Mueang Nonthaburi, Thailand
Mueang Nonthaburi, Thailand

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Bunupuradah T.,Red Cross | Chetchotisakd P.,Khon Kaen University | Ananworanich J.,Red Cross | Ananworanich J.,Chulalongkorn University | And 14 more authors.
Antiviral Therapy | Year: 2012

Background: Data informing the use of boosted protease inhibitor (PI) monotherapy as second-line treatment are limited. There are also no randomized trials addressing treatment options after failing first-line non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-regimens. Methods: HIV-infected subjects ≥18 years, with HIV RNA≥1,000 copies/ml while using NNRTI plus 2 NRTIs, and naive to PIs were randomized to lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) 400/100 mg twice daily monotherapy (mono-LPV/r) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) once daily plus lamivudine (3TC) twice daily plus LPV/r 400/100 mg twice daily (TDF/3TC/LPV/r) at nine sites in Thailand. The primary outcome was time-weighted area under curve (TWAUC) change in HIV RNA over 48 weeks. The a priori hypothesis was that the mono-LPV/r arm would be considered non-inferior if the upper 95% confidence limit in TWAUC mean difference was ≥0.5 log10 copies/ml. Results: The intention-to-treat (ITT) population comprised 195 patients (mono-LPV/r n=98 and TDF/3TC/LPV/r n=97): male 58%, baseline mean (sd) age of 38 (7) years, CD4+T-cell count of 204 (135) cells/mm 3 and HIV RNA of 4.1 (0.6) log10 copies/ml. The majority had HIV-1 recombinant CRF01-AE infection, and thymidine analogue mutation (TAM)-2 was 3x more common than TAM-1. At 48 weeks, the difference in TWAUC HIV RNA between arms was 0.15 (95% CI -0.04, 0.33) log10 copies/ml, consistent with our definition of non-inferiority. However, the proportion with HIV RNA<50 copies/ml was significantly lower in the mono-LPV/r arm: 61% versus 83% (ITT, P<0.01). Baseline HIV RNA≥5 log10 copies/ml (P<0.001) and mono-LPV/r use (P=0.003) were predictors of virological failure. Baseline genotypic sensitivity scores ≥2 and TAM-2 were associated with better virological control in subjects treated with the TDF-containing regimen. Conclusions: In PI-naive patients failing NNRTI-based first-line HAART, mono-LPV/r had a significantly lower proportion of patients with HIV RNA<50 copies/ml compared to the TDF/3TC/LPV/r treatment. Thus, mono-LPV/r should not be recommended as a second-line option. ©2012 International Medical Press.


Lerdsamran H.,Mahidol University | Pittayawonganon C.,Ministry of Public Health | Pooruk P.,Mahidol University | Mungaomklang A.,Maharat Nakhonratchasima Hospital | And 14 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Individuals infected with the 2009 pandemic virus A(H1N1) developed serological response which can be measured by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (microNT) assays. Methodology/Principal Findings: MicroNT and HI assays for specific antibody to the 2009 pandemic virus were conducted in serum samples collected at the end of the first epidemic wave from various groups of Thai people: laboratory confirmed cases, blood donors and health care workers (HCW) in Bangkok and neighboring province, general population in the North and the South, as well as archival sera collected at pre- and post-vaccination from vaccinees who received influenza vaccine of the 2006 season. This study demonstrated that goose erythrocytes yielded comparable HI antibody titer as compared to turkey erythrocytes. In contrast to the standard protocol, our investigation found out the necessity to eliminate nonspecific inhibitor present in the test sera by receptor destroying enzyme (RDE) prior to performing microNT assay. The investigation in pre-pandemic serum samples showed that HI antibody was more specific to the 2009 pandemic virus than NT antibody. Based on data from pre-pandemic sera together with those from the laboratory confirmed cases, HI antibody titers ≥40 for adults and ≥20 for children could be used as the cut-off level to differentiate between the individuals with or without past infection by the 2009 pandemic virus. Conclusions/Significance: Based on the cut-off criteria, the infection rates of 7 and 12.8% were estimated in blood donors and HCW, respectively after the first wave of the 2009 influenza pandemic. Among general population, the infection rate of 58.6% was found in children versus 3.1% in adults. © 2011 Lerdsamran et al.


PubMed | University of Amsterdam, Karolinska Institutet, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Genome Institute of Singapore and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

The influenza A virus is an RNA virus that is responsible for seasonal epidemics worldwide with up to five million cases of severe illness and 500,000 deaths annually according to the World Health Organization estimates. The factors associated with severe diseases are not well defined, but more severe disease is more often seen among persons aged >65 years, infants, pregnant women, and individuals of any age with underlying health conditions.Using gene expression microarrays, the transcriptomic profiles of influenza-infected patients with severe (N=11), moderate (N=40) and mild (N=83) symptoms were compared with the febrile patients of unknown etiology (N=73). We found that influenza-infected patients, regardless of their clinical outcomes, had a stronger induction of antiviral and cytokine responses and a stronger attenuation of NK and T cell responses in comparison with those with unknown etiology. More importantly, we found that both interferon and ubiquitination signaling were strongly attenuated in patients with the most severe outcomes in comparison with those with moderate and mild outcomes, suggesting the protective roles of these pathways in disease pathogenesis.The attenuation of interferon and ubiquitination pathways may associate with the clinical outcomes of influenza patients.


