanoparticle systems is due to their rational formulation design and production simplicity. In this emerging scenario, keeping an eye on the four basic prerequisites can further improve the success of drug nanocrystals. Source


Sharma N.K.,Post Graduate College | Rai A.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Environmental Reviews | Year: 2011

The role of microbial diversity in ecosystem functioning is becoming increasingly recognized. Microalgae are a large group of organisms that are extremely diverse and heterogeneous from evolutionary and ecological viewpoints. However, estimates of their diversity are nebulous and require substantial input from systematics, dispersal analyses, and biogeography. Our generally poor understanding of microalgal biogeography has generated several hypotheses. According to one view, microalgae are cosmopolitan. However, use of advanced morphometric and molecular techniques suggest a restricted distribution (i.e., endemism) for many microalgae that were previously considered as cosmopolitan. The quest to have an exclusive theory of microalgal biogeography depends upon efforts to solve the problems related with appropriate taxonomic unit, genotype-morphospecies relationship, extent of synonymy in known species, degree of coexistence of endemic and cosmopolitan species, reasons for apparent restricted distribution, and the relative importance of sympatric speciation in genotype variations. This review discusses microalgal diversity from a biogeographical perspective, which, in turn, is analyzed in the light of empirical evidence available for the group. Also discussed are the arguments emerging from ongoing debates on the biogeography of other microorganisms. In addition to their immense ecological importance, microalgae have emerged as a potential source for a range of precious products including neutraceuticals, energy, and therapeutic drugs. Therefore, an understanding of their diversity and spatial distribution is crucial for formulating the conservation strategies for the group. Source


Singh N.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Chikara S.,Xcelris Genomics | Sundar S.,Banaras Hindu University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Known as 'neglected disease' because relatively little effort has been applied to finding cures, leishmaniasis kills more than 150,000 people every year and debilitates millions more. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also called Kala Azar (KA) or black fever in India, claims around 20,000 lives every year. Whole genome analysis presents an excellent means to identify new targets for drugs, vaccine and diagnostics development, and also provide an avenue into the biological basis of parasite virulence in the L. donovani complex prevalent in India. Methodology/Principal Findings: In our presently described study, the next generation SOLiD™ platform was successfully utilized for the first time to carry out whole genome sequencing of L. donovani clinical isolates from India. We report the exceptional occurrence of insect trypanosomatids in clinical cases of visceral leishmaniasis (Kala Azar) patients in India. We confirm with whole genome sequencing analysis data that isolates which were sequenced from Kala Azar (visceral leishmaniasis) cases were genetically related to Leptomonas. The co-infection in splenic aspirate of these patients with a species of Leptomonas and how likely is it that the infection might be pathogenic, are key questions which need to be investigated. We discuss our results in the context of some important probable hypothesis in this article. Conclusions/Significance: Our intriguing results of unusual cases of Kala Azar found to be most similar to Leptomonas species put forth important clinical implications for the treatment of Kala Azar in India. Leptomonas have been shown to be highly susceptible to several standard leishmaniacides in vitro. There is very little divergence among these two species viz. Leishmania sp. and L. seymouri, in terms of genomic sequence and organization. A more extensive perception of the phenomenon of co-infection needs to be addressed from molecular pathogenesis and eco-epidemiological standpoint. © 2013 Singh et al. Source


Srivastava U.R.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of Health Management | Year: 2010

This article has two main objectives. The first is to examine the extent of stress, negative mental health outcomes and variations in mood states experienced by shift workers (N = 100) and a control group of day workers (N = 100) employed in Feeder Balancing Dairy, Ramnagar Varanasi and Kanpur, Dugdth Utpadak Sahakari Sangh (brand name Parag, Ltd. for both organisations). Second, to find out the relative contribution of stress variables and mood states in the prediction of mental health outcomes separately for both shift workers and a control group of day workers. Our overall findings concur with other studies and provide evidence that shift workers significantly experienced higher levels of job and life stress, higher indices of negative mental health outcomes (as measured by GHQ - 28) and variations in mood states as compared to day workers. The results of the present study established some significant relationships between stress and negative mental health outcomes among both shift and day group of workers. However, the magnitude of correlation coefficients is slightly higher in the day worker group. For both groups of workers significant positive correlations were found between all the dimensions of negative mental health and mood states of tense arousal, anger, energetic arousal and general arousal. The findings of step-wise multiple regression analysis indicated that amount of life stress and role conflicts were the two major predictors of negative mental health outcomes among shift workers. The results of a similar analysis carried out on day workers indicated that in the prediction of mental health of day workers, job related stressors (role ambiguity, role conflict and role overload) played a significant role. The findings further indicated that shift workers' mood states such as anger, tense arousal and hedonic tone were also significant predictors of mental health outcomes. In day group of workers, anger coupled with low level of energetic arousal influenced their mental health. It is interesting to note, however, that in both groups of workers anger was the strongest predictor of all indices of negative mental health outcomes. Thus, the present study adds additional support to the notion that shift and night shift work is a potent source of stress. Shift work is opposed to the human circadian system and this conflict creates multiple physiological, psychological and psychosocial problems for shift workers. Source


Srivastava A.K.,Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational science ARIES | Dwivedi B.N.,Banaras Hindu University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2010

We study the intensity oscillations in the upper chromosphere/transition region (TR) and corona, above a bright point (BP) in the solar atmosphere. We analyse the time series of He ii 256 Å, Fe xii 195 Å and Fe xv 284 Å, observed in a 40-arcsec slot close to the centre of the Sun above the BP by the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging spectrometer (EIS) on board Hinode. Using standard wavelet and periodogram tools, we produce power spectra of intensity oscillations. In the He ii 256.32 Å and Fe xii 195.12 Å EUV light curves, we detect intensity oscillations of the periods ∼ 263 ± 80 s and ∼ 241 ± 60 s, respectively, with a probability >95 per cent in wavelets, which are also consistent with their periodograms. This provides the most likely signature of the propagation of acoustic oscillations around the ∼5.0-min period from the photosphere to the inner corona. The radiative cooling and thus the finite radiative relaxation time are found to be the most likely mechanisms for the reduced cut-off frequency environment above the observed BP. This may allow the transfer of ∼5.0-min acoustic oscillations from the upper chromosphere/TR into the corona. We find that intensity oscillations in He ii 256.32 Å show temporal damping during the total span of the observation. This may be the first most likely observational signature of acoustic wave damping in the upper chromosphere caused by the radiative cooling effect. The intensity oscillations in Fe xii 195.12 Å show an amplification, which may be a most likely signature of the mode-coupling (two-wave interaction) and then resonant energy conversion, probably from transverse magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves of the double period (e.g. Alfvén waves) to the observed acoustic waves in the lower solar atmosphere where the plasma beta tends to unity. However, we find no evidence of real oscillations around the ∼5.0-min period with its amplification in the higher corona where the Fe xv 284.16 Å line is formed, which rules out this type of wave activity there. Almost 1.6 per cent of the solar surface is covered with small BPs, probably associated with the small-scale closed-loop system, which may be a subset of expanding flux tubes. Hence, the leakage of ∼5.0-min oscillations above such BPs, which is associated with the highest powers of strong convective motions, and probably resonantly amplified by transverse MHD waves (e.g. Alfvén waves), may be significant for heating the solar atmosphere locally. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 RAS. Source


Singh B.R.,Aligarh Muslim University | Singh B.N.,University of Kansas | Khan W.,Aligarh Muslim University | Singh H.B.,Banaras Hindu University | Naqvi A.H.,Aligarh Muslim University
Biomaterials | Year: 2012

Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) have raised great attention because of their superior optical properties and wide utilization in biological and biomedical studies. However, little is known about the cell death mechanisms of CdS QDs in human cancer cells. This study was designed to investigate the possible mechanisms of apoptosis induced by biosurfactant stabilized CdS QDs (denoted as " bsCdS QDs" ) in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. It was also noteworthy that apoptosis correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress and chromatin condensation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Results also showed involvement of caspases, Bcl-2 family proteins, heat shock protein 70, and a cell-cycle checkpoint protein p53 in apoptosis induction by bsCdS QDs in LNCaP cells. Moreover, pro-apoptotic protein Bax was upregulated and the anti-apoptotic proteins, survivin and NF-κB were downregulated in bsCdS QDs exposed cells. Protection of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) against ROS clearly suggested the implication of ROS in hyper-activation of apoptosis and cell death. It is encouraging to conclude that biologically stabilized CdS QDs bear the potential of its applications in biomedicine, such as tumor therapy specifically by inducing caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death of human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. © 2012. Source


Singh Y.N.,University of Lucknow | Singh S.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Gupta P.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Pattern Recognition Letters | Year: 2012

This paper explores the effectiveness of a novel multibiometric system that is resulted from the fusion of the electrocardiogram (ECG) with an unobtrusive biometric face and another biometric fingerprint which is known to be a least obtrusive for efficient individual authentication. The unimodal systems of the face and the fingerprint biometrics are neither secure nor they can achieve the optimum performance. Using the ECG signal as one of the biometrics offer advantage to a multibiometric system that ECG is inherited to an individual which is confidential, secured and difficult to be forged. It has an inherent feature of vitality signs that ensures a strong protection against spoof attacks to the system. Transformation based score fusion technique is used to measure the performance of the fused system. In particular, the weighted sum of score rule is used where weights are computed using equal error rate (EER) and match score distributions of the unimodal systems. The performance of the proposed multibiometric system is measured using EER and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The results show the optimum performance of the multibiometric system fusing the ECG signal with the face and fingerprint biometrics which is achieved to an EER of 0.22%, as compared to the unimodal systems that have the EER of 10.80%, 4.52% and 2.12%, respectively for the ECG signal, face and fingerprint biometrics. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


This study aimed to assess correlation of urinary monocytic chemoattractant protein-1 (UMCP-1) with severity of lupus nephritis and its role as predictor of outcome. Twenty patients with lupus nephritis flare were included in the study. Ten patients in each group of stable systemic lupus erythematosus and non-renal flare were taken as controls. Biopsy was done to define lupus nephritis stage. UMCP-1 levels were measured in all patients at the time of entry and at four and eight weeks of follow-up. Mild, moderate and severe lupus nephritis flare was noted in one, five and 15 patients, respectively. UMCP-1 levels were high in patients with severe lupus nephritis flare (2.74 ± 0.95 ng/mg creatinine) as compared to patients with moderate (1.43 ± 0.46 ng/mg creatinine) and mild lupus nephritis flare (0.76 ± 0.57 ng/mg creatinine) (P = 0.0093). Baseline mean UMCP-1 levels in lupus nephritis flare, non-renal flare and stable SLE patients were 2.32 ± 1.06, 0.171 ± 0.03 and 0.213 ± 0.026 ng/mg creatinine, respectively. The difference among the three groups was very significant (P < 0.001). Also, mean UMCP-1 levels correlated significantly with severity of lupus nephritis class (P = 0.0358). During follow-up, 15 patients achieved complete or partial remission, and in these patients mean UMCP-1 levels had significant decline at eight weeks (P < 0.0001). However, mean UMCP-1 levels in the remaining five non-responders did not show significant changes at four and eight weeks (P = 0.4858). Mean UMCP-1 levels were significantly higher in the lupus nephritis flare group as compared to non-renal flare and stable patients. Baseline mean UMCP-1 levels significantly correlated with both lupus nephritis class and severity of lupus nephritis flare, hence UMCP-1 could be used as a non-invasive marker for the judgement of lupus flare and lupus nephritis class. Source


Singh B.P.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences | Year: 2012

The Himalayan foredeep is a good archive of the events that occurred during different stages of the basin evolution. The early part of this archive is used here to interpret depositional environments and paleobathymetry based on facies associations, sedimentary structures and larger foraminifera. Three facies associations are recognized in the early Himalayan foreland basin sequences. Facies association I, containing chert breccia, bauxite/quartzose sandstone, coal and black shale, was deposited in short-lived ephemeral streams, swamps and inner parts of lagoons. The limestones and shales of the facies association II were deposited in a barrier-lagoonal system where the former represent barrier and the latter represent lagoon deposits. The limestone beds, containing hummocks and wavy ripples, were deposited under the influence of oscillatory storms and represent tempestites. Siltstone beds, containing hummocky cross-stratification and ripple cross-laminae, were deposited in the shoreface or foreshore zone where storm activities were dominant. Facies association III, comprises marl laminites and purple shale deposited in intertidal and supratidal zones of a tidal flat. Larger foraminifera such as Nummulites and Assilina flourished in the tropical climatic belt and accumulated in the coastal zone as a result of their transportation by waves and tides. In general, the sedimentation took place on a ramp similar to the present day Persian Gulf with a paleobathymetry of ∼55. m. In strike continuity in Pakistan, the coeval sequences were deposited on shelves with a paleobathymetry <200. m. The early foredeep sequences are, thus, devoid of deep marine sediments. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Kumar R.,Banaras Hindu University | Nylen S.,Karolinska Institutet
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2012

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), commonly known as kala-azar, is caused by Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum (Leishmania chagasi in the Americas). These Leishmania species infect macrophages throughout the viscera, and parasites are typically found in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. Patients with active disease typically exhibit marked immunosuppression, lack reactivity to the Leishmania skin test (LST), a delayed type hyper-sensitivity test, and their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) fail to respond when stimulated with leishmanial antigens in vitro. However, most people infected with visceralizing species of Leishmania never develop disease. Understanding immune failure and the underlying immune mechanism that lead to disease as well as control of infection are key questions for research in this field. In this review, we discuss immunological events described in human and experimental VL and how these can affect the outcome of infection. © 2012 Kumar and Nylén. Source


Ram J.,Banaras Hindu University
Physics Reports | Year: 2014

In this article we review equilibrium theory of molecular fluids which includes structure and freezing transitions. The application of the theory to evaluate the pair correlation functions using Integral Equation methods and Computer Simulations have been discussed. Freezing of classical complex fluids based on the density functional approach is also discussed and compare a variety of its versions. Transitions discussed are sensitive to the value of direct correlation functions of the effective liquid which is required as an input information in the theory. Accurate evaluation of pair correlation functions is emphasized. Calculation of these correlation functions which pose problems in the case of ordered phases is discussed. The pair correlation functions of the ordered phase, which are supposed to be made up of two contributions, one that preserves the symmetry of the isotropic phase and a second that breaks it, are discussed. A new free-energy functional developed for an inhomogeneous system that contains both symmetry conserved and symmetry broken parts of the direct pair correlation function is discussed. The most useful three dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) and its extension done recently by many workers is discussed. Application of this theory to a large variety of complex systems in combination with the density functional theory method implemented in the Amsterdam density functional software package is discussed. Coupling of the 3D-RISM salvation theory with molecular dynamics in the Amber molecular dynamics package is also given.The importance of the density functional theory for the study of the structure and phase behaviour of hard polyhedral is also discussed. The dynamical density functional and its generalized form applied for many important class of problems such as binary mixture, anisotropic particles dynamics of freezing and wetting, colloidal samples, particle self diffusion in complex environment, colloidal sedimentation and active self-propelled particles is discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Kumar S.,Radha Govind Engineering College | Rai S.B.,Banaras Hindu University
Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics | Year: 2010

Arginine molecule has been analyzed in parallel by infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy at room temperature. The vibrational spectra in the region 4000-400 cm-1 have been interpreted and band positions have been assigned tentatively, subsequently, a complete and complementry set of vibrational data has been obtained that can be used to determine several possible vibrational sets. In addition, electronic absorption spectrum of this molecule has been monitored at several pH value which reveals the effect of change of pH on peak shift. Source


Pandhija S.,Allahabad University | Rai N.K.,Allahabad University | Rai A.K.,Allahabad University | Thakur S.N.,Banaras Hindu University
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics | Year: 2010

The present paper deals with the detection and quantification of toxic heavy metals like Cd, Co, Pb, Zn, Cr, etc. in environmental samples by using the technique of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS). A MATLABTM program has been developed based on the CF-LIBS algorithm given by earlier workers and concentrations of pollutants present in industrial area soil have been determined. LIBS spectra of a number of certified reference soil samples with varying concentrations of toxic elements (Cd, Zn) have been recorded to obtain calibration curves. The concentrations of Cd and Zn in soil samples from the Jajmau area, Kanpur (India) have been determined by using these calibration curves and also by the CF-LIBS approach. Our results clearly demonstrate that the combination of LIBS and CF-LIBS is very useful for the study of pollutants in the environment. Some of the results have also been found to be in good agreement with those of ICP-OES. © 2009 Springer-Verlag. Source


A number of Paleoproterozoic mafic dykes are reported to intrude volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Mahakoshal supracrustal belt. They are medium to coarse-grained and mostly trend in ENE-WSW to E-W. Petrographically they are metadolerite and metabasite. Geochemical compositions classify them as sub-alkaline basalts to andesites with high-iron tholeiitic nature. Both groups, i.e. metabasites and metadolerites, show distinct geochemical characteristics; high-field strength elements are relatively higher in metadolerites than metabasites. This suggests their derivation from different mantle melts. Chemistry does not support any possibility of crustal contamination. Trace element modeling advocates that metabasite dykes are derived from a melt originated through ∼20% melting of a depleted mantle source, whereas metadolerite dykes are probably derived from a tholeiitic magma generated through <10% melting of a enriched mantle source. Chemistry also reveals that the studied samples are derived from deep mantle sources. HFSE based discrimination diagrams suggest that metabasite dykes are emplaced in tectonic environment similar to the N-type mid-oceanic ridge basalts (N-MORB) and the metadolerite dykes exhibit tectonic setting observed for the within-plate basalts. These inferences show agreement with the available tectonic model presented for the Mahakoshal supracrustal belt. The Chitrangi region experienced N-MORB type mafic magmatism around 2.5 Ga (metabasite dykes) and within-plate mafic magmatism around 1.5-1.8 Ga (metadolerite dykes and probably other alkaline and carbonatite magmatic rocks). © GEOL. SOC. INDIA. Source


Mehta N.,Banaras Hindu University | Kumar A.,Uttar Pradesh Technical University
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids | Year: 2012

Free volume model is widely used as a tool for understanding the nature of glass transition phenomenon and the related consequences. Recently, an analytical derivation of Kissinger's equation has been proposed in literature using free volume model. In this derivation, the glass transition activation energy has been assumed constant throughout the whole glass transition temperature range. The present paper investigates the applicability of free volume model for derivation of Kissinger's relation by checking the constancy of the glass transition activation energy (E g) throughout the glass transition temperature range. Performing series of experiments, we have legalized the possibility for usage of the Kissinger relation for determination of the glass transition activation energy if the peak value of the endo-thermal effect is taken as temperature of glass transition. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Singh P.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of the Geological Society of India | Year: 2012

