Diourbel, Senegal

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In 2006, the Senegalese government introduced the "Plan Sésame", an unprecedented policy in West Africa aimed at reducing social vulnerability among the elderly (i.e. people aged over 60 years). This paper examines the process of implementation of the "Plan Sésame". Using a qualitative approach, the study was based on a unique case study authorized by the Senegalese Ministry of Health. Three methods were used: i) individual interviews (n = 19), ii) discussion groups (n = 24), and iii) documentary study. Despite its social objective, the "Plan Sésame" was ultimately limited to free health care. However, even the health component of the plan has suffered from underfunding. Political obstacles, inadequate accompanying measures and short staffing have resulted in late reimbursements at a local level, thus limiting the implementation of the plan. While both health professionals and elderly people are in favor of free healthcare, they are also critical of the implementation issues surrounding the "Plan Sésame". Although it appears to be a viable solution, these issues may spell the end of the plan. The task of designing solid technical foundations and developing appropriate accompanying measures should not be overlooked because of the limited interest of international partners in the "Plan Sésame", the national dimension of the plan and its electoral importance.


PubMed | Bambey University and University Gaston Berger
Type: | Journal: Studies in health technology and informatics | Year: 2016

In Senegal, great amounts of data are daily generated by medical activities such as consultation, hospitalization, blood test, x-ray, birth, death, etc. These data are still recorded in register, printed images, audios and movies which are manually processed. However, some medical organizations have their own software for non-standardized patient record management, appointment, wages, etc. without any possibility of sharing these data or communicating with other medical structures. This leads to lots of limitations in reusing or sharing these data because of their possible structural and semantic heterogeneity. To overcome these problems we have proposed a National Medical Information System for Senegal (SIMENS). As an integrated platform, SIMENS provides an EHR system that supports healthcare activities, a mobile version and a web portal. The SIMENS architecture proposes also a data and application integration services for supporting interoperability and decision making.


PubMed | Bambey University, World Health Organization, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Army Health Service and University Gaston Berger
Type: | Journal: Military Medical Research | Year: 2015

Chronic hepatitis is a major public health problem. Hepatitis B virus is the primary cause, and Hepatitis B and C together are responsible for 60% of cirrhosis and 80% of hepatocellular carcinomas. This study measured the prevalence of HBsAg among Senegalese military to develop an appropriate strategy to prevent cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study among Senegalese military aged 25 to 60 years. A sample of 1224 participants was selected following a two-level-stratification. The mark of surface HBs antigen using chemiluminescence concerned 1195 participants. The presence of HBsAg was analyzed according to age, marital status, alcohol consumption and glomerular filtration rate. Epi-info6fr and R software were used, respectively, for data capture and analyses. A Chi-square test was performed to compare proportions considering a significance level of 5% and a confidence interval of 95%.The average age was 39.8 9.2 years. Participants in the age groups of 25-34 years, 45-60 years and 35-44 years were respectively 30.7%, 34.4% and 34.9% of the sample. Married persons represented 82.6% of participants and 17.08% were single. Most participants were educated (99%), and 56% had reached at least secondary school level. Alcohol consumption was at 11.5%. The HBsAg prevalence rate was 10.8% [9.1% to 12.7%] with a significant difference between age groups (P < 0.001), which ranged from 5.6% for 45-60 years, 9.62% for 25-34 years to 16.9% for 35-44 years. Marital status and alcohol consumption did not affect the carriage of HBsAg. HBsAg prevalence was more common among participants who had a glomerular filtration rate greater than 90 ml/min. Transaminases rate exceeded the normal threshold for 43 participants (3.6%); the increase was 6.6% [2.7% to 11.8%] for HBsAg carriers and 3.2% [1.2% to 6.7%] for alcohol users.The high prevalence of HBsAg in the military requires the implementation of an effective prevention and care program to reduce the risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and contribute to reducing the burden of communicable diseases, such as hepatitis and HIV/AIDS, and non-communicable diseases.


