Islam S.,Ban Bhaban |
Shukor M.N.,National University of Malaysia |
Aridah-Hanum I.F.,University Putra Malaysia |
Latiff A.,National University of Malaysia
Malaysian Forester | Year: 2010
A systematic sampling and survey along the gradient directed transect was conducted within study area to investigate the effects of selective logging on tree species diversity, stand structure and physical environment of tropical hill dipterocarp forest of Peninsular Malaysia. In this study baseline information on environmental aspects of selective logging have been generated and compared with that of pre-logging condition by surveying the same samples. Soil physical parameters and microclimatic variables are mainly included for comparing spatial variation as well as species distribution. However, canopy openness is also discussed to find out its relationship to soil moisture and forest microclimate variation following logging. The variation, of species composition in relation to habitat types as identified by numerical methods (Cluster and Principal Component Analysis) has been characterized and described in terms of possible environmental data. The results have been compared with the available studies from Malaysia and overseas. However, for the lack of pre-logging data as well as limited information particularly on microclimate, comparison was compounded. This study shows that the study site, Ulu Muda Forest Reserve, Kedah seems to be largely controlled by local micro-topography and associated microenvironment.
Saiful I.,Ban Bhaban |
Latiff A.,National University of Malaysia
Journal of Tropical Forest Science | Year: 2014
A systematic sampling along a gradient-directed transect was conductedin a primary hill dipterocarp rainforest in Peninsular Malaysia to study the effects of selective logging on treespecies composition, richness and diversity. The area was surveyed for more than one year before it was logged.Six months to one year after logging, resurveying of the same plots was done. The extraction of 27 trees perhectare affected all diameter classes. Of the 47.0% of total injury, 40.1% of stems were totally destroyed anddead. Species richness and diversity showed significant variation from the original levels. A percentage of24.1% of the total tree species were recorded lost from the study site in the first cut that encompassed only raretree species and commercial timber trees. About 50% of the residual species were under very rare categorywith single stem. Logging also altered the species composition and species accumulation curve of all tree sizeclasses. To arrest the loss of biodiversity, this study strongly suggests integration of biodiversity survey withthe existing management system as well as careful planning and execution of improved logging practices. © Forest Research Institute Malaysia.
Barlow A.C.D.,WildTeam Conservation |
Ahmad I.,Ban Bhaban |
Smith J.L.D.,Wildlife and Conservation Awareness
Wildlife Biology in Practice | Year: 2013
Human-killing by tigers (Panthera tigris) in the Bangladesh Sundarbans may lead to negative attitudes and retribution killings by local communities, which in turn may have a substantial impact on the long-term viability of the tiger population. The objectives of this paper were therefore to (1) assess the scale and historical trend of tiger attacks on humans in the Bangladesh SRF, and (2) build a profile of the tigers carrying out the attacks. We collated available literature cataloging official government records of tiger attacks on humans, and built tiger profiles using the location and time of each attack. A total of 1 396 human deaths were recorded over 63 years, or an average of 22 human deaths/year. An estimated total of 110 tigers killed humans in the SRF over 23 years with a mean five victims/tiger, and most tigers that killed humans were concentrated in the west. An estimated 50% of tigers only killed one person, and tigers that killed more than one person accounted for 81% of total human fatalities. These results support recommendations for the collaring human-killing tigers and the formation of tiger response teams to reduce the number of humans killed by tigers over time. © 2013 A.C.D. Barlow, I. Ahmad & J.L.D. Smith.