This paper entails the results of the investigations undertaken to assess the oil potential of two lignite deposits, Rajpardi and Vastan, from Gujarat, western India. They are 'Low rank B' type lignite. Petrographically, they are enriched in huminite and are low in liptinite and inertinite. Their elevated hydrogen content, in relation to carbon, has probably made them perhydrous in nature and oil prone. The reactivity of these coals during liquefaction has also been discussed in the light of petrofactor. Good correlation has been noticed between oil yield and conversion (r2 = 0.999) in both the lignite deposits. The VRr (0.24-0.35% in both lignites), H/C atomic ratio (0.11-1.39 in Rajpardi and 1.09-1.88 in Vastan), reactive maceral content (91.6-99.8 vol % mmf in Rajpardi lignite and 75.5-99.7 vol % in Vastan lignite) and VMdaf (64.8-67.9 wt % in Rajpardi lignite and 42.1-80.0 wt % in Vastan lignite) of these lignites have a favourable range required for a coal to generate oil. Huminite is seen to play a vital role in conversion and maintains a good correlation with it. The calculations show that these lignites have a high conversion (> 95%) and oil yield (> 65%). © GEOL. SOC. INDIA. Source


Intramolecular Morita-Baylis-Hillman and Rauhut-Currier reactions are important tools which have constantly grown over several years. This review summarizes and highlights their various aspects such as development of activated alkenes, electrophiles and catalysts both in achiral and chiral fashion, use of non conventional electrophiles, applications in total synthesis. Selected miscellaneous reports of internal promoters, cycloadditions, and non conventional routes for IMBH adduct have also been presented, along with future projections. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Rao N.V.C.,Banaras Hindu University | Wu F.-Y.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Mitchell R.H.,Lakehead University | Li Q.-L.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Lehmann B.,Clausthal University of Technology
Chemical Geology | Year: 2013

We report new U-Pb ages of groundmass perovskite determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry, trace element, and Sr and Nd isotopic compositions for twelve kimberlites emplaced in three different fields from the Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India. Diamondiferous kimberlites from the Wajrakarur field gave ages ranging from 1099±12Ma to 1129±12Ma. The non-diamondiferous kimberlites from the Narayanpet field gave ages ranging from 1123±17Ma to 1141±18Ma. One kimberlite (Siddanpalle cluster) from the poorly-diamondiferous Raichur field has an indistinguishable age of 1093±18Ma. Our data contribute to the evidence for a near-synchronous late Mesoproterozoic kimberlite emplacement event in the Eastern Dharwar craton at 1.1Ga and increases the spatial extent of this tectonomagmatic event. The perovskite U-Pb ages of kimberlites determined in this study are similar to those of the diamondiferous Majhgawan and Bunder lamproites of the Bundelkhand craton (northern India) and Nuapada lamproites of Bastar craton, (central India), but are clearly much younger than the 1.5Ga ages recently reported for some of the Krishna lamproites of the Eastern Dharwar Craton. Regardless of their contemporaneous ages, initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of Narayanpet perovskites are notably higher (0.70302-0.70339) than those (0.70240-0.70255) from the Wajrakarur Field. Similarly, the εNd(t) of Narayanpet perovskite (+0.6 to +1.9) is relatively lower than that (+2 to +2.9) of the Wajrakarur perovskites and provides clear evidence for the involvement of distinct isotopic mantle sources for these different kimberlite fields. The Raichur kimberlite has an indistinguishable initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio (0.70305) and εNd(t) (+1.4) to the Narayanpet kimberlites. The perovskite depleted mantle model ages (TDM) of the Wajrakarur and Narayanpet kimberlites range from 1.3 to 1.5Ga and are inferred to be distant effects related to the break-up of the Columbia supercontinent and separation of the North China craton and Indian shield from the Laurentia continent. A variably-enriched metasomatised sub-continental lithospheric mantle overprinted by an asthenospheric signature within a short time-span can account for the distinct isotopic signals of kimberlites in different fields of the Eastern Dharwar Craton and their "transitional" petrological and geochemical characteristics compared to archetypal kimberlites. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Singh G.S.P.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering | Year: 2015

Effective control of roof strata is very important for trouble free operation and regular face advance in mechanised longwall workings. It is now technically possible to exploit coal seams in difficult geo-mining conditions with the help of newer innovations in longwall face machineries. A reliable assessment of caving behaviour and support capacity requirement helps in selecting supports of adequate capacity and making operational preparedness for timely and confident solution of impending problems. This paper reviews the mechanism of roof caving and the conventional approaches of caving behaviour and support requirement in the context of major strata control experiences gained worldwide. The review shows that a number of approaches are being used for advance prediction of caving behaviour and support capacity requirement in a variety of geo-mining conditions. The theoretical explanation of the mechanism of roof caving and the design function of roof supports have been worked out through staged development of approaches, their evaluation followed by their gradual modification and enrichment of synthesized findings. This process is still continuing with consistently improved understanding through growing field experiences in the larger domain of geo-mining conditions and state-of-art strata analysis and monitoring techniques. These attempts have contributed significantly to improving the level of understanding and reducing the gap of uncertainty in planning and design of longwall operation in a given geo-mining condition. © 2015 Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Source


Kumar M.D.,Institute for Resource Analysis and Policy | Scott C.A.,University of Arizona | Singh O.P.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2011

India's farm sector sustains livelihoods for hundreds of millions of rural people, but faces serious management challenges for land, water, and energy resources. Growing dependence on groundwater threatens water resources sustainability and power sector viability. Sustaining India's rising prosperity rests on managing groundwater. This study shows that raising power tariffs in the farm sector to achieve efficiency and sustainability of groundwater use is both socially and economically viable. The question is about how to introduce this shift. This paper discusses five different options for power supply, metering and energy pricing in the farm sector and the expected outcomes of implementing each vis-a-vis efficiency of groundwater and energy use, equity in access and sustainability of groundwater. It concludes that establishing an energy quota for each farm-based on sustainability considerations, and metering and charging pro rata for power used are the best options to manage groundwater and the energy economy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Prakash J.,Banaras Hindu University
Indian Journal of Nephrology | Year: 2012

The spectrum of kidney disease occurring during pregnancy includes preeclampsia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, urinary tract infection, acute kidney injury, and renal cortical necrosis (RCN). Preeclampsia affects approximately 3-5% of pregnancies. We observed preeclampsia in 5.8% of pregnancies, and 2.38% of our preeclamptic women developed eclampsia. Severe preeclampsia and the eclampsia or hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes levels, and low platelets count (HELLP) syndrome accounted for about 40% of cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy. Preeclampsia/eclampsia was the cause of acute renal failure (ARF) in 38.3% of the cases. Preeclampsia was the most common (91.7%) cause of hypertension during pregnancy, and chronic hypertension was present in 8.3% of patients. We observed urinary tract infection (UTI) in 9% of pregnancies. Sepsis resulting from pyelonephritis can progress to endotoxic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and AKI. The incidence of premature delivery and low birth weight is higher in women with UTI. The incidence of AKI in pregnancy with respect to total ARF cases has decreased over the last 30 years from 25% in 1980s to 5% in 2000s. Septic abortion-related ARF decreased from 9% to 3%. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy and avoidance of septic abortion are key to eliminate abortion-associated ARF in early pregnancy. The two most common causes of ARF in third trimester and postpartum periods were puerperal sepsis and preeclampsia/HELLP syndrome. Pregnancy-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were rare causes of ARF. Despite decreasing incidence, AKI remains a serious complication during pregnancy. Source


Parchur A.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Ningthoujam R.S.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2011

The nanoparticles of CaMoO 4:Eu 3+ (Eu 3+ = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 at. %) are prepared at low temperature (150 °C for 3 h) using urea hydrolysis in ethylene glycol. These are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From XRD study, it was found that the solubility limit of Eu 3+ ions at the Ca 2+ sites is up to 3 at. % and above this, phase segregation occurs. In combination with Rietveld analysis, its crystal structure was found to be tetragonal phase (space group I4 1/a (88) and Z = 4 (number of CaMoO 4 formula units per unit cell). Unit cell parameters and bond distances are calculated. The average crystallite sizes of as-prepared, 500 and 900 °C heated samples are found to be 20, 35 and 70 nm, respectively. The lattice strain is found to be 0.003-0.005. From IR study, the bands at 820 and 441 cm -1 are assigned to asymmetric stretching and bending vibrations of the MoO 4 2- tetrahedron, respectively. From TEM study, the shape of particle was found to be spherical. The high resolution TEM suggests a change in orientation of the crystal on annealing up to 900 °C. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011. Source


Allam B.,Banaras Hindu University
Synlett | Year: 2013

(Phenylsulfonyl)difluoromethylation Hu's group has developed an efficient protocol for vinylic difluoromethylation of α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids catalyzed by CuF22H2O and TMEDA in H 2O-DCE. (B) Direct ortho Arylation of Electron-Deficient N-Heteroarenes Da and co-workers reported an efficient metal-free protocol for the direct ortho arylation of electron-deficient N-heteroarenes with aromatic Grignard reagents assisted by TMEDA. Differently substituted quinolines, isoquinolines, pyridines, and quinoxaline have participated well in the addition reactions with Grignard reagents. (C) Syntheses of Unsymmetrical Conjugated Diynes The aerobic oxidative coupling of two different terminal alkynes has been achieved through the cooperative catalysis of NiCl26H2O and CuI. The protocol utilizes 20 mol% TMEDA as the ligand and air or O 2 as the oxidant. (D) Cyanation of Aryl Halides Shen et al. have discovered an inexpensive and non-toxic cyanation of electron-rich and electron-deficient aryl halides using ethyl cyanoacetate as a source of the cyano group. The reaction has been conducted using Pd(OAc)2 as a catalyst and in the presence of 1,2- bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane (DPPE), potassium iodide, and TMEDA in DMF. (E) Synthesis of 2H-Indazoles S. Lee and co-workers have investigated a three-component reaction for the construction of 2H-indazoles through a sequential C-N and N-N bond formation in the presence of CuI and TMEDA. (F) Annulation of 2-Bromoalkynylbenzenes with Na2S The synthesis of 2-substituted benzo[b]thiophenes was achieved from a CuI/TMEDA-catalyzed thiolation-annulation reaction between 2- bromoalkynylbenzenes and Na2S·9H2O. The use of Na2S·9H2O as a cheap and operationally convenient sulfur source makes this protocol simple and environmentally viable. (G) Conjugate Addition of Alkyl Halides to Enones Lipshutz et al. have reported a green protocol for the copper-catalyzed conjugate addition of alkyl halides to enones in water at room temperature without an organometallic precursor. (H) Cross-Coupling between Two Tertiary Alkyl Carbons Liu and co-workers have reported a rare copper-catalyzed cross-coupling between two tertiary alkyl carbons with the key use of TMEDA and LiOMe. The reaction offers the stereocontrolled formation of C-C bonds and involves an SN2 mechanism with inversion of configuration. (I) As a Carbon Source TMEDA can be served as an excellent donor of methylene and formyly groups. An investigation carried out by Li and co-workers has revealed the base-switched use of TMEDA for methylenation and formylation catalyzed by CuCl2 with atmospheric O2 as an oxidant. (J) Direct C-H Functionalization A highly regioselective direct C-H functionalization of benzo-[h]quinoline and phenylpyridine derivatives with alkyl or aryl Grignard reagents has been achieved with the use of Co(acac) 3 as the catalyst and TMEDA as an additive. (K) C-N Bond Cleavage S.-K. Tian et al. have reported a palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of aliphatic allylic amines and boronic acids. The strategy results in a C-C bond by C-N bond cleavage. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, New York. Source


Chaubey R.,Banaras Hindu University
International Journal of Theoretical Physics | Year: 2012

The Kantowski-Sachs (KS) model filled with perfect fluid in Lyra's geometry has been considered. We obtain two classes of exact solutions of the field equations in Lyra's geometry with a time-dependent displacement vector. The exact solutions to the corresponding field equations are obtained in quadrature form. The solutions to the Einstein field equations are obtained for power law and exponential form. The cosmological parameters have been discussed in detail. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Muthu M.S.,Banaras Hindu University | Feng S.-S.,National University of Singapore
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery | Year: 2013

Liposomes are one of the effective drug delivery systems that are developed based on the nanotechnology concept. Liposomal formulation is the first nanomedicine approved by the US FDA for clinical application. Recently, the marketed liposomes and stealth liposomes have made impact for cancer therapy. In addition, a few receptor-targeted liposome products have been in different phases of clinical trials, which are yet to be marketed. In the present editorial, the advantages of vitamin E TPGS-coated liposomes over the currently available PEG-coated liposomes will be described and their great potentials for nanotheranostics for cancer imaging and therapy will be covered. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd. Source


Das S.,Banaras Hindu University
ZAMM Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik | Year: 2010

In this paper, the problem of an edge crack of finite length, situated in an orthotropic infinite strip of finite thickness h, under normal point loading has been considered. The displacements and stresses for orthotropic elasticity in plane strain condition are expressed in terms of two harmonic functions. The problem is resolved in a simplistic manner by seeking the solution of a pair of simultaneous integral equations with Cauchy type singularities which have finally been solved through finite Hilbert Transform technique. For large h, the analytical expression of the stress intensity factor (SIF) at the crack tip is obtained, which corresponds to the weight function of a crack under normal point loading. The numerical results of the normalized stress intensity factor at different arbitrary locations of the crack surface and various values of crack length have been computed for a particular orthotropic material (Steel-Mylar composite) and the results are depicted graphically.© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Bhadauria B.S.,Banaras Hindu University | Kiran P.,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2015

A weak onlinear analysis of double diffusive convection in an electrically conducting viscoelastic fluid layer heated from below, has been performed for the range of viscoelastic parameters where oscillatory mode exists. A uniform magnetic field has been applied vertically. Employing complex non-autonomous Ginzburg-Landau equation, the effects of various parameters on double diffusive convection is investigated. Weak nonlinear analysis reveals that the values of viscoelastic parameters have significant effect on the instability. The present study is to investigate the effect of time periodic gravity field on heat and mass transfer in the presence of external magnetic field, where controlling convection external to the system is important. It is found that the variation of Nusselt, Sherwood numbers with respect to the slow time becomes rapid upon increasing the solutal Rayleigh number Rs, Prandtl number Pr, time relaxation parameter λ and amplitude of modulation δ2 or decreasing on Chandrasekhar number Q, diffusivity ratio Γ, time retardation parameter ε and frequency of modulation Ω. It is found that the applied magnetic field has a stabilizing effect, hence reducing heat and mass transport in the system. Further, modulated gravity field can be used either to delay or enhance the heat and mass transfer in the system. Chaotic convection under gravity modulation has also been investigated using Lorenz model. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Agrawal D.C.,Banaras Hindu University
Lighting Research and Technology | Year: 2010

The experimentally known values of the 14 exponents associated with the exponent-rules for vacuum and gas-filled tungsten filament lamps are utilized to obtain the temperature dependence of performance parameters such as power demand, lumen output, life and efficacy. It is also shown that the data on emissivity of tungsten reported by Jones and Langmuir are consistent with theory in contrast to those obtained by Roser and Wensel. Further, the analysis predicts a higher power loss factor and a longer life for gas-filled tungsten filament lamps than for vacuum lamps. © The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers 2010. Source


Venkateshwarlu M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Chalapathi Rao N.V.,Banaras Hindu University
Precambrian Research | Year: 2013

New palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic results are reported for 1.1Ga Mesoproterozoic kimberlites from the distinct fields of Wajrakarur (WKF), Narayanpet (NKF) and Raichur (RKF) occurring within the Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India. In all, 35 oriented block samples were collected from ten kimberlite pipes and our results constitute first of their kind for the kimberlites from NKF and RKF. Palaeomagnetic data reveal that characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) directions of the studied kimberlites show a mean declination of 39 and mean inclination of -16 (N=4, k=37.6 and α95=15.2) and yield a virtual geomagnetic pole at 44.5°N, 195.4°E (dp=8.0, dm=15.6). This new pole position is identical to the earlier reported palaeomagnetic pole that lies at 36.8°N, 212.5°E for some Wajrakarur kimberlites and other such global results at 1100Ma from Umkondo dolerites, Kalahari craton, southern Africa. The newly obtained palaeomagnetic pole also correlates well with the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) generated from the 1.1Ga Majhgawan kimberlite, Mahoba dyke and the Bhander-Rewa sedimentary Group in the Upper Vindhyan sequence within the Bundelkhand craton of Northern India. Our results support a Mesoproterozoic closure age of the upper sedimentary horizons for the 'Purana' sedimentary basins and provide evidence for accretion of the northern and southern Indian cratonic blocks prior to 1.1Ga. Our study also demonstrates that in ~1.1Ga palaeomagnetically based Rodinia reconstructions, India occupies a lower palaeolatitudinal position, was much separated from Australia and that East Gondwana very likely did not form an assembly until the terminal Neoproterozoic. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.. Source


Fatima R.,Banaras Hindu University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

This study reports the identification and characterization of a novel gene, Dic61B, required for male fertility in Drosophila. Complementation mapping of a novel male sterile mutation, ms21, isolated in our lab revealed it to be allelic to CG7051 at 61B1 cytogenetic region, since two piggyBac insertion alleles, CG7051 c05439 and CG7051 f07138 failed to complement. CG7051 putatively encodes a Dynein intermediate chain. All three mutants, ms21, CG7051 c05439 and CG7051 f07138, exhibited absolute recessive male sterility with abnormally coiled sperm axonemes causing faulty sperm individualization as revealed by Phalloidin staining in Don Juan-GFP background. Sequencing of PCR amplicons uncovered two point mutations in ms21 allele and confirmed the piggyBac insertions in CG7051 c05439 and CG7051 f07138 alleles to be in 5′UTR and 4 th exon of CG7051 respectively, excision of which reverted the male sterility. In situ hybridization to polytene chromosomes demonstrated CG7051 to be a single copy gene. RT-PCR of testis RNA revealed defective splicing of the CG7051 transcripts in mutants. Interestingly, expression of cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain, α, β, γ tubulins and α-spectrin was normal in mutants while ultra structural studies revealed defects in the assembly of sperm axonemes. Bioinformatics further highlighted the homology of CG7051 to axonemal dynein intermediate chain of various organisms, including DNAI1 of humans, mutations in which lead to male sterility due to immotile sperms. Based on these observations we conclude that CG7051 encodes a novel axonemal dynein intermediate chain essential for male fertility in Drosophila and rename it as Dic61B. This is the first axonemal Dic gene of Drosophila to be characterized at molecular level and shown to be required for spermatogenesis. © 2011 Roshan Fatima. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