PubMed | Bambey University and Service de medecine preventive et sante publique
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revue d'epidemiologie et de sante publique | Year: 2016

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is often a reason for consultation revealing the existence of cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study was to determine the cardiovascular risk factors associated with ED in the Dakar region.A descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study was conducted from March 18 to June 2, 2013. The study population was composed of married male subjects who sought care at the Ouakam Geriatric and Gerontology Center and the Grand Yoff General Hospital. Erectile function was assessed with the International Index of Erectile Function using the simplified five-item questionnaire (IIEF 5). R 2.2.9 software was used for the logistic regression multivariate analysis. Associations were measured using the adjusted odds ratio (ORaj) with confidence intervals.A total of 253 men were surveyed during this period. Average age was 16.758.2 years, range 24-90 years; 47% were aged under 60 years. ED was diagnosed in 110 patients (43.5%). ED was considered mild (33.6%), moderate (5.5%) or severe (4.3%). ED was more severe in patients older than 60 years. Cardiovascular risk factors associated with ED were diabetes ORaj=2.4 (1.24-4.68), sedentary lifestyle ORaj=3.08 (1.69-5.61), and hypertension ORaj=2.53 (1.33-4.81).These results should prompt health care providers to target patients with diabetes, hypertension and sedentary lifestyle for systematic ED screening as a routine practice in order to ensure early and effective care.


PubMed | Bambey University, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Service de medecine interne and Concordia University at Montréal
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Geriatrie et psychologie neuropsychiatrie du vieillissement | Year: 2016

In Senegal, due to the young age of the population (60%) the concerns of the old tend to be put in the background. And yet, problems related to old age are a reality. These problems come up not in terms of demography (the old represent only 4.7% of the population), but in terms of the breaking-up of the social fabric, urbanization and the dismantling of the solidarity and poverty networks. This work is based on a collection of qualitative data from three studies conducted between 2008 and 2011 with the elderly to assess their real- life experiences, their perception of aging, their challenges and coping strategies. The results showed a transformation in the role and status of the old; this transformation being caused by social and society-related mutations. As a result, the inter-generation solidarity links have much loosened in the urban areas making the old people more vulnerable (in economic, social, health terms), especially those in charge of a family. The situation has been made worse by the unemployment affecting their offspring. In addition, the old people, who are often suffering from chronic diseases, find it hard to take charge of their medical expenses, despite the institution of the National Sesame Health Plan for the old or free health care policy. This has made them even more vulnerable. Yet before this precarious situation, the elderly develop strategies to cope with difficulties. Some recommendations have been made with a view to improving their lives and socioeconomic condition.


Faye A.,Bambey University | Bob M.,Ministere de la Sante | Fall A.,Ministere de la Sante | Fall C.,Ministere de la Sante
Medecine et sante tropicales | Year: 2012

Member countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) met in Alma Ata (8-12 September 1978) to define and advocate the implementation of primary health care (PHC) worldwide, above all, in developing countries, which had a real need to review their strategies for meeting the health needs of their populations. They did not suspect that 20 years later the vision they displayed would remain undeniably relevant. Here we examine the similarities and points of convergence of their declaration about PHC with the Millennium Development Goals that seek today to reduce poverty across the world. An exhaustive and analytic literature review was conducted to collect those similarities. Further analysis of the definitions, objectives, principles and recommendations of the Alma Ata Declaration and the Millennium Declaration reveals multiple dependencies and fundamental points of similarity between these two representations. Almost all states have pledged to achieve the eight MDG by 2015: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development. The Alma Ata conference defined primary health care as essential health care, based on practical methods and techniques that are both scientifically sound and socially acceptable, universally accessible to all individuals and all families of the community, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and countries can afford at all stages of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It is an integral part of economic and social development. The following principles are involved in the achievement of both primary health care and the MDG: social equity, community participation, and intersectorality. Public health is an essential condition of poverty eradication and MDG achievement. Public health issues are central to the problem of sustainable development and must therefore remain the focus of attention. It is increasingly urgent to break the vicious circle created by the close correlation between environmental degradation, poor health, and poverty.