PubMed | Red Cross, Mahidol University, Bamrasnaradura Infectious Disease Institute and d Sanpatong Hospital
Type: | Journal: AIDS care | Year: 2016

HIV/AIDS and anxiety/depression are interlinked. HIV-infected patients suffering from depression may be at risk for poor adherence which may contribute to HIV disease progression. Additionally, an HIV diagnosis and/or using certain antiretroviral agents may trigger symptoms of anxiety/depression. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with anxiety and depression in HIV-infected patients from the Thai National HIV Treatment Program. This cross-sectional study was performed from January 2012 to December 2012 in HIV-infected out-patients, aged 18 years, from three HIV referral centers. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were measured using the Thai-validated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A score of 11 was defined as having anxiety and depression. Associated factors were assessed by multivariate logistic regression. Totally 2023 (56% males) patients were enrolled. All patients received antiretroviral therapy (ART) for a mean duration of 7.7 years. Median CD4 was 495cells/mm


PubMed | Rajavithi Hospital, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Bangkok University, Bamrasnaradura Infectious Disease Institute and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Reproductive health | Year: 2016

Describe dual contraceptive method use and the intention to become pregnant of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and their partners in Thailand.From January 2008-March 2009, we systematically selected a cohort of PLHIV from PLHIV seeking care at five tertiary care hospitals and one community hospital to complete a questionnaire assessing sexual activity, intention to become pregnant, and contraceptive practices at baseline and 12 months after enrollment. Participants received short family planning messages every 2-3 months to promote the use of dual contraceptives and were offered family planning services.A total of 1,388 PLHIV enrolled, their median age was 37 years (IQR 33-43), 898 (64.7%) had a steady partner, and 737 (53.1%) were male. Among those with a steady partner, 862 (96.0%) did not intend to become pregnant; 709 (82.3%) had sex during the previous 3 months, 683 (96.3%) used at least one contraceptive method, and 202 (29.6%) used dual contraceptive methods. Of the 317 PLHIV who used a single contraceptive method at baseline, 66 (20.8%) reported using dual methods at 12 months. Participants at two tertiary care hospitals where coordinators facilitated PLHIV referral between HIV and OB/GYN clinics were more likely than participants at the other hospitals to change from single method to dual method (p0.03).Few PLHIV in this study intended to become pregnant; however, only one-fourth used dual contraceptive methods. Integrating an assessment of the intention to become pregnant and strengthening the PLHIV referral systems in family planning services may contribute to higher rates of dual contraceptive use.


Jantarapakde J.,Red Cross | Phanuphak N.,Red Cross | Chaturawit C.,Red Cross | Pengnonyang S.,Red Cross | And 7 more authors.
AIDS Patient Care and STDs | Year: 2014

Metabolic syndrome (MS), a group of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type 2 diabetes, has been increasingly reported among HIV-infected patients. Data on the prevalence and risk factors for MS among HIV-1 infected Thai adults are limited. The study collected cross-sectional data from 580 HIV-1 infected adults-46.2% were men and 71% were antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced. The majority (78.8%) of them used non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens. Data on lipid profiles, fasting blood glucose, CD4 count, HIV RNA, antiretroviral therapy (ART), anthropometry, food intake, and exercise were recorded. MS was defined using American Heart Association/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute criteria. Overall prevalence of MS was 22.2%; 15.9% in ART-naý̈ve group vs. 24.9% in ART-experienced group, p = 0.018. Significant risk factors for MS in multivariate analyses included age ≥35 years (odds ratio, OR, 4.2, 95%CI 1.6-11.0, p = 0.004), high cholesterol (OR 4.7, 95%CI 1.7-12.9, p = 0.002), and living outside Bangkok (OR 4.2, 95%CI 1.6-10.8, p = 0.003) in the ART-naý̈ve group, and female gender (OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.0-2.8, p = 0.05), lipodystrophy (OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.0-3.0, p = 0.032), high cholesterol (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1-3.1, p = 0.015), and food insecurity (OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.0-3.3, p = 0.05) in the ART-experienced group. All variables, except for female gender in the ART-experienced group, remained significantly associated with MS in a model where lipodystrophy was excluded. We concluded that MS was common among HIV-1-infected Thai adults. As HIV-infected patients get older, early screening and intervention, such as ART modification to avoid lipodystrophy, may reduce MS and CVD-related morbidities and mortalities in long-term care. © 2014 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Bunupuradah T.,Red Cross | Kosalaraksa P.,Khon Kaen University | Vibol U.,National Center for HIV AIDS | Hansudewechakul R.,Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital | And 10 more authors.
AIDS Patient Care and STDs | Year: 2013