A number of ENE-WSW trending Paleoproterozoic dykes and plugs of mafic, ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatite rocks intrude Mahakoshal supracrustal belt (MSB), which is a part of the Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ). Best exposures of these intrusions are found in the eastern parts of the MSB, particularly in and around Chitrangi area. Many of these intrusions have greenschist facies mineral composition and show sharp contact with supracrustal rocks. However, igneous textures, such as porphyritic/ glomeroporphyritic, are still preserved in the form of partly pseudomorphed olivines, phlogopites and pyroxenes. Striking feature observed in some ultramafic samples is the presence of melanite garnet and rounded or elliptical carbonate ocelli. The petrographic characteristics suggest occurrence of carbonate-rich ultramafic lamprophyres; close to aillikite composition. Coarse-grained carbonatites show hypidiomorphic texture and mostly composed of calcite with appreciable amount of silicate minerals like clinopyroxene, phlogopite and olivine (often pseudomorphed by calcite, amphibole and chlorite). It is difficult to establish any direct genetic relationship between carbonatite and ultramafic lamprophyre samples on the basis of their chemistry; they were likely derived from distinct parental melts. High Mg# (up to ~78), and high Ni and Cr contents (up to ~1700 and ~1100, respectively) and low HREE concentration in few ultramafic lamprophyre samples apparently suggest their derivation from a near-primary mantle-derived melts originated at great depths. Geochemistry and presence of carbonate ocellae in ultramafic lamprophyre samples suggest genesis of these silicate rocks and associated carbonatites through liquid immiscibility, however possibility of their derivation through vein-plus-wall-rock melting model cannot be ignored. A multi-stage veined mantle melting model is suitable in the latter case. It is suggested that early stages of rifting in the Mahakoshal region due to lithospheric thinning caused by possible plume activity provided suitable conditions for the genesis of ultramafic lamprophyre (possibly aillikitic) and carbonatitic melts which ultimately crystallized as dykes and plugs. © Indian Academy of Sciences. Source


Chowdhury P.,University of Calcutta | Kudela K.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Dwivedi B.N.,Banaras Hindu University
Solar Physics | Year: 2013

Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) encounter an outward-moving solar wind with cyclic magnetic-field fluctuation and turbulence. This causes convection and diffusion in the heliosphere. The GCR counts from the ground-based neutron monitor stations show intensity changes that are anti-correlated with the sunspot numbers with a lag of a few months. GCRs experience various types of modulation from different solar activity features and influence space weather and the terrestrial climate. In this work, we investigate certain aspects of the GCR modulation at low cut-off rigidity (Rc≈1 GV) in relation to some solar and geomagnetic indices for the entire solar cycle 23 (1996 - 2008). We separately study the GCR modulation during the ascending phase of cycle 23 including its maximum (1996 - 2002) and the descending phase including its minimum (2003 - 2008). We find that during the descending phase, the GCR recoveries are much faster than those of the solar parameters with negative time-lag. The results are discussed in light of modulation models, including drift effects and previous results. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Kumar V.,Banaras Hindu University
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift | Year: 2013

Summary Silexan is an essential oil produced from Lavandula angustifolia flowers with proven clinical efficacy for the treatment of anxiety disorders. The present study was conducted to assess its anxiolytic activity and to screen for neuropharmacological properties in rats and mice of either sex. Silexan (3, 10, and 30 mg/ kg, intraperitoneally), lorazepam (5 mg/kg, p.o.), or diazepam (3 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered once daily for 7 consecutive days. Experiments were conducted 1 h after the last drug or vehicle administration. All the three doses of Silexan showed significant and dose-dependent anxiolytic activity in the used pharmacological models (open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, elevated zeromaze test, social interaction test, and novelty-induced suppressed feeding latency test), which was comparable to that of the standard anxiolytic agent lorazepam. In addition, Silexan amplified pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, but in contrast to diazepam was found to be devoid of any significant effect on locomotor activity and muscle-grip performance © Springer-Verlag Wien 2013. Source


Prakash J.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of Association of Physicians of India | Year: 2013

In contrast to Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), the incidence of non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD) is very high in Type 2 diabetic patients. A wide spectrum of non-diabetic nephropathy (NDN) including both glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions are reported in patients with Type 2 DM and their precise diagnosis requires histological examination of kidney tissue. Renal biopsy studies suggest that 25-50% of patients with Type 2 diabetes had glomerular lesions unrelated to or in addition to diabetic nephropathy. Histological studies confirm that NDRD can occur in isolated form without diabetic nephropathy or superimposed on diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy can occur in absence of retinopathy and chance of getting diabetic and non-diabetic renal lesions are nearly equal in Type 2 diabetic patient in absence of diabetic retinopathy (RP). The presence of RP suggests the concurrence of DN, but does not exclude non-diabetic nephropathy. Clearly, renal biopsy is indicated in proteinuric Type 2 diabetic patients for precise diagnosis of diabetic vs non-diabetic renal disease. Appropriate treatment of NDRD is associated with good clinical outcome. Thus, it is gratifying to treat NDRD in selected patients. Besides, 40 to 60% of ESRD in Type 2 diabetic patients is not caused by diabetic nephropathy. © JAPI. Source


Muthu M.S.,National University of Singapore | Muthu M.S.,Banaras Hindu University | Leong D.T.,National University of Singapore | Mei L.,Tsinghua University | Feng S.-S.,National University of Singapore
Theranostics | Year: 2014

Nanotheranostics is to apply and further develop nanomedicine strategies for advanced theranostics. This review summarizes the various nanocarriers developed so far in the literature for nanotheranostics, which include polymer conjugations, dendrimers, micelles, liposomes, metal and inorganic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and nanoparticles of biodegradable polymers for sustained, controlled and targeted co-delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents for better theranostic effects with fewer side effects. The theranostic nanomedicine can achieve systemic circulation, evade host defenses and deliver the drug and diagnostic agents at the targeted site to diagnose and treat the disease at cellular and molecular level. The therapeutic and diagnostic agents are formulated in nanomedicine as a single theranostic platform, which can then be further conjugated to biological ligand for targeting. Nanotheranostics can also promote stimuli- responsive release, synergetic and combinatory therapy, siRNA co-delivery, multimodality therapies, oral delivery, delivery across the blood-brain barrier as well as escape from intracellular autophagy. The fruition of nanotheranostics will be able to provide personalized therapy with bright prognosis, which makes even the fatal diseases curable or at least treatable at the earliest stage. © Ivyspring International Publisher. Source


Major and trace element geochemistry of Proterozoic granitoids from the Dirang and Galensiniak Formations, of Lesser and Higher Himalayas, respectively, emplaced in and around Dirang and Tawang regions of the western Arunachal Himalaya, is discussed. In general, these granitoids are massive as well as foliated in nature and are characterized by granitic mineralogical compositions. Porphyritic and hypidiomorphic textures are common in massive type, whereas others show porphyroblastic and foliated textures. Augen structure is also observed in a number of samples. Geochemical and normative compositions together with petrographic features classify them as peraluminous granitoids. Major and trace element geochemistry of most of these granitoids shows granitic nature, while few samples also show monzonitic characteristics. Observed geochemical characters, such as their peraluminous and alkali-calcic/calcic-alkalic nature, crudely defined geochemical patterns, different multi-element and rare-earth element patterns, together with low Mg# (Mg number) of these granitoids suggest their derivation from lower crustal material rather than a mantle source. Multi-element and rare-earth element patterns corroborate their genesis from different crustal melts. It is difficult to explain variations observed in granitoid rocks by partial melting alone; definitely different other processes like migration of melts, magma mixing, assimilation and fractional crystallization also played important role in the genesis of these granitoids. These melts were likely generated at low temperature (730-760 °C) and low pressure (2-5 GPa). The chemical compositions suggest that most of these Paleoproterozoic granitoids are emplaced within the syn-collisional tectonic setting, while few granitoid samples also indicate their volcanic-arc nature. Probably, later group of granitoids are slightly younger to the syn-collisional type. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Kumar S.,Banaras Hindu University | Li M.S.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Physics Reports | Year: 2010

Recent advances in single molecule experiments have raised many challenges. These challenges can be met by a proper understanding of the inter- and intra-molecular interactions in the framework of physics followed by suitable theoretical models substantiated by extensive numerical simulations. In this review, we briefly discuss experimental, theoretical and numerical techniques used to examine the dynamics of biomolecules under the application of external mechanical force. We focus on issues which require special attention: the relationship between the mechanical stability of a protein and the secondary structure of its native conformation, the dependence of the free energy landscape on the pulling direction and secondary structure content, unfolding of a protein through a pore, protein re-folding under quenched force etc. We pay special attention to a single stranded DNA, where the force-extension curve shows a multi-step plateau for the chain made up of adenine while poly-thymine exhibits entropic response only. There are many interesting predictions related to unzipping of double stranded DNA e.g. re-entrance in the force-temperature phase diagram, existence of an "Eye-phase", effects of random disorder etc. based on model studies which require further investigation. We will also discuss cases where the theoretical descriptions of the models fail to explain the experimentally observed behavior and when further refinement is needed in order to describe the outcomes of experiments. Finally we suggest certain experimental protocols to observe theoretical predictions in vitro. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. Source


Singh B.N.,Banaras Hindu University
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2010

Drosophila ananassae, a cosmopolitan and domestic species, was first described by Doleschall in 1858 from Indonesia. During 1930s, cytological and genetical investigations in D. ananassae were initiated in Japan and USA which showed that it is a genetically unique species. Since then a large number of studies have been carried out by researchers in Japan, USA, India, France and Germany in this genetically unique species. Present review briefly summarizes the work done on genetical, behavioural and evolutionary aspects in D. ananassae which demonstrates that it is a good model species for such studies. Further, it is also discussed how the work on D. ananassae has enriched our understanding of basic phenomena like evolution and behaviour compared to similar studies on other model Drosophilds like D. melanogaster, D. pseudoobscura or D. subobsura. Source


Srivastava A.K.,Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational science ARIES | Dwivedi B.N.,Banaras Hindu University
New Astronomy | Year: 2010

We study intensity oscillations near the apex of a coronal loop to find the signature of MHD oscillations. We analyse the time series of the strongest Fe XII 195.12 Å image data, observed by 40″ SLOT of the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) onboard the Hinode spacecraft. Using a standard wavelet tool, we produce power spectra of intensity oscillations at location 'L3' near the apex of a clearly visible coronal loop. We detect intensity oscillations of a period of ≈322 s with a probability of 96%. This oscillation period of ≈322 s is found to be in good agreement with theory of the (second) harmonics of standing slow acoustic oscillations of P2 nd slow ≈ 313 ± 31 s. We detect, for the first time, the observational signature of multiple (first and second) harmonics of slow acoustic oscillations in the non-flaring coronal loop. Such oscillations have been observed in the past in hot and flaring coronal loops only, but have been predicted recently to exist in comparatively cooler and non-flaring coronal loops as well. We find the periodicities ∼497 s and ∼592 s with the probability 99-100% at the 'L1' and 'L2' locations, respectively, near the clearly visible western footpoint of the loop. We interpret these oscillations to be likely associated with the first harmonics (fundamental mode) of slow acoustic oscillations. Using the period ratios P1 / P2 = 1.54 and 1.84, we estimate the density scale heights in the EUV loop as ∼10 Mm and 21 Mm, respectively, in which the latter value (∼21 Mm) is compared well with the loop half length. We also find an evidence of propagating bright blob at its lower bound sub-sonic speed of ≈6.4 km/s, suggesting that they are caused by the mass flow from one end to the other in the coronal loop. We also suggest that standing oscillations, and propagating bright blobs caused probably by the pulse of plasma flow, co-exist in comparatively cooler and non-flaring coronal loop. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Singh C.,Banaras Hindu University
Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance | Year: 2013

Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectroscopy is increasingly becoming a popular technique to probe micro-structural details of biomaterial such as bone with pico-meter resolution. Due to high- resolution structural details probed by SSNMR methods, handling of bone samples and experimental protocol are very crucial aspects of study. We present here first report of the effect of various experimental protocols and handling methods of bone samples on measured SSNMR parameters. Various popular SSNMR experiments were performed on intact cortical bone sample collected from fresh animal, immediately after removal from animal systems, and results were compared with bone samples preserved in different conditions. We find that the best experimental conditions for SSNMR parameters of bones correspond to preservation at -20 C and in 70% ethanol solution. Various other SSNMR parameters were compared corresponding to different experimental conditions. Our study has helped in finding best experimental protocol for SSNMR studies of bone. This study will be of further help in the application of SSNMR studies on large bone disease related animal model systems for statistically significant results. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Marla S.S.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Singh V.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Functional and Integrative Genomics | Year: 2012

Plant Lipoxygenases (LOX) are known to play major role in plant immunity by providing front-line defense against pathogen-induced injury. To verify this, we isolated a full-length OsLOX3 gene and also 12 OsLOX cDNA clones from Oryza sativa indica (cultivar Pusa Basmati 1). We have examined the role played by LOXs in plant development and during attack by blast pathogen Magnaporthe grisea. Gene expression, promoter region analysis, and biochemical and protein structure analysis of isolated OsLOX3 revealed significant homology with LOX super family. Protein sequence comparison of OsLOXs revealed high levels of homology when compared with japonica rice (up to100%) and Arabidopsis (up to 64%). Isolated LOX3 gene and 12 OsLOX cDNAs contained the catalytic LOX domains much required for oxygen binding and synthesis of oxylipins. Amino acid composition, protein secondary structure, and promoter region analysis (with abundance of motifs CGTCA and TGACG) support the role of OsLOX3 gene in providing resistance to diseases in rice plants. OsLOX3 gene expression analysis of root, shoot, flag leaf, and developing and mature seed revealed organ specific patterns during rice plant development and gave evidence to association between tissue location and physiological roles played by individual OsLOXs. Increased defense activity of oxylipins was observed as demonstrated by PCR amplification of OsLOX3 gene and upon inoculation with virulent strains of M. grisea and ectopic application of methyl jasmonate in the injured leaf tissue in adult rice plants. © Springer-Verlag 2012. Source


Low stress (three-body) abrasive wear tests have been carried out on various unreinforced thermoplastic polymers using a rubber wheel abrasion test (RWAT) rig. Wear studies have been carried out using angular silica sand particles of size ranging between 150 and 250 μm and used as dry and loose abrasives. Abrasive wear studies was carried out at a constant sliding velocity (v= 2.4 m/s) of rubber wheel and at different loads (5-20. N). The results showed that abrasive wear rates were strongly influenced by the applied load and type of polymeric material. The worn surfaces have been observed using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to understand the possible wear mechanisms involved during material removal processes. It was observed that semicrystalline polymers reflected ductile failure mode whereas amorphous polymers dominated by brittle failure mode. Efforts were made to correlate the abrasive wear rates with various combinations of mechanical properties. Possible correlations between abrasive wear rates with mechanical properties are reported. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Singh S.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2013

Incidence of pitting, vary considerably in different types of psoriasis. In clinical practice, toe nail examination is inconvenient. There are inadequate studies which show relation of nail pitting with duration and severity of the disease. The objective was to examine the incidence of finger nail pitting in all types of cutaneous psoriasis and its relation with different variables. This is a clinico-epidemiological study. A careful clinical examination of finger nails was done in day time. Severity of disease was calculated by psoriasis area severity index (PASI). Statistical analysis was done using Microcomputer statistics software (MSTAT). In study group, 621 patients and in control group 350 people were taken. Finger nail pitting was present in 37% (total number was < 20 in 17%; 20-60 in 8% and > 60 in 12%) in study group. In control group, it was present in 10% (in all cases total number was < 20). In < 1 year duration group, pitting was present in 32% of cases, while in > 1 year duration group it was 40.5%.In mild psoriasis, pitting was present in 34.2%, while in severe cases it was 47.6%. Finger nail pitting is an important nail finding in psoriasis and its incidence increases with duration and severity of disease. Source


Banerjee G.,Banaras Hindu University
Practice Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Management | Year: 2010

Coprecipitation of arsenic by alum or iron salts produces a large quantity of arsenic-laden sludge (an average of 6.10 g As/dm3 of sludge on dry basis) in conventional arsenic removal plant (ARP). This toxic sludge, along with acclimated composite organic waste slurry containing a mixture of partially digested liquefied market waste, primary sludge of sewage treatment plant, and liquefied water hyacinth at 1-10% by volume of the total, was anaerobically digested for a period of 30-50 days. The maximum removal of arsenic was obtained as 99.69% at a digestion period of 50 days. The minimum biogas generation at 30 days digestion period was found to be 0.560 m3 (at standard temperature and pressure) per cubic meter of composite feed slurry at 10% of ARP sludge. The results show that presence of arsenic in adequately acclimated composite feed sludge does not significantly inhibit the anaerobic digestion process. It may thus be stated that anaerobic digestion of arsenic-laden composite organic waste sludge could be a viable option for the safe and cost-effective disposal of arsenic-laden sludge available from existing arsenic removal water plants in arsenic affected areas. © 2010 ASCE. Source


Mahanty R.,Banaras Hindu University
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2014

The paper deals with an indirect current controlled shunt active power filter (APF) for improving power quality by reactive power compensation and harmonic filtering. The proposed APF is based on a voltage source inverter (VSI). The VSI is controlled by two loops, the voltage control loop and the current control loop. The voltage control loop regulates the DC link capacitor voltage and the current control loop uses hysteresis band control to shape the source current such that it is in-phase with and of the same shape as the input voltage. The major advantage of the proposed APF is that the reference current for power quality improvement is generated from the DC link capacitor voltage. The proposed scheme has been verified through simulation and experimental investigations. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Verma A.K.,University of Delhi | Joshi M.,University of Delhi | Singh V.P.,Banaras Hindu University
Organic Letters | Year: 2011

The regio- and stereoselective addition of N-heterocycles to alkynes using KOH is reported. Formation of (Z)-isomers and their conversion to (E)-products were found to be dependent upon time as well as the choice of base. Selective attack of N-heterocycles on a more electrophilic alkynyl carbon was supported by DFT calculations, and the stereochemistry of the products was established by X-ray crystallographic studies and intramolecular cyclization of ortho-haloalkynes in indolo-[2,1-a]isoquinolines. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source