Ka A.K.,Bambey University
SECRYPT 2015 - 12th International Conference on Security and Cryptography, Proceedings; Part of 12th International Joint Conference on e-Business and Telecommunications, ICETE 2015 | Year: 2015

In 2005, Juels and Weis proposed HB+, a perfectly adapted authentication protocol for resource-constrained devices such as RFID tags. The HB+ protocol is based on the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) problem and is proven secure against active adversaries. Since a man-in-the-middle attack on HB+ due to Gilbert et al. was published, many proposals have been made to improve the HB+ protocol. But none of these was formally proven secure against general man-in-the-middle adversaries. In this paper we present a solution to make the HB+ protocol resistant to general man-in-the-middle adversaries without exceeding the computational and storage capabilities of the RFID tag. © Copyright 2015 SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications. All rights reserved.


The bites of the venomous snakes constitute a medical, social and economic problem for the African, low-income rural populations and remote from health centers. The relatively high cost of the antivenomous serotherapy makes this treatment, today even, inaccessible to a major or to the quasi-totality of the African population. In Senegal, most of 8000 persons are bitten every year by a snake among which approximately 150-200 die from the consequences of these bites, mainly at the beginning and at the end of agricultural period. The use of extracts of plants with therapeutic aim is a current practice in African traditional medicine. The study was conducted between October, 2010 and January, 2011 and consisted in conducting a survey in three sites in three regions of Senegal: Dakar, Kaolack, and Kédougou, which were chosen on the basis of their accessibility and their important attendance rate by the patients presenting snake bites. The survey was conducted by means of questionnaires with intended opened answers, with tradipraticiens and chemists. Two families of plants were found to be used as well by the quack's and tradipraticiens than by the chemists. These families are all of the shru: (1) Annonaceae (four species): Anonna chrysophylla Boj., A. senegalensis the var. (Boj.) chrysophylla R. Sillans, the var latifolia Oliv. A. senegalensis, A. arenaria thonn; (2) Poligalaceae (one species): Securidaca longepedunculata. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


Diop A.,Bambey University
2015 International Conference on Computing and Network Communications, CoCoNet 2015 | Year: 2015

The management of the data is an important aspect in the quality and the performance of the information system in higher education. It allows to do research from the collected data and especially to follow daily the learners in the progress of their learning activities (apprenticeship). By studying and by analyzing the evolution in Senegal of the increasing number of students from 2012 till 2015 and by being based on the results and the statistics supplied by the World Bank from 1971 till 2011 in terms of registration in higher education, a project was introduced for the implementation of an on-line environment of collection, treatment and data analysis. In our communication, a work was made within the framework of the searches on the learning platforms. This study is based on a sample of 6684 learners from three education structures. All this has allowed to confirm the studies and the analyses produced and published in the form of indicators of world development in the category of the education in Senegal. This article shows how the functional analysis of the platform LMDPRO is made to lead to interfaces allowing to collect, to handle and to analyze gross data for the improvement of the quality of the information for indicators in higher education. © 2015 IEEE.


PubMed | Bambey University, Services de medecine interne Abass Ndao UCAD and Service de medecine preventive et sante publique UCAD
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Geriatrie et psychologie neuropsychiatrie du vieillissement | Year: 2016

Senegal will not be spared by the process of the aging of its population. In fact, according to surveys, the demographic increase in the population of the old people, which is 3.5% higher than the national average (2.5%). But for the time being, gerontology problems are not arising in terms of demographic weight, but rather in terms of the breaking up of solidarity networks, uncontrolled urbanization and poverty. As far as health is concerned, the old people generally are faced with the same problems as their Northern counterparts; they are exposed to chronic diseases that demand their taking in charge in a long period of time. Besides, these diseases are a great handicap and they are also disabling diseases. So taking them in charge puts a financial on their meager family budgets or their pensions. In addition, there are no specialists in geriatrics, and those working in the field did not receive any training for that. Moreover, most of our health facilities are lacking in diagnostic means. Therefore, gerontology-geriatrics solutions that are adapted to our socio-economic context should be assigned straight away. The problem is not about stopping the process of aging, which, as a physiological process, is inevitable and irreversible, but rather delaying its effects. The matter at issue will be about how to set up a decentralized and integrated program that is designed to fight against geriatric diseases and disorders and that mainly focuses on screening and primary and secondary prevention, for our low financial resources and the low medical equipment of our health facilities cannot help us to adequately take charge of complications related to these diseases.

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