Aziz A.,University of Dhaka |
Paul A.R.,Ban Bhaban
Diversity | Year: 2015
The Sundarbans is a deltaic mangrove forest, formed about 7000 years ago by the deposition of sediments from the foothills of the Himalayas through the Ganges river system, and is situated southwest of Bangladesh and south of West Bengal, India. However, for the last 40 years, the discharge of sediment-laden freshwater into the Bay of Bengal through the Bangladesh part of the Sundarbans Mangrove Forests (BSMF) has been reduced due to a withdrawal of water during the dry period from the Farakka Barrage in India. The result is two extremes of freshwater discharge at Gorai, the feeding River of the BSMF: a mean minimum monthly discharge varies from 0.00 to 170 m3·s-1 during the dry period with a mean maximum of about 4000 to 8880 m3·s-1 during the wet period. In the BSMF, about 180 km downstream, an additional low discharge results in the creation of a polyhaline environment (a minimum of 194.4 m3·s-1 freshwater discharge is needed to maintain an oligohaline condition) during the dry period. The Ganges water carries 262 million ton sediments/year and only 7% is diverted in to southern distributaries. The low discharge retards sediment deposition in the forestlands' base as well as the formation of forestlands. The increase in water flow during monsoon on some occasions results in erosion of the fragile forestlands. Landsat Satellite data from the 1970s to 2000s revealed a non-significant decrease in the forestlands of total Sundarbans by 1.1% which for the 6017 km2 BSMF is equivalent to 66 km2. In another report from around the same time, the estimated total forestland loss was approximately 127 km2. The Sundarbans has had great influence on local freshwater environments, facilitating profuse growth of Heritiera fomes (sundri), the tallest (at over 15 m) and most commercially important plant, but now has more polyhaline areas threatening the sundri, affecting growth and distribution of other mangroves and biota. Landsat images and GIS data from 1989 to 2010 at the extreme northern part of Khulna and Chandpai Ranges revealed the formation of a large number of small rivers and creeks some time before 2000 that reduce the 443 km2 forestland by 3.61%, approximately 16 km2, and decreasing H. fomes by 28.75% and total tree cover by over 3.0%. The number of the relatively low-priced plants Bruguiera sexangula, Excoecaria agallocha and Sonneratia apetala, has, on the other hand, increased. Similar degradation could be occurring in other ranges, thereby putting the survivability of the Bangladesh Sundarbans at risk. The growing stock of 296 plants per ha in 1959 had been reduced to 144 by 1996. Trend analysis using "Table Curve 2D Programme," reveals a decreased number of 109 plants by the year 2020. The degradation of the Bangladesh Sundarbans has been attributed to reduced sediment-laden freshwater discharge through the BSMF river system since commissioning the Farakka Barrage on 21 April 1975 in India. To reduce salinity and forestland erosion, the maintenance of sediment-laden freshwater discharge through its river system has been suggested to re-create its pre-1975 environment for the growth of H. fomes, a true mangrove and the highest carbon-storing plant of the Sundarbans. This may possibly be achieved by proper sharing of the Ganges water from the Farakka Barrage, forming a consortium of India, Nepal, Bhutan and China, and converting parts or whole of the Ganges River into water reservoir(s). The idea is to implement the Ganges Barrage project about 33 km downstream, dredging sediments of the entire Gorai River and distributaries in the Ganges floodplain, thus allowing uniform sediment-laden freshwater flow to maintain an oligohaline environment for the healthy growth of mangroves. The system will also create healthy hinterlands of the Ganges floodplain with increased crop production and revenue. The expenditure may be met through carbon trading, as Bangladesh is a signatory of the Copenhagen Accord, N Framework Convention on Climate Change. The total carbon reserve in the BSMF in 2010 was measured at about 56 million metric tons, valued at a minimum of US$ 280 million per year. The forest is rich in biodiversity, where over 65 species of mangroves and about 1136 wildlife species occur. The BSMF acts as a natural wall, saving property as well as millions of lives from natural disasters, the value of which is between 273 and 714 million US$. A 15 to 20 km band impact zone exists to the north and east of the BSMF, with a human settlement of about 3.5 million that is partly dependent on the forests. Three wildlife sanctuaries are to the south of the BSMF, the home of the great royal Bengal tigers, covering a total area of about 1397 km2. Construction of a coal-fired power plant at Rampal will be the largest threat to the Sundarbans. It is a reserve forest, declared as a Ramsar site of international importance and a UNESCO natural world heritage site. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.