Singh S.,Banaras Hindu University
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology | Year: 2011

Background: Pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid, and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita are autoimmune diseases of skin associated with considerable morbidity and sometimes mortality. There is no cure for these diseases. Aims: To summarize evidence-based treatments for these diseases by performing a systematic review. Methods: The research protocol included the following steps: identification of databases to be searched, defining search strategy, searching the databases for references, first-stage screening of the abstracts, second-stage screening of full texts of articles identified after the first-stage screening, data extraction from the identified articles after second-stage screening, quality appraisal of the studies using the Delphi list, and summarizing the findings. Results: No randomized controlled trials of interventions in pemphigus vegetans, pemphigus erythematosus, and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita could be found. After the second-stage screening, 12 randomized controlled trials were analyzed, which included patients with pemphigus vulgaris or pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus, and 7 which included patients with bullous pemphigoid. Conclusions: Number of high-quality randomized controlled trials conducted on pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid is small. Oral corticosteroid along with a steroid-sparing agent appears to be the most effective treatment for pemphigus. Azathioprine may be most effective as a steroid-sparing agent. Topical corticosteroid therapy (as studied) is effective for bullous pemphigoid and appears to be superior to oral corticosteroid for extensive disease. Some suggestions about future research are made. Source


Sharma N.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Singh S.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Reviews in Medical Virology | Year: 2016

The advances in RNA sequencing have unveiled various non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which modulate the gene expression. ncRNAs do not get translated into proteins. These include transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs, microRNA (miRNA), short interfering RNA, long non-coding RNA, piwi-interacting RNA and small nuclear RNA. ncRNAs regulate gene expression at various levels and control cellular machinery. miRNAs have been reported in plants, animals, several invertebrates and viruses. The miRNAs regulate the gene expression post-transcriptionally. Viral infection strongly influences the abundance and the distribution of miRNAs and other ncRNAs within the host cells. Viruses may encode their own miRNA, which help in the viral life cycle and other aspects of pathogenesis. Viruses are known to successfully modulate the expression pattern of ncRNAs. The ncRNA-based strategies adopted by viruses for their survival present a complex picture of host-virus interactions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Misra A.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of Mathematical Chemistry | Year: 2016

Rain is an important phenomenon occurring in nature. Nowadays, in some places across the world, less amount of rain is observed, which affects human population in several ways, like shortage of drinking water, less production from agriculture fields, increase in pollution level, etc. Keeping this point in view, in this paper, a mathematical model for making artificial rain is proposed and analyzed. In the modeling process, it is assumed that water vapors are continuously formed in the atmosphere and are not condensed enough to form clouds. Further, it is assumed that aerosols (mixture of two or more) are introduced in the atmosphere to increase the process of nucleation of cloud droplets from water vapors and changing them into raindrops. The qualitative analysis of the proposed model is presented using stability theory of differential equations. It is found that model exhibits only one nonnegative equilibrium. The sufficient conditions for stability of the equilibrium have been obtained. Numerical simulation is carried out to see the effect of key parameters on the process leading to rainfall. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland Source


Singh A.K.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Tiwari M.N.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Prakash O.,Banaras Hindu University | Singh M.P.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research
Current Neuropharmacology | Year: 2012

Cypermethrin, a class II pyrethroid pesticide, is used to control insects in the household and agricultural fields. Despite beneficial roles, its uncontrolled and repetitive applications lead to unintended effects in non-target organisms. Cypermethrin crosses the blood-brain barrier and induces neurotoxicity and motor deficits. Cypermethrin prolongs the opening of sodium channel, a major site of its action, leading to hyper-excitation of the central nervous system. In addition to sodium channel, cypermethrin modulates chloride, voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels, alters the activity of glutamate and acetylcholine receptors and adenosine triphosphatases and induces DNA damage and oxidative stress in the neuronal cells. Cypermethrin also modulates the level of neurotransmitters, including gamma-aminobutyric acid and dopamine. It is one of the most commonly used pesticides in neurotoxicology research not only because of its variable responses depending upon the doses, time and routes of exposure and strain, age, gender and species of animals used across multiple studies but also owing to its ability to induce the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration. This article describes the effect of acute, chronic, developmental and adulthood exposures to cypermethrin in experimental animals. The article sheds light on cypermethrin-induced changes in the central nervous system, including its contribution in the onset of specific features, which are associated with the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Resemblances and dissimilarities of cypermethrin-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration with sporadic and chemicals-induced disease models along with its advantages and pitfalls are also discussed. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. Source


The inhibition effect of three aryl pyrazole pyridine derivatives, namely, 3-methyl-6-oxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carbonitrile (APP I), 3-methyl-6-oxo-4-(3-phenoxyphenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carbonitrile (APP II) and 3-methyl-6-oxo-4-(thiophen-2-yl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carbonitrile (APP III), against the corrosion of copper in 0.5 M HCl solution has been systematically investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization measurements and quantum chemical methods. A good correlation between the computed energy gap (ΔE) data and the experimental inhibition efficiencies were found. Potentiodynamic polarization measurement results indicate that all three APP derivatives are cathodic type inhibitors. Among the studied compounds, APP I exhibited the best inhibition activity of 92.3% at 1.59 mmol L-1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of inhibitors on the copper surface. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.2015. Source


Selvamani S.P.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Mishra R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Singh S.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Singh S.K.,Banaras Hindu University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Objectives: Chikungunya virus causes chronic infection with manifestations of joint pain. Human synovial fibroblasts get infected with CHIKV and could lead to pro-inflammatory responses. MicroRNAs have potentials to regulate the gene expression of various anti-viral and pro-inflammatory genes. The study aims to investigate the role of miR-146a in modulation of inflammatory responses of human synovial fibroblasts by Chikungunya virus. Methods: To study the role of miR-146a in CHIKV pathogenesis in human synovial cells and underlying inflammatory manifestations, we performed CHIKV infection in primary human synovial fibroblasts. Western blotting, real-time PCR, luciferase reporter assay, overexpression and knockdown of cellular miR-146a strategies have been employed to validate the role of miR-146a in regulation of pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway. Results: CHIKV infection induced the expression of cellular miR-146a, which resulted into down-regulation of TRAF6, IRAK1, IRAK2 and increased replication of CHIKV in human synovial fibroblasts. Exogenous expression of miR-146a in human synovial fibroblasts led to decreased expression of TRAF6, IRAK1, IRAK2 and decreased replication of CHIKV. Inhibition of cellular miR-146a by anti-miR-146a restored the expression levels of TRAF6, IRAK1 and IRAK2. Downregulation of TRAF6, IRAK1 and IRAK2 led to downstream decreased NF-κB activation through negative feedback loop. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the mechanism of exploitation of cellular miR-146a by CHIKV in modulating the host antiviral immune response in primary human synovial fibroblasts. © 2014 Selvamani et al. Source


Saravanan R.S.S.,Physics Research Center | Pukazhselvan D.,Banaras Hindu University | Mahadevan C.K.,Physics Research Center
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2012

This paper presents a comparative analysis of ZnS QDs synthesized by conventional and microwave heating techniques using zinc acetate and sodium sulphide reactants. The size of the quantum dots achieved by the latter technique (∼3 nm) is at least 30 times smaller than the former technique. Incorporation of excess Na 2S and microwave treatment are the important factors responsible for controlling the size of ZnS nanocrystals. Furthermore, the distribution of quantum dots is highly influenced by the addition of small amount of NaOH. The UV-vis analysis reveals that the band gap can be widened up to 3.94 eV (correspond to ∼3 nm ZnS) from 3.67 eV (correspond to bulk ZnS). Surprisingly better conductivity is observed for the widest band gap ZnS of the present study; this could be due to defects/vacancies present in the system and its influence in the band structure. The higher conductivity value is supported by the smaller activation energy value, smaller dielectric constant and higher dielectric loss, etc. The conduction is further explained by thermionic emission mechanism. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Sarkar J.,Banaras Hindu University
International Journal of Energy Research | Year: 2013

Use of thermoelectric subcooler is one of the techniques to improve the performance of transcritical CO2 cycle. Thermodynamic analyses and optimizations of transcritical CO2 refrigeration cycle with thermoelectric subcooler are presented in this paper. Further, the effects of various operating parameters on cycle performances are studied. It is possible to optimize current supply, discharge pressure, and CO2 subcooling simultaneously based on maximum cooling COP for thermoelectrically enhanced transcritical CO2 refrigeration cycle to get best performance. Results show that thermoelectric current supply, COP improvement, and discharge pressure reduction increase with increase in cycle temperature lift, with maximum values of 11A, 25.6%, and 15.4%, respectively, for studied ranges. Use of thermoelectric subcooler in CO2 refrigeration system not only improves the cooling COP, also reduces the system high-side pressure, compressor pressure ratio, and compressor discharge temperature, and enhances the volumetric cooling capacity. Component-wise irreversibility distribution shows similar trend with basic CO2 cycle, although values are lower leading to higher second law efficiency. Cooling capacity may be enhanced by increasing the current supply for the same thermoelectric configuration with penalty of COP. Study reveals that thermoelectrically enhanced CO2 refrigeration cycle yields significant performance improvement especially for higher-cycle temperature lift. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Srivastava V.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Materials and Design | Year: 2012

The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) addition on mechanical properties of epoxy resin was investigated to obtain the tensile strength, compressive strength and Young's modulus from load versus displacement graphs. The result shows that the tensile strength, compressive strength and Young's modulus of epoxy resin were increased with the addition of MWCNT fillers. The significant improvements in tensile strength, compressive strength and Young's modulus were obtained due to the excellent dispersion of MWCNT fillers in the epoxy resin. The dispersion of MWCNT fillers in epoxy resin was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Also, Halpin-Tsai model was modified by considering the average diameter of internal/external of multi-walled nanotube and orientation factor (α) to calculate the Young's modulus of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/epoxy resin composite. There was a good correlation between the experimentally obtained Young's modulus and modified Halpin-Tsai model. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Mishra A.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology | Year: 2010

In present study multivariate statistical approaches are used; interpretation of large and complex data matrix obtained during a monitoring of the river Ganges in Varanasi. 16 physicochemical and bacteriological variables have been analyzed in water samples collected every three months for two years from six sampling sites where river affected by man made and seasonal influences. The dataset was treated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to extract the parameters that are most important in assessing variation in water quality. Four Principal Factor were identified as responsible for the data structure explaining 90% of the total variance of the dataset, in which nutrient factor (39.2%), sewage and feacal contamination (29.3%), physicochemical sources of variability (6.2%) and waste water pollution from industrial and organic load (5.8%) that represents total variance of water quality in the Ganges River. The present study suggests that PCA techniques are useful tools for identification of important surface water quality parameters. © 2010 Allerton Press, Inc. Source


Agrawal D.C.,Banaras Hindu University
European Journal of Physics | Year: 2016

The Sun illuminates both the Moon and the Earth with practically the same luminous fluxes which are in turn reflected by them. The Moon provides a dim light to the Earth whereas the Earth illuminates the Moon with somewhat brighter light which can be seen from the Earth and is called earthshine. As the amount of light reflected from the Earth depends on part of the Earth and the cloud cover, the strength of earthshine varies throughout the year. The measure of the earthshine light is luminance, which is defined in photometry as the total luminous flux of light hitting or passing through a surface. The expression for the earthshine light in terms of the apparent magnitude has been derived for the first time and evaluated for two extreme cases; firstly, when the Sun's rays are reflected by the water of the oceans and secondly when the reflector is either thick clouds or snow. The corresponding values are -1.30 and -3.69, respectively. The earthshine value -3.22 reported by Jackson lies within these apparent magnitudes. This paper will motivate the students and teachers of physics to look for the illuminated Moon by earthlight during the waning or waxing crescent phase of the Moon and to reproduce the expressions derived here by making use of the inverse-square law of radiation, Planck's expression for the power in electromagnetic radiation, photopic spectral luminous efficiency function and expression for the apparent magnitude of a body in terms of luminous fluxes. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Jena N.R.,Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing | Mishra P.C.,Banaras Hindu University
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2012

DNA damage by endogenous and exogenous agents is a serious concern, as the damaged products can affect genome integrity severely. Damage to DNA may arise from various factors such as DNA base modifications, strand break, inter- and intrastrand crosslinks, and DNA-protein crosslinks. Among these factors, DNA base modification is a common and important form of DNA damage that has been implicated in mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and many other pathological conditions. Among the four DNA bases, guanine (G) has the smallest oxidation potential, because of which it is frequently modified by reactive species, giving rise to a plethora of lethal lesions. Similarly, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG), an oxidatively damaged guanine lesion, also undergoes various degradation reactions giving rise to several mutagenic species. The various products formed from reactions of G or 8-oxoG with different reactive species are mainly 2,6-diamino-4-oxo-5-formamidopyrimidine, 2,5-diamino-4H-imidazolone, 2,2,4-triamino-5-(2H)-oxazolone, 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole, guanidinohydantoin, spiroiminodihydantoin, cyanuric acid, parabanic acid, oxaluric acid, and urea, among others. These products are formed from either ring opening or ring opening and subsequent rearrangement. The main aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of various possible reactions and the mechanisms involved, after which these ring-opened and rearranged products of guanine would be formed in DNA. The biological significance of oxidatively damaged products of G is also discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Kumar R.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2012

The number of genetically modified (GM) crops being cultivated and its produce reaching market is increasing every year. The transgenes (vip3A, cry1Ab, and cry1Ac) from Bacillus thuringiensis are being used by plant breeders, apart from other transgenes for developing insect pest-resistant GM crops. It is therefore necessary to develop an easy, rapid, and reliable detection assay to discriminate GM crops and non-GM crops. Dipstick strips using colloidal gold-labeled polyclonal antibodies were developed for simultaneous detection of Vip3A and Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac proteins. The assay was essentially based on the sandwich format of immunoassay, which was completed within 10 min, and the results were evaluated visually. The detection limits were 50 ng/mL (50 ppb) for both Cry1Ac and Cry1Ab proteins, and 100 ng/mL (100 ppb) for Vip3A protein. The developed dipsticks are suitable for on-site simultaneous screening of GM crops bearing two proteins, which, in turn, reduce cost and time of the assay. © 2012 Publishing Technology. Source


Pandey A.,Banaras Hindu University
Skinmed | Year: 2010

Infantile hemangioma is a common disease. Steroids have been used for its treatment; however, intralesional steroids cause pain and other problems. A treatment modality that can avoid these problems is desirable. The authors evaluated the role of topical steroids as an alternative to intralesional steroids in the treatment of superficial hemangioma. Inclusion criteria were <2 superficial type ofhemangiomas <5 cm. The topical steroid mometasone furoate was applied twice daily. Intralesional triamcinolone acetonide was injected at monthly intervals using a 24-gauge needle at doses of 1 to 2 mg/kg. Forty-five (86.5%) patients responded to treatment with the topical steroids, of which 50% had excellent and 36.5% had good response. In the intralesional group, the response rate was 95.7%, of which 63.8% had excellent and 31.9% had good response. Complications in the topical steroid group were mild itching and irritation (19.2%) and hypopigmentation (7.6%). Complications in the intralesional group were pain (100%), bleeding (17%), infection (17%), cutaneous atrophy (8.5%), cushingoid facies (2.1%), and growth retardation (2.1%). Topical steroids are a reasonably good alternative to intralesional steroids as an initial choice for treating superficial hemangioma. Source


Jha S.K.,Kyushu University | Hayashi K.,Kyushu University | Yadava R.D.S.,Banaras Hindu University
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2014

Present study evaluates application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for concentration estimation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by analyzing response matrix of polymer-functionalized surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array. The performance of ANFIS is compared with that of subtractive clustering based fuzzy inference system (SC-FIS) and backpropagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN). For analysis, the raw SAW sensor array data is preprocessed by logarithmic scaling followed by dimensional autoscaling and the feature extraction by principal component analysis (PCA). For concentration prediction, the extracted feature vectors were fed as input to the three methods (ANFIS, SC-FIS and BP-ANN) independently. The performance of the three methods were evaluated on the basis of root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation value involving actual and estimated values of concentration. Five sets of SAW sensor array responses are analyzed. The analysis includes both experimental and synthetic (sensor model generated) data sets. It is found that the ANFIS has the least value of RMSE and highest value of correlation compared to SC-FIS and BP-ANN. This signifies the relative superiority of ANFIS method. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Singh G.S.P.,Banaras Hindu University | Singh U.K.,Indian School of Mines
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences | Year: 2010

A reliable prediction of the caving behavior of strata and support capacity requirement for longwall workings has always been a challenge for rock mechanics researchers and mine planning engineers. It is very important for successful planning and implementation of high capacity longwall projects to have proper selection of site and compatible roof supports, to ensure safe operation of longwall face especially in massive and difficult to cave strata conditions. This paper illustrates a numerical modeling based integrated approach for predicting the progressive caving behavior of strata and optimum capacity requirement of powered support for longwall working in a given geo-mining and strata condition. A set of design criteria for selection of optimal capacity support integrating the field experience and the numerical modeling results of longwall panels, operated in a widely varying strata conditions in different coalfields of India. Case studies of two typical longwall workings are presented to assess the caving behavior and support requirement for safe operation of longwall working under the site specific regular and en masse caving strata conditions. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Singh A.K.,North West University South Africa | Singh A.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2012

The inhibition effect of 3-(4-((Z)-indolin-3-ylideneamino)phenylimino) indolin-2-one Schiff base (PDBI) on mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution was studied by using electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization curves, weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and linear polarization resistance. PDBI has remarkable inhibition efficiency on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M HCl solution. Polarization measurements indicated that PDBI acts as mixed type corrosion inhibitor. The adsorption of PDBI on the mild steel surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. These results were supplemented by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Prakash D.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of the Geological Society of India | Year: 2010