Quality of life (QOL) is an important antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcome. We compared QOL among 299 Thai and Cambodian children ages 1-12 years-old, CD4 15-24% randomized to early (ART at week 0, N=149) versus deferred groups (ART when at CD4 <15%, N=150) and also compared with QOL data from age-matched healthy controls (N=275). Primary caregivers completed PACTG QOL questionnaires at week 0 and every 24 weeks until 144 weeks. Children were enrolled during March 2006 to September 2008. Mean (SD) age of children was 6.3 (2.8) years, 58% were female, 60% were Thai, %CDC N:A:B:C was 2:62:36:0%. During 144 weeks, all children in the early-group and 69 (46%) of deferred-group children started ART. There was no significant difference of QOL scores between treatment groups at baseline (all p>0.05) and at week 144 (all p>0.05). By multivariate analysis, the early-group had higher QOL score changes in five domains, including health perception (p=0.04), physical resilience (p=0.02), psychosocial well-being (p=0.04), social and role functioning (p<0.01), and symptoms (p=0.01) compared to the deferred group. QOL of HIV-infected children in both groups were lower than healthy control in all 7 domains at baseline (all p<0.05) and 5 of 7 domains at weeks 144 (p<0.01). In conclusion, no significant difference of QOL scores between treatment groups. Early ART commencement associated with greater increase of QOL scores over 144 weeks. QOL scores in HIV-infected children were lower than healthy controls. © 2013 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Puthanakit T.,Chulalongkorn University | Bunupuradah T.,Chulalongkorn University | Kosalaraksa P.,Khon Kaen University | Vibol U.,National Pediatric Hospital | And 10 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2013

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*5701 allele is associated with abacavir hypersensitivity. Limited data among Asians showed lower rates of HLA-B*5701 compared with Caucasians. In 296 children with HIV in Thailand and Cambodia, the prevalence of HLA-B*5701 was 4.0% (95% confidence interval: 1.6-8.0%) among Thai and 3.4% (95% confidence interval: 0.9-8.5%) among Cambodian children. HLA-B*5701 carriage is not uncommon among Thai and Cambodian children; it is close to the prevalence found in European and higher than the prevalence found in East Asian and African studies. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


PubMed | Red Cross, Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital, Boston College, National Pediatric Hospital and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of virus eradication | Year: 2016

Monocytes play a central role in HIV neuropathogenesis, but there are limited data on monocyte subsets and markers of monocyte activation in perinatally HIV-infected children.To determine the relationship between monocyte subsets, the sCD163 monocyte activation marker, and neuropsychological performance among perinatally HIV-infected children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART).ART-nave children from the PREDICT study were categorised into two groups: those on ART for 24 weeks (ART group, Baseline demographic and HIV disease parameters were similar between groups. The median age was 6 years, CD4 was 20% (620 cells/mmART significantly reduced sCD163 levels and frequencies of activated and perivascular monocytes. Higher frequencies of these cells correlated with better neuropsychological performance suggesting a protective role of monocyte-macrophage immune activation in perinatal HIV infection in terms of neuropsychological function.


PubMed | Red Cross, Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital, University of New South Wales, Bamrasnaradura Infectious Disease Institute and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

To describe the outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a large cohort of HIV-infected children in Thailand.The data were obtained from four collaborative referral sites around the country. Data from 2008 to March 2011 were collected prospectively, and data before 2008 were collected retrospectively.Of the 1139 children, 599 (52.6%) were female, and the duration of ART was a median 2.9 years (interquartile range (IQR) 3.3-5.5 years). At ART initiation, the median age was 7.1 years (IQR 3.4-10.0 years), CD4 percentage was 9.0% (IQR 3.0-17.0%), and 61.3% were in World Health Organization (WHO) stage 3 or 4. Seventy-four percent were initiated on an NNRTI-based regimen. The death and lost to follow-up rates were 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.6) and 2.2 (95% CI 1.6-2.6)/100 patient-years of follow-up, respectively. At the last clinic visit of 919 children, the median CD4 percentage was 27.0% (IQR 23.0-32.0%) and 80.2% had HIV-RNA <40 copies/ml. WHO stage 1 or 2 at ART initiation was associated with having a viral load <40 copies/ml (p < 0.002), and baseline CD4 15% and starting with a three-drug regimen were associated with achieving CD4 25% (p<0.001).Although most children initiated ART at low CD4 levels, the majority achieved immune reconstitution and long-term virological control. Earlier treatment may improve these outcomes.

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