Zircon cathodoluminescent imaging and SHRIMP U-Pb dating were carried out for metapelitic rocks (sapphirine-bearing granulites and garnet-cordierite gneisses) from the NW of Madurai, Southern India. The cathodoluminescence images reveal the complex, inhomogeneous internal structure having irregular-shaped core and overgrowths. Zircon grains have obliterated oscillatory zoning. SHRIMP U-Pb chronological results yield ages of 550±15 Ma and 530±50 Ma as a time of metamorphic overprint, and the age of 2509±12 Ma and 2509±30 Ma corresponding to a timing of protolith formation for sapphirine-bearing granulites and garnet-cordierite gneisses respectively. Zircon ages reflect that continental crust in the NW of Madurai region resulted from the recycling of Archaean protolith of an igneous origin similar to the preserved crust in the southern part of Dharwar craton. The present SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages are in close agreement with earlier published Nd isotopic data which suggest an extended precrustal history of their protoliths. The abraded zircon grains indicate multiple recycling and repeated metamorphism that has ultimately resulted in present day continental crust exposed in Madurai region. These SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages from metapelitic UHT granulites are also significant to understanding the architecture of the SGT during the amalgamation of Gondwana in Neoproterozoic time. © 2010 Geological Society of India. Source


Rastogi R.P.,Chulalongkorn University | Sinha R.P.,Banaras Hindu University | Incharoensakdi A.,Chulalongkorn University
Chemosphere | Year: 2013

Scytonemin, located in the extracellular polysaccharide sheath of some cyanobacterial species is considered an efficient natural photoprotectant against lethal doses of ultraviolet (UV) radiations. In the present study, scytonemin from the cyanobacterium Rivularia sp. HKAR-4 was partially characterized and investigated for its induction by UV radiation as well as its role in photoprotection. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode-array detection studies revealed the presence of an UV-absorbing compound with absorption maximum at 386. nm. Based on its absorption spectrum and ion trap liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis, the compound was confirmed as scytonemin. In comparison to photosynthetically active radiation, a significant induction in the synthesis of scytonemin was found under UV-stress. Scytonemin also exhibited efficient photoprotective ability by detoxifying the in vivo reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by UV radiation and by reducing the formation of thymine dimers. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the UV-screening effects of scytonemin on in vivo ROS generation and thymine dimer formation in any cyanobacterial strain. Based on these findings, we conclude that scytonemin may play a vital role in the survival and sustainability of cyanobacterial life in adverse environmental conditions such as under high solar irradiances. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Singh S.P.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Klisch M.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Sinha R.P.,Banaras Hindu University | Hader D.-P.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg
Genomics | Year: 2010

Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are a family of more than 20 compounds having absorption maxima between 310 and 362 nm. These compounds are well known for their UV-absorbing/screening role in various organisms and seem to have evolutionary significance. In the present investigation we tested four cyanobacteria, e.g., Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus sp. PCC 6301, for their ability to synthesize MAA and conducted genomic and phylogenetic analysis to identify the possible set of genes that might be involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds. Out of the four investigated species, only A. variabilis PCC 7937 was able to synthesize MAA. Genome mining identified a combination of genes, YP_324358 (predicted DHQ synthase) and YP_324357 (O-methyltransferase), which were present only in A. variabilis PCC 7937 and missing in the other studied cyanobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these two genes are transferred from a cyanobacterial donor to dinoflagellates and finally to metazoa by a lateral gene transfer event. All other cyanobacteria, which have these two genes, also had another copy of the DHQ synthase gene. The predicted protein structure for YP_324358 also suggested that this product is different from the chemically characterized DHQ synthase of Aspergillus nidulans contrary to the YP_324879, which was predicted to be similar to the DHQ synthase. The present study provides a first insight into the genes of cyanobacteria involved in MAA biosynthesis and thus widens the field of research for molecular, bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis of these evolutionary and industrially important compounds. Based on the results we propose that YP_324358 and YP_324357 gene products are involved in the biosynthesis of the common core (deoxygadusol) of all MAAs. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Chaturvedi T.P.,Institute of Medical science | Upadhayay S.N.,Banaras Hindu University
Indian Journal of Dental Research | Year: 2010

Various types of metallic orthodontic appliances are used in the management of malocclusion. These appliances are placed in oral environnent under many stresses and variations such as masticatory forces, appliance loading, temperature fluctuations, varieties of ingested food and saliva. These metals undergo electrochemical reactions with the oral environment resulting in dissolution or formation of chemical compounds. Various microorganisms and many aggressive ions containing oral environment can cause material degradation (corrosion) and its associated problems during long time exposure. Orthodontic alloys must have excellent corrosion resistance to the oral environment, which is highly important for biocompatibility as well as for orthodontic appliance durability. This article reviews various aspects of corrosion (surface degradation) of orthodontic alloys. It explores the emerging research strategies for probing the biocompatibility of materials. During orthodontic treatment, use of nickel free, better corrosion resistance alloys and less use of fluoride containing toothpaste or gel is expected. Source


Kumar S.,Banaras Hindu University
Indian journal of pathology & microbiology | Year: 2010

CONTEXT: Von Willebrand disease is the most common inherited bleeding disorder with a prevalence of approximately 1% in the general population. Studies available from India are limited, showing a prevalence of approximately 10% of vWD amongst inherited bleeding disorders. AIMS: This study aims to know the prevalence and subtypes of vWD in patients presenting with various bleeding manifestations to university hospital. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: We investigated 840 patients presenting with bleeding manifestations in the period from August 2004 to August 2008 for bleeding disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tests performed for the diagnosis of vWD included platelet count, bleeding time (BT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), Factor VIII:C assay, von Willebrand Factor Antigen assay and Ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation. RESULTS: Amongst 840 patients, 230 (27.38%) had inherited bleeding disorder. Out of these, 40 (17.39%) patients were identified as vWD. Type 1 in 17 (42.5%), Type 2 in 11 (27.5%) and Type 3 vWD was present in 12 (30.0%) patients. Patients' age ranged from five months to 45 years, with 17 males and 23 females. Positive family history was seen in 12 patients (30%). Muco-cutaneous bleeding was the most common presentation. Menorrhagia was present in 100% women of reproductive age group, and hemarthrosis was seen in two male patients. CONCLUSIONS: We felt that Type I vWD with infrequent and mild bleeding episodes remain undiagnosed either because of unawareness of the disease in society or due to paucity of diagnostic facilities available in our country. Therefore, an awareness program along with enhancement of diagnostic facilities for vWD is required in our country to identify these patients for proper management thus avoiding hemorrhagic complications. Source


Parchur A.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Ningthoujam R.S.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center
RSC Advances | Year: 2012

Rod-like shape particles of tetragonal phase Li+ co-doped YPO4:Eu samples are prepared by using a polyol method at low temperature (∼100-120 °C for 1 h). Li+ co-doping enhances the crystalline nature of the sample and reduces the agglomeration among the particles. The shift in the reflection peaks of the tetragonal phase to the lower 2θ angle in the X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the occupancy of Li+ ions in the interstitial sites of the host lattice. The point group symmetry of Y3+/Eu3+ in YPO4 is demonstrated in simple representation. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Harsha A.P.,Banaras Hindu University | Joyce T.J.,Northumbria University
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine | Year: 2011

For appropriate in vitro wear testing of prostheses and their biomaterials, the choice of lubricant is critical. Bovine serum is the lubricant recommended by several international standards for wear testing artificial joints and their biomaterials because the wear rate and wear mechanisms closely match clinical results of polyethylene bearings. The main problem with the use of bovine serum as a lubricant is protein degradation and precipitation formation, effects that are recognized as having a direct impact on wear processes. Hence, some researchers have questioned the validity of using bovine serum in simulator testing. This paper reviews the various lubricants used in laboratory wear studies and also the properties of the synovial fluid that the lubricant is trying to replicate. It is clear from the literature survey that the composition of bovine-serum-based lubricants does not match that of synovial fluid. In view of this conclusion, it is suggested that there is a need to develop an alternative lubricant that can replace bovine serum. © IMechE 2011. Source


Mixed metal-hexacyanoferrates (MHCF) have shown promising applications for technological development particularly in energy storage technologies, ferromagnetic materials, and electrode materials. However, the challenge of controlling their chemical synthesis, solubility, polycrystallinity and nanogeometry have restricted the practical implementation of MHCF in commercial designs. Further, MHCFs have shown potential as peroxidase mimetics. There is still challenging demand to enhance the catalytic efficiency of such materials to the equivalent of biocatalytic activity thereby allowing the precise control of the mimetic character and ultimately leading to the development of new materials as powerful peroxidases i.e. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) replacement during enzyme and immuno-sensors development. We report herein a new process that allows the controlled synthesis of biocompatible mixed MHCF nanoparticles with a variety of transition metal ions. The resulting polycrystalline mixed MHCF shows enhanced catalytic efficiency to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as compared to that of polycrystalline Prussian blue (PB) made under similar conditions with significant increase in catalytic efficiency as a function of respective hetero-transition metal ion of mixed FeHCF in the order of FeHCF < Mn-FeHCF < Ni-FeHCF < Cu-FeHCF justifying as perfect peroxidase replacement. Source


Singh A.K.,North West University South Africa | Quraishi M.A.,Banaras Hindu University
International Journal of Electrochemical Science | Year: 2012

The effect of Schiff base compounds, namely, ethylenediamine bis-isatin (EDBI), hexane 1,4-diamine bis-isatin (HDBI) and thiocarbohydrazide bis-isatin (TCBI) were investigated by gravimetric, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Although effect of molecular planarity on inhibition efficiency is observed from the results obtained between EDBI and HDBI. Adsorption of these inhibitors obeyed the Frumkin adsorption isotherm. It was found that efficiency order followed by inhibitor is TCBI>EDBI>HDBI. This fact strongly suggests that, an efficient corrosion inhibitor molecule should be large one, planar, having unoccupied d-orbital and also containing an extensive number of π-electrons. © 2012 by ESG. Source


Singh V.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2010

The blogosphere, which is the name given to the universe of all blog sites, is now a collection of a tremendous amount of user generated data. The ease & simplicity of creating blog posts and their free form and unedited nature have made the blogosphere a rich and unique source of data, which has attracted people and companies across disciplines to exploit it for varied purposes. The large volume of data requires developing appropriate automated techniques for searching and mining useful inferences from the blogosphere. The valuable data contained in posts from a large number of users across geographic, demographic and cultural boundaries provide a rich opportunity for not only commercial exploitation but also for cross-cultural psychological & sociological research. This paper tries to present the broader picture in and around this theme, chart the required academic and technological framework for the purpose and presents initial results of an experimental work to demonstrate the plausibility of the idea. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Patwardhan K.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Year: 2013

Currently, India recognizes five different healthcare systems, collectively known as AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy), along with the conventional biomedicine. These systems have their own institutionalized structure for monitoring medical education and practice. However, because of the ′parallel′ kind of policy model that is followed in India, there is no formal provision for any cross-talk between the professionals belonging to these different streams. This situation has not only given rise to mutual misgivings among these professionals regarding the strengths and weaknesses of each other, but also has led to a poor appreciation of the historical and socio-cultural connections these streams share with the community at large. To tackle these issues and to promote adequate participation of biomedicine experts in AYUSH-related research projects, ′introduction of an AYUSH module in the current curriculum of MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery) program′ has been proposed in this communication along with a possible roadmap for its implementation. It is also suggested that the experts in biomedicine be engaged for training AYUSH graduates in their respective specialties so that quality AYUSH education may be ensured. Source


Sen Gupta S.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Plasma Sources Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Contact glow discharge electrolysis (CGDE) also termed plasma electrolysis is a novel electrolysis where a stable sheath of light emitting plasma develops around an electrode immersed well inside a relatively high-conductivity liquid electrolyte during normal electrolysis (NE) at several hundred volts. The phenomenon may develop in dc-, pulsed dc-, ac- as well as RF-driven electrolyses. The chemical effects of CGDE are remarkably non-faradaic in respect to the nature of the products as well as their yields. The article traces comprehensively the progress made in studies of CGDE in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions since 1844 and reviews the developments in the understanding of its origin, light emission, plasma state and non-faradaic effects leading to the elucidation of detailed mechanism of the origin of CGDE on the basis of the onset of hydrodynamic instabilities in local vaporization of the solvent near the working electrode during NE, and that of highly non-faradaic effects of CGDE based on a model of two reaction zones located within the electrode plasma and at the plasma-liquid interface producing solvent derived radicals at high local concentrations. Keeping in view the recent surge of interest in varied applications of CGDE, the article is appended with highlights of these applications across synthetic chemistry, waste water treatment, electrosurgical devices, nanoparticle fabrications, surface engineering and micro-machining. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Wilhelm K.,Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research | Dwivedi B.N.,Banaras Hindu University
New Astronomy | Year: 2014

A small effect expected from a recently proposed gravitational impact model (Wilhelm et al., 2013) is used to explain the remaining secular perihelion advance rates of the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, and the asteroid (1566) Icarus - after taking into account the disturbances related to Newton's Theory of Gravity. Such a rate was discovered by Le Verrier (1859) for Mercury and calculated by Einstein (1915, 1916) in the framework of his General Theory of Relativity (GTR). Accurate observations are now available for the inner Solar System objects with different orbital parameters. This is important, because it allowed us to demonstrate that the quantitative amount of the deviation from an 1/r potential is - under certain conditions - only dependent on the specific mass distribution of the Sun and not on the characteristics of the orbiting objects and their orbits. A displacement of the effective gravitational from the geometric centre of the Sun by about 4400 m towards each object is consistent with the observations and explains the secular perihelion advance rates. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Singh R.H.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Year: 2010

Research is the prime need of contemporary Ayurveda, but modern research on Ayurveda has not been very rewarding for Ayurveda itself. Much of it uses Ayurveda to extend modern bioscience. In contrast, Ayurveda needs research designed to test and validate its fundamental concepts as well as its treatments. In this context, if Ayurveda is to be truly explored and validated in all its aspects, scientific inputs should conform to Ayurveda's principles and philosophy. While its evidence base, established since antiquity, may need further verification, research should now focus on the Science of Ayurveda, rather than merely looking for new drugs based on Ayurveda herbals; in-depth research is needed on Ayurveda. Such research will require teamwork between scientists and vaidyas based on truth and trust. Ayurveda research methodology requires the 'whole system testing approach', global participation with protocols evolved through intense interface with modern science, regulatory reforms to eliminate barriers, and to be investigated 'as it is', using approaches adapted from its own basic principles. Source


Pandey A.S.,Kamla Nehru Institute of Technology | Singh D.,Banaras Hindu University | Sinha S.K.,Kamla Nehru Institute of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2010

A wavelet decomposition based load forecast approach is proposed for 24-h and 168-h ahead short-term load forecasting. The proposed approach is applied to and compared with representative load forecasting methods such as: time series in traditional approaches and RBF neural network and neuro-fuzzy forecaster in nontraditional approaches. The other forecasters, such as multiple linear regression (MLR), time series, feed forward neural network (FFNN), radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), clustering, and fuzzy inference neural network (FINN), reported in the literature are also compared with the present approach. The process of the proposed wavelet decomposition approach is that it first decomposes the historical load and weather variables into an approximate part associated with low frequencies and several detail parts associated with high frequencies components through the wavelet transform. The historical data are smoothened by deleting the high frequency components and fed as input to the proposed models for the prediction. A comparison of wavelet and non-wavelet based approaches shows the superiority of proposed wavelet based approach over non-wavelet methods for the same set of data of the same utility. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Matharu Z.,k-Technology | Matharu Z.,University of Delhi | Bandodkar A.J.,Banaras Hindu University | Bandodkar A.J.,University of California at San Diego | And 4 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

Organization of biomolecules in two/three dimensional assemblies has recently aroused much interest in nanobiotechnology. In this context, the development of techniques for controlling spatial arrangement and orientation of the desired molecules to generate highly-ordered nanostructures in the form of a mono/multi layer is considered highly significant. The studies of monolayer films to date have focused on three distinct methods of preparation: (i) the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique, involving the transfer of a monolayer assembled at the gas-liquid interface; (ii) self-assembly at the liquid-solid interface, based on spontaneous adsorption of desired molecules from a solution directly onto a solid surface; and (iii) Layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly at a liquid-solid interface, based on inter-layer electrostatic attractions for fabrication of multilayers. A variety of monolayers have been utilized to fabricate biomolecular electronic devices including biosensors. The composition of a monolayer based matrix has been found to influence the activity(ies) of biomolecule(s). We present comprehensive and critical analysis of ordered molecular assemblies formed by LB and self-assembly with potential applications to affinity biosensing. This critical review on fundamentals and application of ordered molecular assemblies to affinity biosensing is likely to benefit researchers working in this as well as related fields of research (401 references). © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Rao N.V.C.,Banaras Hindu University | Lehmann B.,Clausthal University of Technology | Mainkar D.,Directorate of Geology and Mining | Belyatsky B.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology | Year: 2011

We present mineral chemistry, geochemistry and Sr and Nd isotope data of drillcore samples from the Late Cretaceous (65 Ma), diamondiferous Behradih ultramafic pipe, Bastar craton, Central India, which is emplaced synchronous with the Deccan flood basalt eruption. The rock is affected by pervasive serpentine-talc-carbonate alteration and consists of pelletal lapilli and variously sized olivine and phlogopite macrocrysts, set in a groundmass of abundant clinopyroxene, chrome spinel, apatite, Fe-rich perovskite (<50 μm), zircon, titanite, rutile and calcite. Mineralogical studies identify the Behradih pipe as orangeite (formerly termed as Group II kimberlite) and establish the occurrence of such rocks outside the Kaapvaal craton, southern Africa. As the age of the Behradih orangeite overlaps with that of the main phase of the Deccan flood basalt magmatism, we infer a common tectonomagmatic control vis-a-vis the Deccan-related mantle plume. Trace element ratios and the Nd isotope signatures of the Behradih pipe imply that the Deccan plume has only contributed heat, but not substantial melt, to the Behradih magma with a cause-and-consequence relationship between them. Our study highlights (a) a striking similarity in the genesis of Late Cretaceous orangeites associated with the continental flood basalts in the Kaapvaal and Bastar cratons but related to different mantle plumes and (b) the role of plume-lithosphere interaction in the generation of orangeites. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Ganesan V.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of Chemical Sciences | Year: 2015

Electrocatalysis is an important phenomenon which is utilized in metal-air batteries, fuel cells, electrochemical sensors, etc. To increase the efficiency of the electrocatalytic process and to increase the electrochemical accessibility of the immobilized electrocatalysts, functionalized and non-functionalized mesoporous organo-silica (MCM41-type-materials) are used in this study. These materials possess several suitable properties to be durable catalysts and/or catalyst supports. Owing to the uniform dispersion of electrocatalysts (metal complex and/or metal nanoparticles (NPs)) on the functionalized and non-functionalized silica, an enormous increase in the redox current is observed. Long range channels of silica materials with pore diameter of 15-100 Å allowed metal NPs to accommodate in a specified manner in addition to other catalysts. The usefulness of MCM-41-type silica in increasing the efficiency of electrocatalysis is demonstrated by selecting oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrite reduction reactions as examples. © 2015 Indian Academy of Sciences. Source


Sachan S.,Banaras Hindu University
Advances in High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We study analytical solutions of charged black holes and thermally charged AdS with generalized warped factors in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton system. We calculate Euclidean action for charged AdS and thermally charged AdS. The actions in both backgrounds are regularized by the method of background subtraction. The study of phase transition between charged black hole and thermally charged AdS gives an insight into the confinement/deconfinement transition. The plots of grand potential versus temperature and chemical potential versus transition temperature are obtained. Copyright © 2014 Shobhit Sachan. Source


Chaubey R.,Banaras Hindu University
Canadian Journal of Physics | Year: 2014

The Einstein-Maxwell dilaton field equations are considered for four-dimensional anisotropic Bianchi models. The general solutions have been obtained and their properties have been discussed. The exact solutions to the corresponding field equations are obtained for two different physical viable cosmologies. The cosmological parameters have been discussed in detail and it is also shown that the solutions tend asymptotically to isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model. © 2013 Published by NRC Research Press. Source


Mehta N.,Banaras Hindu University
Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science | Year: 2010

The phenomenon of Meyer-Neldel rule (MNR) can occur in any situation which involves an activated process. However, the rule is still most commonly referred to in connection with diffusion and electrical conduction phenomena. As the rule still tends to exist in an indeterminate state between fully accepted physical law and unexplained correlation, this review presents a survey of relevant work done in this direction. The main objective of the review is to highlight the recent observations of MNR in chalcogenide glasses for different types of thermally activated phenomena and their consequences. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Singh A.K.,University of Lucknow | Siingh D.,Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology | Singh R.P.,Banaras Hindu University
Surveys in Geophysics | Year: 2010

The time varying conditions in the near-Earth space environment that may affect space-borne or ground-based technological systems and may endanger human health or life are referred to as space weather. Space weather effects arise from the dynamic and highly variable conditions in the geospace environment starting from explosive events on the Sun (solar flares), Coronal Mass Ejections near the Sun in the interplanetary medium, and various energetic effects in the magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere system. As the utilization of space has become part of our everyday lives, and as our lives have become increasingly dependent on technological systems vulnerable to the space weather influences, the understanding and prediction of hazards posed by these active solar events have grown in importance. In this paper, we review the processes of the Sun-Earth interactions, the dynamic conditions within the magnetosphere, and the predictability of space weather effects on radio waves, satellites and ground-based technological systems today. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Background: Enterococci, though they are a part of commensal flora, are becoming increasingly important as nosocomial pathogens, due to their inherited and acquired resistances to several antimicrobial agents. In this context, Enterococcus Faecium (E.faecium) requires a special mention due to its characteristic of Multidrug Resistance (MDR) and its ability to disseminate. Aim: This study was undertaken to phenotypically characterize and determine clonal relatedness amongst the indoor isolates of Enterococcus Faecium (E. faecium) which were isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs). Settings and design: This study was carried out prospectively in a tertiary care university hospital and in Department of Microbiology, Varanasi, India. Material and Methods: Urine samples were collected from patients who were admitted in different departments of the hospital with a clinical diagnosis of UTIs and they were processed for a period of one year. Enterococcal species were identified by doing extensive biochemical tests. Anti-microbial susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion and agar dilution methods. Molecular typing of the isolates was done by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typing method. Results: A total of 48 Enterococcal urinary isolates were identified in indoor patients, among which a majority (46, 95.83%) were E.faecium isolates. These isolates exhibited high resistance to fluoroquinolones (91.3%) and to ampicillin (60.86%) in particular. Two isolates were found to be resistant to vancomycin on screen agar. RAPD typing showed two major clusters, one of which had ten strains of 100% similarity, all of which were isolated from a common source. Conclusion: This study showed dissemination of multidrug resistant E. faecium isolates within the hospital. Being a quick and cost effective method, RAPD typing can be used to show clonal relatedness and to trace possible sources of organisms for epidemiological purposes. Source


Alam S.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of Geography | Year: 2010

This article critically examines the recommendations of two major Indian education reports-NCFSE 2000 and NCF 2005-prepared by the National Council of Educational Research and Training in India. The NCFSE 2000 has recommended an integrated teaching of geography as one component of the social studies. The NCF 2005 has reverted to the pre-NCFSE 2001 framework, wherein all subjects under the banner of social studies would now be taught independently. These conflicting reports, and additional disagreement over the teaching of "local" Indian versus "world" geography, are investigated regarding their implications for teaching geography to Indian students. © 2010 National Council for Geographic Education. Source


Tripathi V.,Banaras Hindu University
ISIJ International | Year: 2014

The Vindhya-Kaimur hills in the heartland of India are rich in minerals, including iron ore. Our recent investigations revealed ethno-archaeological evidence of iron working. Excavations conducted at the site of Raipura (Lat. 24°40'40' N; Longitude 82°58'20' E) brought to light a workshop of iron smelting and smithy with furnaces, forges, finished iron objects, ore, slag and ingot belonging to different cultural periods datable to a period ranging from 17/1600 to 200 BCE. An iron working community known as Agaria still lives there. They carry the legacy of ancient Indian iron working as they can smelt iron in the age old method. Thus this region has a long history of iron technology spanning over more than 3 000 years. Source


Chaudhary A.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology | Year: 2011

Ayurveda is one of the oldest systems of medicine, practiced in Indian sub continent. We are working to calibrate classical parameters of good manufacturing practices of Ayurvedic bhasma on parameters and language of contemporary science. Bhasma in accordance of classical expectation are Swarna bhasma, Makshika bhasma, Abhrak bhasma, Tamra bhasma and Louha bhasma. X-ray diffraction, TEM and particle size analysis revealed that these bhasma are in nanometer dimension. These bhasma may be considered as nanomedicine and are free from toxicity in therapeutic doses. Copyright © 2011 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved. Source


Bhandari V.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Sundar S.,Banaras Hindu University | Dujardin J.C.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Dujardin J.C.,University of Antwerp | Salotra P.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Leishmania donoVani is the causative agent of the potentially fatal disease visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Chemotherapeutic options available to treat VL are limited and often face parasite resistance, inconsistent efficacy, and toxic side effects. Paromomycin (PMM) was recently introduced to treat VL as a monotherapy and in combination therapy. It is vital to unDerstand the mechanisms of PMM resistance to safeguard the drug. In the present study, we utilized experimentally generated PMM-resistant L. donoVani to elucidate the mechanisms of resistance and parasite biology. We found increased membrane fluidity accompanied by decreased intracellular drug accumulation in the PMM-resistant parasites. There were marked increases in gene expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (MDR1 and MRPA) and protein phosphatase 2A that evince increased drug efflux. Further, evaluation of parasite tolerance toward host leishmanicidal mechanisms revealed PMM-resistant parasites as being more tolerant to nitrosative stress at the promastigote and amastigote stages. The PMM-resistant parasites also predicted a better survival capacity, as indicated by resistance to complement-mediated lysis and increased stimulation of host interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression. The susceptibilities of PMM-resistant isolates to other antileishmanial agents (sodium antimony gluconate and miltefosine) remained unchanged. The data implicated the roles of altered membrane fluidity, decreased drug accumulation, increased expression of ABC transporters, and greater tolerance of parasites to host defense mechanisms in conferring PMM resistance in Leishmania. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. Source


Water tetramer in uudd configuration, assemble from solvent waters isolated from a hybrid metal-organic host [Cu(3-aminomethyl)pyridine oxalateOH2·2H2O]n under self assembly conditions has been analyzed well using Raman Spectroscopy and Raman marker band has been proposed for water tetramer confined in supramolecular system. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Nath A.,Banaras Hindu University
Amino Acids | Year: 2016

The sequence parameters for halophilic adaptation are still not fully understood. To understand the molecular basis of protein hypersaline adaptation, a detailed analysis is carried out, and investigated the likely association of protein sequence attributes to halophilic adaptation. A two-stage strategy is implemented, where in the first stage a supervised machine learning classifier is build, giving an overall accuracy of 86 % on stratified tenfold cross validation and 90 % on blind testing set, which are better than the previously reported results. The second stage consists of statistical analysis of sequence features and possible extraction of halophilic molecular signatures. The results of this study showed that, halophilic proteins are characterized by lower average charge, lower K content, and lower S content. A statistically significant preference/avoidance list of sequence parameters is also reported giving insights into the molecular basis of halophilic adaptation. D, Q, E, H, P, T, V are significantly preferred while N, C, I, K, M, F, S are significantly avoided. Among amino acid physicochemical groups, small, polar, charged, acidic and hydrophilic groups are preferred over other groups. The halophilic proteins also showed a preference for higher average flexibility, higher average polarity and avoidance for higher average positive charge, average bulkiness and average hydrophobicity. Some interesting trends observed in dipeptide counts are also reported. Further a systematic statistical comparison is undertaken for gaining insights into the sequence feature distribution in different residue structural states. The current analysis may facilitate the understanding of the mechanism of halophilic adaptation clearer, which can be further used for rational design of halophilic proteins. © 2015 Springer-Verlag. Source


Ojha S.N.,Banaras Hindu University
Materials and Manufacturing Processes | Year: 2010

Microalloyed steels containing Nb and V have been processed by CSP route. The process involved continuous casting of slabs into 50mm thickness followed by their homogenization at 1100C during continuous movement in a tunnel furnace. Subsequently, the slabs are hot rolled in a six stand rolling mill. The effects of deformation in the initial passes and finish rolling temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the hot-rolled strips have been examined. The results indicate equiaxed grain morphology of the ferrite phase coexisting with globular carbides. The grain size of the ferrite phase was observed to vary from 4 to 8m both in the longitudinal and transverse directions of strips. The hot-rolled strips showed an average yield strength (YS) value of 495MPa, UTS value of 596MPa, YS/UTS ratio of 0.83, and percentage elongation of 38% with no surface cracks. However, relatively lower strength coupled with surface cracks were observed on the steel strips processed with low degree of deformation in the initial passes followed by low finish rolling temperature and accelerated cooling. The reasons for microstructural refinement and origin of surface cracks on the hot-rolled strips in CSP process are discussed. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Chowdhury P.,University of Calcutta | Dwivedi B.N.,Banaras Hindu University
Solar Physics | Year: 2011

We investigate the presence and temporal evolution of short- and intermediate-term periodicities in the daily data of sunspot numbers and coronal index for the time span from May 1996 to December 2008, which covers the entire Solar Cycle 23. The daily sunspot number data have been analyzed for the full disk, and for northern and southern hemispheres of the Sun. Using the wavelet power spectrum technique, we find a number of quasi-periodic oscillations in all the data sets. We also find a prominent period of 22 to 35 days in the high-frequency range, and detect the Rieger period of 150 to 160 days in both data sets during different phases of Cycle 23. We also detect ~1. 3 year oscillation in both sunspot and coronal index time series. In addition, we find a number of other short and mid-term periods. We discuss possible explanations of the observed periodicities in the light of previous results and existing numerical models. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Shukla P.K.,Assam University | Mishra P.C.,Banaras Hindu University
International Journal of Quantum Chemistry | Year: 2013

The DNA base lesion spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) is produced in biological systems endogenously and can cause mutation and cancer. It is considered to be more mutagenic and deleterious than 8-oxoguanine and other oxidized guanine products such as guanidinohydantoin (Gh) and imidazolone. In this work, the base pairing patterns of Sp with each of the normal nucleic acid bases of DNA have been investigated thoroughly using the B3LYP, M06-2X, and wB97X-D functionals of density functional theory in conjunction with the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set. It is found that the magnitudes of interaction energies between the bases and Sp follow the order: Sp-guanine >> Sp-cytosine > Sp-adenine > Sp-thymine. The strong Sp-guanine abnormal base pairing may be the main cause of the observed mutagenicity of Sp. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. DNA in living organisms is attacked by reactive oxygen and nitrogen oxide species, free radicals, alkylating agents, and so forth, produced endogenously and exogenously, leading to diseases like cancer. Spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) is formed due to the oxidation of guanine and 8-oxoguanine. This work investigates the base pairing patterns of Sp with each of the normal DNA bases and finds that the strong Sp-guanine abnormal base pairing may be the main cause of the observed mutagenicity of Sp. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Agrawal D.,Banaras Hindu University
The Indian journal of chest diseases & allied sciences | Year: 2012

Pulmonary blastoma is a rare but aggressive malignancy of the lung comprising epithelial and mesenchymal elements that resemble fetal lung tissue. This report described a case of an 18-year-old male who presented with cough and weight loss for a month. Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax revealed a large mass with mixed solid and cystic lesions on the right side of chest along with pleural effusion and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Massive debulking was performed followed by chemotherapy. A biphasic pulmonary blastoma was diagnosed on histopathology. Source


Kumar D.,Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Avadh University | Bagri N.,Banaras Hindu University
Indian Pediatrics | Year: 2015

Pediatric cardiology is outgrowing from the shadows of adult cardiology and cardiac surgery departments in India. It promises to be an attractive and sought-after subspeciality of Pediatrics, dealing with not only congenital cardiac diseases but also metabolic, rheumatic and host of other cardiac diseases. The new government policy shall provide more training avenues for the budding pediatric cardiologists, pediatric cardiac surgeons, pediatric anesthetists, pediatric cardiac intensivists, neonatologists and a host of supportive workforce. The proactive role of Indian Academy of Pediatrics and Pediatric Cardiac Society of India, towards creating a political will at the highest level for framing policies towards building infrastructure, training of workforce and subsidies for pediatric cardiac surgeries and procedures shall fuel the development of multiple tertiary cardiac centers in the country, making pediatric cardiology services accessible to the needy population. © 2015, Indian Academy of Pediatrics. Source


Mohanta K.,Banaras Hindu University | Bhargava P.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
Journal of the American Ceramic Society | Year: 2010

Fused silica slurries with a maximum ceramic loading of 70 vol% were prepared using aqueous premixes with egg white (0.5-1.5 vol%) and/or sucrose (5-20 vol%). The egg white and sucrose content in the premix were optimized to obtain a shear-thinning slurry. Observation indicated the existence of an optimum composition (Si70-(S+E)10-E10), for which slurry viscosity was minimum. Thermal analysis confirms the interaction between egg white and sucrose molecules, which influence interparticle interaction and slurry properties. Green samples cast from optimum slurry composition exhibited the highest mechanical properties. Linear drying and sintering shrinkage of samples were 0.5% and 1.0%, respectively. © 2010 The American Ceramic Society. Source


Tiwari S.P.,Indian School of Mines | Srivastava A.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2013

This paper shows that observations made by different authors at different times regarding one-to-one correspondence between the family of fuzzy preorders on a nonempty set and the family of all fuzzy topologies on this set satisfying certain extra conditions are essentially equivalent. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Background: The guidelines for resection of gallbladder cancer include a regional lymphadenectomy; yet it is uncommonly performed in practice and inadequately described in the literature. The present study describes the technique of a regional lymphadenectomy for gallbladder cancer, as practiced by the author. Methods/Technique: After confirming resectability, the duodenum is kocherized. The dissection starts from the posterior aspects of the duodenum and head of the pancreas and extends superiorly to the retroportal area. This is followed by dissection of the common hepatic artery and its branches, the bile duct and the anterior aspect of the portal vein until the hepatic hilum. Resection of the gallbladder with an appropriate liver resection completes the surgery. Results: This technique was used for a regional lymphadenectomy in 27 patients, of which 14 underwent radical cholecystectomy upfront, and 13 had revisional surgery for incidentally detected gallbladder cancer. The median number of lymph nodes dissected on histopathology was 8 (range 3 to 18). Eleven patients had metastatic lymph nodes on histopathological examination. There was no post-operative mortality. Two patients had a bile leak which resolved with conservative management. Conclusion: A systematic approach towards a regional lymphadenectomy ensures a consistent nodal harvest in patients undergoing radical resection for gallbladder cancer. © 2012 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association. Source


Saket R.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

This paper presents the design aspects and probabilistic approach for the generation reliability evaluation of an alternative resource: municipal waste water (MWW) based micro-hydro power plant (MHPP). Annual and daily flow duration curves have been obtained for design, installation, development, scientific analysis and reliability evaluation of the MHPP. The hydro-potential of the waste water flowing through sewage system of Brocha sewage plant of the Banaras Hindu University campus is determined to produce annual flow duration and daily flow duration curves by ordering the recorded water flows from maximum to minimum values. Design pressure, roughness of the pipe's interior surface, method of joining, weight, ease of installation, accessibility to the sewage system, design life, maintenance, weather conditions, availability of material, related cost and likelihood of structural damage have been considered for the design of a particular penstock for reliable operation of the developed MHPP. MWW and self-excited induction generator (SEIG) based MHPP is developed and practically implemented to provide reliable electric power to charge the battery bank. Generation reliability evaluation of the developed MHPP using the Gaussian distribution approach, safety factor concept, peak load consideration and Simpson 1/3rd rule has been presented in this paper. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Das M.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati | Saudagar P.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati | Sundar S.,Banaras Hindu University | Dubey V.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
FEBS Journal | Year: 2013

Resistance of Leishmania parasites to miltefosine, which is only available oral drug, is a great concern. We have analyzed global gene expression profiles of miltefosine-unresponsive and miltefosine-responsive Leishmania donovani in order to understand the various metabolic processes involved in miltefosine drug resistance. The microarray data clearly indicated a role of oxidative metabolism in miltefosine resistance. Furthermore, fluorescence microscopy experiments suggested that miltefosine-unresponsive L. donovani resists the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent mitochondrial membrane damage leading to apoptotic death. In contrast, in miltefosine-responsive L. donovani, the accumulation of reactive oxygen species causes apoptotic death. Overall, this study provides fundamental insights into miltefosine resistance in L. donovani. Database The microarray data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus database under the accession number GSE45496 We have analyzed global gene expression profiles of miltefosine-unresponsive and miltefosine-responsive Leishmania donovani in order to understand various metabolic processes involved in miltefosine drug resistance. The microarray data clearly indicated a role of oxidative metabolism in miltefosine resistance. The experimental data supports that the miltefosine unresponsive Leishmania donovani can resists formation of reactive oxygen species more efficiently. © 2013 FEBS. Source


Mahanty R.,Banaras Hindu University
Electric Power Systems Research | Year: 2010

To overcome some of the limitations of conventional static VAR compensators (SVCs) which are widely used for reactive power compensation, a modified SVC (MSVC) has been proposed. MSVC uses a large value AC capacitor. The large value AC capacitor is realized using unipolar DC capacitors and power semiconductor devices. Unlike the conventional SVCs, the proposed MSVC does not require additional shunt passive filters for harmonic filtering. MSVC has been verified through analysis and simulation. A practical implementation of MSVC has been realized and tested. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Gupta V.,Banaras Hindu University
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2010

Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is an inheritable bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by reticulated hyperpigmentation, dystrophic nails and oral leukoplakia. Another name for the condition is Zinsser-Cole-Engman syndrome. Hematologic manifestations usually do not appear in childhood but later in early adulthood. Patients are also prone to carcinomas, particularly of the head and neck. The disease has X-linked or autosomal dominant/recessive inheritance. Early childhood variants (Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome) are associated with immunological abnormalities in the form of low T- and B-cell numbers. Four genes, namely DKC1 (codes for dyskerin), TERC and TERT (code for telomerase) and NOP10, have been implicated in the pathogenesis; the short telomeres provide a marker for genetic linkage studies. Androgens, with or without granulocyte colony stimulating factor, have been tried in the treatment of the conditions with variable results. Stem cell transplantation from matched sibling donor is currently the treatment of choice. It requires modified nonmyeloablative conditioning protocols, since the patients with DC are prone to pulmonary and hepatic complications. © 2010 Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media. Source


Anjum S.,Banaras Hindu University | Krishna A.,Banaras Hindu University | Tsutsui K.,Waseda University
Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of in vivo and in vitro treatments with RFamide-related peptide 3 (RFRP3), a mammalian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone ortholog, on testicular activities, i.e. spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis, in mice. Mice were treated in vivo with different doses of RFRP3 (control: 0.02 μg, 0.2 μg, and 2.0 μg/day) for 8 days. For in vitro study, the testes of mice were evaluated with different doses of RFRP3 (control: 1 and 10 ng/ml) with or without LH (control: 10 and 100 ng/ml) for 24 h at 37 °C. RFRP3 treatment produced significant changes in the body mass, circulating steroid level, and testicular activity in mice. RFRP3 treatment also caused dose-dependent histological changes in spermatogenesis, such as decline in germ cell proliferation and survival markers and increase in apoptotic markers in testis. Both in vivo and in vitro studies showed the inhibitory effect of RFRP3 on testosterone synthesis in the testis. RFRP3 inhibited the expression of the receptor for LH (LHCGR), STAR protein, cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (CYP11A1) and 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the testis, and testosterone secretion dose dependently. This study also suggested that the inhibitory effect of RFRP3 in the testis may be mediated through local production of GnRH. Thus, RFRP3 inhibits testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis either indirectly through GnRH or by directly influencing germ cell proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology. Source


Shukla U.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Ram P.,Banaras Hindu University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2011

The hydrogeochemical parameters for groundwater samples of the Varanasi area, a fast-urbanizing region in India, were studied to evaluate the major ion chemistry, weathering and solute acquisition processes controlling water composition, and suitability of water quality for domestic and irrigation uses. Sixty-eight groundwater samples were collected randomly from dug wells and hand pumps in the urban Varanasi area and analyzed for various chemical parameters. Geologically, the study area comprises Quaternary alluvium made up of an alternating succession of clay, silty clay, and sand deposits. The Total dissolved solids classification reveals that except two locations, the groundwater samples are desirable for drinking, and all are useful for irrigation purposes. The cationic and anionic concentrations indicated that the majority of the groundwater samples belong to the order of Na > Ca > Mg > K and HCO3 > Cl > SO4 types, respectively. Geochemical classification of groundwater based on the Chadha rectangular diagram shows that the majority (81%) of groundwater samples belong to the calcium-bicarbonate type. The HCO3/ (HCO3 + SO 4) ratio (0.87) indicates mostly carbonic acid weathering process due to presence of kankar carbonate mixed with clay/fine sand. The high nitrate concentration (>45 mg/l) of about 18% of the groundwater samples may be due to the local domestic sewage, leakage of septic tanks, and improper management of sanitary landfills. In general, the calculated values of sodium adsorption ratio, percent sodium, residual sodium carbonate, and permeability index indicate good to permissible use of water for irrigation, and only a few locations demand remedial measures for better crop yields. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Thakur A.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Kumar V.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine | Year: 2015

Andrographolide is a major bioactive secondary plant metabolite isolated Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.)Wall. Ex. Nees. (chuan xin lian), awell-known traditionally used medicinal herb. The aim of the study was to pharmacologically evaluate the beneficial effect of andrographolide on stress-induced thermoregulatory and other physiological responses in mice. A stress-induced hyperthermia test was conducted in mice. The test agents were orally administered once daily for 11 consecutive days, and treatment effects on body weight changes, basal rectal temperature, and foot-shock-triggered hyperthermic responses were quantified on Day 1, Day 5, Day 7, and Day 10 of the experiments. Pentobarbital-induced hypnosis was quantified on the 11th day of treatment. Observations made during a pilot dose finding experiment revealed that, like A. paniculata extracts, pure andrographolide also possess adaptogenic properties. Observed dose-dependent efficacies of 3 mg/kg/d,10 mg/kg/d, and 30mg/kg/d andrographolide in the pilot experiment were reconfirmed byconducting two further analogous experiments using separate groups of either male or female mice. In these confirmatory experiments, efficacies of andrographolide were compared with that of 5 mg/kg/d oral doses of the standard anxiolytic diazepam. Significantly reduced body weights and elevated core temperatures of the three vehicle-treated control groups observed on the 5th day and subsequent observational days were completely absent even in the groups treated with the lowest andrographolide dose (3 mg/kg/d) or diazepam (5 mg/kg/d). Benzodiazepine-like potentiation of pentobarbital hypnosis was observed in andrographolide-treated animals. These observations reveal that andrographolide is functionally a diazepam-like desensitizer of biological mechanisms, and processes involved in stress trigger thermoregulatory and other physiological responses. © 2015, Center for Food and Biomolecules, National Taiwan University. Production and hosting by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. Source


Singh N.,Banaras Hindu University | Kumar M.,Banaras Hindu University | Kumar M.,Bose Institute of India | Singh R.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2012

The control of . Leishmania infection relies primarily on chemotherapy till date. Resistance to pentavalent antimonials, which have been the recommended drugs to treat cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, is now widespread in Indian subcontinents. New drug formulations like amphotericin B, its lipid formulations, and miltefosine have shown great efficacy to treat leishmaniasis but their high cost and therapeutic complications limit their usefulness. In addition, irregular and inappropriate uses of these second line drugs in endemic regions like state of Bihar, India threaten resistance development in the parasite. In context to the limited drug options and unavailability of either preventive or prophylactic candidates, there is a pressing need to develop true antileishmanial drugs to reduce the disease burden of this debilitating endemic disease. Notwithstanding significant progress of leishmanial research during last few decades, identification and characterization of novel drugs and drug targets are far from satisfactory. This review will initially describe current drug regimens and later will provide an overview on few important biochemical and enzymatic machineries that could be utilized as putative drug targets for generation of true antileishmanial drugs. © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Source


Shukla S.K.,Edith Cowan University | Shukla S.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Sivakugan N.,James Cook University
International Journal of Geomechanics | Year: 2013

Conduits buried in narrow trenches and covered with granular soil backfills are commonly used for several services. Because of soil arching action, a significant fraction ofself-weight of the backfill is transferred to the wall. The load on top of the conduit isexpressed as CdγB2 where g is the unit weight of granular backfill, B is the trench width, andCd is the load coefficient, which increases with depth. Values of Cd for ditch conduits covered with granular backfills have been presented in the literature. Recent research has shown that providing a layer of geosynthetic above the conduit, anchored at both the walls, can reduce the overburden load transferred to the conduit. This paper is aimed at formulating a theoretical framework for computing the load coefficient CdR for ditch conduits covered with geosynthetic-reinforced granular backfills. The newCdR-value takes into account the load reduction attributable to soil arching as well as geosynthetic arching but ignores the soilgeosynthetic frictional/adhesion interaction in the analysis for simplicity's sake. It is shown that the CdR-values depend on the stiffness of the geosynthetic layer and the rut depth, among other factors that govern the unreinforced case. The developed expression should be useful for field applications of geosynthetics in buried structures and for developing standards for such applications. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source


Singh M.P.,Banaras Hindu University | Singh M.P.,University of Aberdeen | Singh R.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Chandra S.,Banaras Hindu University
Progress in Materials Science | Year: 2014

Ionic liquids are emerging as important materials for applications in electrochemical devices, green chemistry etc. For device applications, ionic liquids are generally, either incorporated in polymer matrices or confined in porous matrices (giving rise to an interesting class of materials 'Ionogels'). This review deals with the science and technological applications of ionic liquids confined in nano-pores. A comprehensive overview is given about the experimental studies dealing with the changes in the physico-chemical properties of ionic liquids like thermal phase transition, stability, dynamical behavior, optical properties etc. Recent theoretical studies highlighting the layering and structural heterogeneity of ionic liquids confined in nano-pores are also discussed. To make the review self-reading, basic ideas about ionic liquids and the phenomena of confinement are also briefly included. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart New York. Source


Singh P.,Banaras Hindu University | Krishna A.,Banaras Hindu University | Tsutsui K.,Waseda University
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2011

Objective: To evaluate the effects of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) treatment on ovarian activity of mice. Design: Animal study. Setting: Reproductive physiology laboratory of university department of zoology. Animal(s): Twelve-week-old female mice of inbred Parkes strain. Intervention(s): Mice treated with different doses of GnIH (control, 100 ng, 500 ng, and 2 μg per day) for 8 days were studied. For in vitro study, the ovaries of proestrus mice were cultured with different doses of GnIH for 24 hours at 37°C. Main Outcome Measure(s): Folliculogenesis, steroidogenesis, luteogenesis, and apoptosis in the ovaries of control and GnIH-treated mice. Result(s): GnIH treatment produced significant changes in body mass, circulating steroid levels, and ovarian activity in the mice. GnIH also caused dose-dependent histologic changes in follicular development and luteinization. The antral follicles showed abnormal changes. The mice treated with increasing dose of GnIH showed significant changes in steroid synthesis owing to inhibitory effects of GnIH on ovarian expression of LH receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory, and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase proteins. Conclusion(s): GnIH inhibited follicular development and steroidogenesis in the ovary of mice. This study thus suggests biologic significance of this neuropeptide in regulating ovarian activity. © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Published by Elsevier Inc. Source


Das L.,Banaras Hindu University | Vinayak M.,Banaras Hindu University
Bioscience Reports | Year: 2012

NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) plays a significant role in inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation, apoptosis and malignancy. ROS (reactive oxygen species) are among the most important regulating factors of NF-κB. Intracellular ROS are mainly regulated by an endogenous antioxidant defence system. Any disruption of redox balance leads to oxidative stress, which causes a number of pathological conditions including inflammation and malignancy. Increased metabolic activity in cancerous cells leads to oxidative stress, which is further enhanced due to depletion of the endogenous antioxidant defence system. However, the activation and signalling of NF-κB are reported to be inhibited by overexpression and induced activity of antioxidant enzymes. Therefore the present study focuses on the correlation between the endogenous antioxidant defence system, ROS and NF-κB activation during lymphoma growth in mice. The study highlights the anti-carcinogenic role of curcumin by modulation of NF-κB activation and oxidative stress via the endogenous antioxidant defence system. Oxidative stress was monitored by lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and antioxidant enzyme activity. NF-κB-mediated signalling was tested by DNA-binding activity. The results reflect that intracellular production of H 2O 2 in oxidative tumour micro-environment regulates NF-κB activation. Curcumin inhibits oxidative state in the liver of lymphoma-bearing mice by enhancing the transcription and activities of antioxidant enzymes, which in turn modulate activation of NF-κB, leading to a decrease in lymphoma growth. Morphological changes as well as cell proliferation and cell survival assays confirmed reduced lymphoma growth. Thus curcumin contributes to cancer prevention by disrupting the vicious cycle of constant ROS production, responsible for a high oxidative micro-environment for tumour growth. ©The Authors Journal compilation ©2012 Biochemical Society. Source


Paramanik V.,Banaras Hindu University | Thakur M.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2010

Following binding to cognate ligand, estrogen receptor (ER) β interacts with specific responsive elements of the target genes and recruits a host of nuclear proteins for hormone dependent gene regulation. However, it is poorly known which proteins interact with ER β in mouse brain and whether their interaction and expression change with age. In this report, we have used his-tag mouse ER β for interaction with nuclear proteins of cerebral cortex of young (6 ± 1 weeks), adult (25 ± 2 weeks), and old (70 ± 5 weeks) female mice. We have identified estrogen receptor-associated protein (ERAP) 140 as one of the interacting proteins and studied its interaction by pull down immunoblotting, far-Western blotting and immunoprecipitation, and expression by western blotting. The data show that ERAP 140 interacts with ER β and its interaction decreases but its expression increases with age in mouse cerebral cortex, suggesting its role in estrogen-mediated brain functions during aging. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Kapur M.,Banaras Hindu University | Mondal M.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers | Year: 2014

Extensive study has been done in the context of single metal adsorption from aqueous solutions but the present study approaches the simultaneous sorption of metal ions. Aim of the present work is to characterize the coal dust for its ability to remove Cu(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solutions. Variation of the working parameters viz., pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, metal ion concentrations, temperature were done in a range to optimize ideal conditions for the adsorption of ions from a binary metal solution containing Cu(II) and Ni(II) in a batch mode. Adsorption was found to be exothermic and the parameter estimation viz. δ. G°, δ. H°, δ. S° showed it to be thermodynamically favorable. Second order kinetics was fitted well for bi-component adsorption and Langmuir isotherm strongly supported the mechanism. Co-existence of the ions affected the adsorption capacity and showed antagonistic manner in comparison to the single metal. Desorption experiments showed that the coal dust can be used effectively upto three cycles and proper disposal has also been mentioned. © 2014 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. Source


Kumar D.,Banaras Hindu University | Gaur J.P.,Banaras Hindu University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

The pH-dependent metal sorption by Oscillatoria- and Phormidium-dominated mats was effectively expressed by the Hill function. The estimated Hill functions can fruitfully predict the amount of metal sorbed at a particular initial pH. Pretreatment of biomass with 0.1mmolL -1 HCl was more effective than pretreatment with CaCl 2, HNO 3, NaOH, and SDS in enhancing metal sorption ability of the biomass. Desorption of metal ions in the presence of 100mmolL -1 HCl from metal-loaded mat biomass was completed within 1h. After six cycles of metal sorption/desorption, sorption decreased by 6-15%. Only 6% and 11% of the biomass derived from the Oscillatoria sp.- and Phormidium sp.-dominated mats was lost during the cycling. The cyanobacterial mats seem to have better potential than several biomass types for use in metal sorption from wastewaters as they are ubiquitous, self-immobilized, and have good reusability. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Srivastava P.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Singh C.P.,Banaras Hindu University
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2013

Search for a proper and realistic equation of state (EOS) for strongly interacting matter used in the study of the QCD phase diagram still appears as a challenging problem. Recently, we constructed a hybrid model description for the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) as well as hadron gas (HG) phases where we used an excluded volume model for HG and a thermodynamically consistent quasiparticle model for the QGP phase. The hybrid model suitably describes the recent lattice results of various thermodynamical as well as transport properties of the QCD matter at zero baryon chemical potential (μB). In this paper, we extend our investigations further in obtaining the properties of QCD matter at finite value of μB and compare our results with the most recent results of lattice QCD calculation. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source


Singh T.,Banaras Hindu University | Chaubey R.,Banaras Hindu University
Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

We study the evolution of the dark energy parameter within a Bianchi type-I cosmological model filled with barotropic fluid and dark energy. The solutions have been obtained for power law and exponential forms of the expansion parameter (they correspond to a constant deceleration parameter in general relativity). After a long time, the models tend to be isotropic under certain conditions. © 2012 National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences and IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Mishra P.C.,Banaras Hindu University | Yadav A.,Banaras Hindu University
Chemical Physics | Year: 2012

Distinct edge effects on physical and chemical properties are known to exist in graphene and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). The present study provides a clue to understand the origin of these effects in terms of electron density distribution. Continuous electron density, molecular electrostatic potential and net charges obtained using density functional theory in several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) taken as finite size models of graphene and GNRs are analyzed. Electron density is found to be enhanced at the edges in comparison to those in the other parts of several PAHs and a similar distribution is also shown by spin densities in triplet ground states. Electron density is enhanced even at the hydrogen passivated internal edges created by removing carbon atoms of an inner benzene ring. Various experimental observations relating to distinct properties of edges of graphene and GNRs can be explained on the basis of the enhanced electron density edge effect. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Singh R.P.,Banaras Hindu University
Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2011

As a result of rapid urbanization, industrialization, and uncontrolled population increase, waste management has become a worldwide problem. In the 2001 census, the urban population of India comprised 285 millions, which accounted for 27% of the total population of the country. The share of urban population has increased from 19.9% in the year 1971 to 27.8% in the year 2001 (Vaidya 2009). The decadal growth from 1991 to 2001 of the urban population was 31.2%. One of the main reasons for increasing urbanization is the migration of rural populations to urban centers for employment. The unprecedented growth of this urban population has put tremendous pressure on the quality of life regarding housing, water, and power supply, and water, air, and soil quality deterioration. A decline in environmental quality from waste generation in these urban centers, especially solid waste, is of major and growing concern. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Mishra C.P.,Banaras Hindu University
Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Year: 2012

Since the inception of planning process in India, health planning was an integral component of socio-economic planning. Recommendations of several committees, policy documents and Millennium development goals were instrumental in development of impressive health infrastructure. Several anti-poverty and employment generation programmes were instituted to remove poverty. Spectacular achievements took place in terms of maternal and child health indicators and expectancy of life at birth. However, communicable diseases and undernutrition remain cause of serious concern and non-communicable diseases are imposing unprecedented challenge to planners and policy makers. Estimates of poverty based on different criteria point that it has remained a sustained problem in the country and emphasizes on revisiting anti-poverty programmes, economic policies and social reforms. Poverty affects purchasing power and thereby, food consumption. Energy intake data has inherent limitations. It must be assessed in terms of energy expenditure. Energy balance has been least explored area of research. The studies conducted in three different representative population group of Eastern Uttar Pradesh revealed that 69.63% rural adolescent girls (10-19 years), 79.9% rural reproductive age group females and 62.3% rural geriatric subjects were in negative energy balance. Negative energy balance was significantly less in adolescent girls belonging to high SES (51.37%), having main occupation of family as business (55.3%), and highest per capita income group (57.1%) with respect to their corresponding sub-categories. In case of rural reproductive age groups, this was maximum (93.0%) in SC/ST category and least (65.7%) in upper caste group. In case of geriatric group, higher adjusted Odd′s Ratio for negative energy balance for subjects not cared by family members (AOR 23.43, CI 3.93-139.56), not kept money (AOR 5.27, CI 1.58-17.56), belonging to lower and upper middle SES by Udai Pareekh Classification (AOR 3.73, CI 1.22-11.41), with lowest per capita income (AOR 15.14, CI 2.44-94.14) and in age group >80 years (AOR 5.76, CI 1.03-32.39). Of those in negative energy balance, 70.21% rural adolescent girls and 7 out of 10 geriatric subjects (activity based) were victims of CED. Extent of undernutrition and CED in rural reproductive age group females were more in those caste groups where energy deficit was also of higher magnitude. Energy balance must be visualized giving due consideration to the importance of exercise on human health. The evidence thus generated needs to be translated to the masses based on principles of translational research. Source


Singh A.,Banaras Hindu University | Dubey S.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Temporal variations in diversity of methanogenic community and CH 4 production potential were analyzed in an Indian tropical rice ecosystem. Laboratory incubations showed that methane production varied from 20.86 to 134.11 μg CH 4 g -1 d.w.s. during the two consecutive years, 2009 and 2010. CH 4 production potential was high at the flowering stage of the rice crop followed by ripening, tillering, post-harvest and pre-plantation stage. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes of methanogenic community indicated that flowering and ripening stages comprised of Methanomicrobiaceae, Methanosarcinaceae, Methanosaetaceae and RC I methanogenic groups, while only the members of Methanomicrobiaceae and RC I were present in the remaining stages. Further, the dominance of RC I was observed in all stages. This study demonstrates that flowering and ripening stages of rice crop offer relatively favorable ecological niche for methanogenic community. The overall analyses suggest that the temporal change in diversity of methanogens regulates CH 4 production potential in rice field soils. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Gupta V.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Mahanty R.,Banaras Hindu University
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2015

The paper uses particle swarm optimization (PSO) to determine the optimum switching angles of cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter (CH-MLI) so as to produce the required fundamental voltage and reduce the harmonic content. This is done by solving the transcendental equations characterizing the harmonic content. The validity of the proposed method is verified through simulation studies for three-phase, five-level CH-MLI. To compare the results obtained using PSO, the simulation studies have been extended for three-phase, five-level CH-MLI using sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM). The results obtained using PSO are found superior as compared to SPWM in terms of total harmonic distortion at different modulation indices. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Upadhyay S.,Banaras Hindu University | Mandal B.P.,Banaras Hindu University
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2012

We discuss the extended BRST and anti-BRST symmetry (including shift symmetry) in the Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formulation for 2- and 3-form gauge theories. Further we develop the superspace formulation for the BV actions for these theories. We show that the extended BRST invariant BV action for these theories can be written manifestly covariant manner in a superspace with one Grassmann coordinate. On the other hand a superspace with two Grassmann coordinates is required for a manifestly covariant formulation of the extended BRST and extended anti-BRST invariant BV actions for higher form gauge theories. © 2012 Springer-Verlag / Società Italiana di Fisica. Source


Singh O.P.,Banaras Hindu University | Sundar S.,Banaras Hindu University
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2014

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne chronic infectious disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani or Leishmania infantum. VL is a serious public health problem, causing high morbidity and mortality in the developing world with an estimated 0.2-0.4 million new cases each year. In the absence of a vaccine, chemotherapy remains the favored option for disease control, but is limited by a narrow therapeutic index, significant toxicities, and frequently acquired resistance. Improved understanding of VL pathogenesis offers the development and deployment of immune based treatment options either alone or in combination with chemotherapy. Modulations of host immune response include the inhibition of molecular pathways that are crucial for parasite growth and maintenance; and stimulation of host effectors immune responses that restore the impaired effector functions. In this review, we highlight the challenges in treatment of VL with a particular emphasis on immunotherapy and targeted therapies to improve clinical outcomes. © 2014 Singh and Sundar. Source


Upadhyay S.,Banaras Hindu University | Mandal B.P.,Banaras Hindu University
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2012

We construct the field dependent mixed BRST (combination of BRST and anti-BRST) transformations for pure gauge theories. These are shown to be an exact nilpotent symmetry of the effective action as well as the generating functional for certain choices of the field dependent parameters. We show that the Jacobian contributions for path integral measure in the definition of generating functional arising from BRST and anti-BRST part compensate each other. The field dependent mixed BRST transformations are also considered in the field/antifield formulation to show that the solutions of quantum master equation remain invariant under these. Our results are supported by several explicit examples. © 2012 Springer-Verlag / Società Italiana di Fisica. Source


Ahamad I.,Banaras Hindu University | Prasad R.,Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University | Quraishi M.A.,Banaras Hindu University
Materials Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2010

Three derivatives of 2-[2-(hydrazinecarbonothioyl)hydrazinecarbonyl]benzoic acid (IL1) have been evaluated as new corrosion inhibitors for the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M HCl solutions using weight loss, polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The adsorption of these compounds has been tested thermodynamically which was found to be of neither a typical physisorption nor a typical chemisorption mode. The thermodynamic functions (such as Ea, ΔH°ads, ΔS°ads and ΔG°ads) of dissolution and adsorption processes have been evaluated. The polarization measurements indicated that the inhibitors are of mixed type. The adsorption of the compounds was found to obey Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. In addition, quantum chemical calculations have been made to correlate inhibition efficiencies determined experimentally. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Ali G.M.,Banaras Hindu University | Chakrabarti P.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics | Year: 2010

The paper reports the fabrication and characterization of ZnO-based interdigitated metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) and metal-insulator- semiconductor-insulator-metal (MISIM) ultraviolet photodetectors. The ZnO thin film was grown on a p-type Si (10 0) substrate by the sol-gel technique. With applied voltage in the range from-3 to 3 V we estimated the contrast ratio, responsivity, detectivity and quantum efficiency of the photodetectors for an incident optical power of 0.1 mW at 365 nm ultraviolet wavelength. The I-V characteristics were studied and the parameters such as ideality factor, leakage current and barrier height were extracted from the measured data. For Au/Cr/SiO2/ZnO/SiO2/Al (MISIM) structure the product (mχ) of the tunnelling effective electron mass (m) and the mean tunnelling barrier height (χ) was also extracted. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Dwivedi Y.,Banaras Hindu University | Rai S.B.,Banaras Hindu University
Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical | Year: 2010

Nanoscale Eu:BaB4O7 crystals were synthesized in a barium borate glass host, and the temperature-sensing behavior of these crystals was demonstrated over the temperature range of 10-673 K using fluorescence intensity ratio and time-resolved photoluminescence techniques. It was concluded that temperature measurement based on rise time variation is sensitive in the low temperature region (<250 K), while decay time variation is found to be sensitive in the high temperature region (>250 K). © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Singh A.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Quraishi M.A.,Banaras Hindu University
Materials Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2010

The corrosion inhibition properties of isoniazid derivatives, namely N-(morpholino methyl) isatin-3-isonicotinoyl hydrazone (MIIH), N-(piperazino methyl) isatin-3-isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PIIH), N-(2-Thio benzimidazolyl methyl) isatin-3-isonicotinoyl hydrazone (TBIH), N-(piperadino methyl) isatin-3-isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PIIIH) for mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl medium were analysed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization and weight loss techniques. Electrochemical impedance data demonstrated that the addition of the isoniazid derivatives in the corrosive solution decreased the charge capacitance and simultaneously increased the function of the charge/discharge of the interface, facilitating the formation of an adsorbed layer over the steel surface. Adsorption of these inhibitors on the steel surface obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Potentiodynamic polarization studies showed that all the tested inhibitors affected both the anodic and cathodic process, thus they can be classified as mixed type of inhibitor. The effect of chemical structure of the four tested inhibitors was discussed. It was found that the efficiency order followed by molecules tested was TBIH > PIIH > MIIH > PIIIH. Thus TBIH turned out to be the best inhibitor. This fact strongly suggests that, an efficient corrosion inhibitor molecule should be large one, planar, having unoccupied d-orbital and also containing an extensive number of π-electrons. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Srivastava N.,Banaras Hindu University | Srivastava P.C.,Banaras Hindu University
Physica E: Low-Dimensional Systems and Nanostructures | Year: 2010

Crystalline cubic NiO rods with diameter ranging from nanometer to few hundred nanometers and lengths up to 10 μm have been realized from a simple chemical route. The chemical reaction, of aqueous solutions of nickel chloride and sodium hydroxide with different molar ratios of NiCl2 and NaOH, formed the nickel hydroxide precursor which on thermal dehydration resulted in NiO nanocrystals with rod like morphology. The synthesized material has been characterized from XRD, SEM, TEM, EDAX and UVvis absorption spectroscopy. The TEM micrographs show the rod like morphology of the formed crystals and the selected area electron diffraction pattern confirms the single-crystalline and polycrystalline nature of the observed rod like nanocrystals. The optical absorption band gap of NiO nanorods has been found to be of ∼3.62 eV. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Balsora H.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Mondal M.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Fluid Phase Equilibria | Year: 2012

The experimental results for CO 2 absorption in aqueous tri sodium phosphate (TSP) were presented for total TSP concentrations from 1.0 to 2.0kmol/m 3, temperatures from 303.14 to 333.14K and inlet CO 2 partial pressures from 10.13 to 20.26kPa. The solubility of CO 2 increased with increasing concentrations of TSP from 1.0 to 2.0kmol/m 3 at fixed CO 2 partial pressure and temperature. Temperature showed positive effect on CO 2 solubility and it was increased continuously from 313.14 to 333.14K. The solubility of CO 2 also increased slightly with inlet partial pressure of CO 2 in the gas stream. The maximum CO 2 solubility in TSP was found as 0.960molCO 2/mol absorbent at 333.14K and 2.0kmol/m 3 TSP concentration. The results of experimental CO 2 solubility in aqueous TSP was compared to monoethanol amine (MEA) and other amines mostly used in acid gas treating. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Singh A.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Prakash R.,Banaras Hindu University
RSC Advances | Year: 2012

We report the fabrication and characterization of an electrochemically synthesized polycarbazole-organically modified nanoclay composite-based organic Schottky diode. The morphology of the nanocomposite is studied using scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy images, before fabrication of the diode. An intercalated, homogeneous nanocomposite is formed using an electrochemical method to get a uniform thin film directly onto the metal surface to create a better metal-organic junction, which plays a crucial role in the fabrication of a Schottky diode. The current density-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics of the Schottky diode are subsequently used for extracting electronic parameters of the device such as the ideality factor, barrier height, reverse saturation current, built-in potential, depletion width and doping concentration etc. Excellent rectifying behavior is observed with an ideality factor of 1.8. We also evaluate the photovoltaic characteristics of the device under illuminating conditions. Optical characterization of the device shows a high value of photo responsivity (8.22 × 10-4 A W-1) at -6 V. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Yadav D.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Quraishi M.A.,Banaras Hindu University
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2012

Gravimetric, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance (LPR), and potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) studies were carried out to investigate the comparative corrosion protection efficiency of four condensed uracils (CUs) on mild steel in 1 M HCl. EIS plots indicated that the addition of inhibitors increases the charge-transfer resistance (R ct), decreases the double-layer capacitance (Cdl) of the corrosion process, and hence increases inhibition performance. Moreover, the thermodynamic activation parameters for the corrosion reaction were calculated and discussed in relation to the stability of the protective inhibitor layer. The morphology of the surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the surface composition was evaluated using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to verify the presence of inhibitor on the mild steel surface. Quantum chemical study suggests that the heterocyclic rings in these compounds are structurally essential for the protection of the mild steel surface. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Yadav A.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Gautam C.R.,University of Lucknow | Singh P.,Banaras Hindu University
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

An attempt has been made to prepare barium strontium titanate borosilicate glasses in the system, 64[(Ba1-xSrx)·TiO3]-30[2SiO2·B2O3]-5[K2O]-1[Fe2O3] (0.4 ≤ x ≤ 1.0), using the conventional melt-quench method. The prepared glasses were characterized by differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy techniques. On the basis of the DTA results, the glasses were crystallized via regulated heat treatment process. The activation energy for crystallization was 818 ± 1.6 kJ mol-1. A high dielectric constant of about 107 070 was obtained for the 6 hour heat treated glass ceramic sample. Fe2O3 plays an important role in enhancing crystallization, dielectric constant and retardation of dielectric loss in the samples. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Source


Kumari S.,Banaras Hindu University | Dash D.,Banaras Hindu University
Biochimie | Year: 2013

The Wnt/β-catenin pathway controls developmental processes and homeostasis; however, abnormal activation of this pathway has been linked to several human diseases. Recent reports have demonstrated regulation of platelet function by canonical and non-canonical Wnt signalling. Platelet aggregation plays a crucial role in haemostasis and thrombosis. Here we report for the first time that, induction of sustained aggregation of platelets by a strong agonist in the presence of calcium was associated with nearly complete proteolysis of β-catenin, which was abrogated upon depletion of calcium from platelet suspension. β-catenin cleavage was disallowed in absence of aggregation, thus implicating integrin αIIbβ3 engagement in β-catenin proteolysis. Degradation of β-catenin was blocked partially by inhibitors of either proteasome or calpain and completely when cells were exposed to both the inhibitors. Protein kinase C inhibition, too, abolished β-catenin degradation. Thus activities of proteasome, calpain and protein kinase C regulate stabilization of β-catenin in aggregated human platelets. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source


Singh K.B.,Banaras Hindu University | Trigun S.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2013

The evolving concept of pro-oxidative mechanism-based antitumor activity of emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl anthraquinone), derived mainly from in vitro studies, needs to be defined for in vivo tumor models. The present article describes apoptosis and regression of Dalton's lymphoma (DL) in mice by emodin vis a vis modulations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) metabolizing antioxidant enzymes in the tumor cells in vivo. A non-toxic dose (40 mg/kg bw) of emodin, given intraperitoneally to the DL bearing mice daily up to 12th post DL transplantation day, caused a significant decline (P < 0.05) in the number of viable DL cells and could significantly increase life span of the DL mice (P < 0.01). A significant decline in Bcl2/Bax ratio consistent with the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c release in DL cells from emodin-treated DL mice suggested that emodin could induce mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in the DL cells in vivo. Apoptosis of DL cells by emodin was further confirmed by the appearance of smaller DNA fragments on DNA ladder analysis. Over activation of both, the Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutases (SOD1) and Mn-SOD (SOD2), has been found correlated with the tumor suppression. Emodin caused significant increases in the expression and activity of SOD1 and SOD2 in the DL cells. H2O2 produced by SODs is degraded by catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the cells. Both these enzymes were observed to be declined significantly with a concomitant increment in H2O2 concentration (P < 0.01) in the DL cells from emodin-treated DL mice. It is concluded that emodin is able to induce mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in the DL cells in vivo via reciprocal modulations of H2O2 producing and degrading antioxidant enzymes. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Sisodia S.,Banaras Hindu University | Singh B.N.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2010

Geographical variation in traits related to fitness is often the result of adaptive evolution. Stress resistance traits in Drosophila often show clinal variation, suggesting that selection affects resistance traits either directly or indirectly. Multiple stress resistance traits were investigated in 45 natural populations of Drosophila ananassae collected from all over India. There was significant positive correlation between starvation resistance and lipid content. Significant negative correlations between desiccation and lipid content and between desiccation and heat resistance were also found. Flies from lower latitudes had higher starvation resistance, heat resistance and lipid content but the pattern was reversed for desiccation resistance. These results suggest that flies from different localities varied in their susceptibility to starvation because of difference in their propensity to store body lipid. Multiple regression analysis provided evidence of climatic selection driven by latitudinal variation in the seasonal amplitude of temperature and humidity changes within the Indian. Finally, our results suggest a high degree of variation in stress resistance at the population level in D. ananassae. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Source


Pandeyz P.C.,Banaras Hindu University | Pandey A.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2012

The Nanocomposite of Prussian blue (PB) with palladium of variable nanogeometery has been made as electrode modifier. Palladium of different nanogeometry, Pd1 and Pd2, as confirmed from XRD and AFM investigations is made by calcinations of palladium linked glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane at 500°C and 1000°C respectively. The nanostructured Pd1 and Pd2 along with gold nanoparticles of two different sizes, i.e. 50 and 20 nm (AuNP1 and AuNP 2) are used for making PB nanocomposites. The chemically modified electrodes developed from these electrode modifiers are used to understand the dependence of nanogeometery on the electrochemical behavior of H 2O2. Six types of chemically modified electrodes namely; (1) PB, (2) PB-AuNP1, (3) PB-AuNP2, (4) PB-Pd1, (5) PB-Pd2, and (6) PB-AuNP2-Pd2 are made for such investigation. The electrochemical observations on these modified electrode justified the following conclusions; (1) gradual improvement in redox electrochemistry of PB as well as on electrochemical behavior of H 2O2 as a function of increasing nanogeometry (2) the modified electrodes made with Pd2 showed better catalytic behavior as compared to that of Pd1 toward H2O2 reduction (3) The characterization results showed that Pd2 contain PdO as major component whereas Pd1 contains Pd as major part, (4) Pd1 and Pd2 are more efficient catalyst toward H2O2 reduction as compared to that of AuNPs, irrespective of their nanosize. Copyright © 2012 The Electrochemical Society. Source


Singh S.P.,Banaras Hindu University | Rao A.R.,Banaras Hindu University
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2012

A particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach for finding the optimal size and location of capacitors is reported in this work. The proposed technique finds optimal locations for shunt capacitors from the daily load curve. In addition, it determines the suitable values of fixed and switched capacitors. A dynamic sensitivity analysis method is used to select the candidate installation locations of the capacitors to reduce the search space of this problem. In case of more than one location, the dynamic sensitivity helps in deciding other locations considering the effect of previously decided locations and values of capacitors. A simple iterative method is used to compute the power flow. The results obtained for well studied 70-bus and 135-bus systems are compared with the solutions obtained by Tabu Search (TS), Hybrid and Genetic Algorithm. It is demonstrated that the proposed PSO approach offers the global optimal solution with greater saving. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source