Utrecht, Netherlands
Utrecht, Netherlands

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van de Ven M.F.C.,Technical University of Delft | Sluer B.W.,BAM wegen B.V. | Jenkins K.J.,Stellenbosch University | van den Beemt C.M.A.,BAM wegen B.V.
Road Materials and Pavement Design | Year: 2012

Internationally, a growing health, safety and environmental awareness of the public can be observed. In this context, significant efforts are underway to develop advanced technologies to reduce the use of non-renewable fossil fuels, in order to reduce emissions and human exposure. Also, in the road industry, the search for new sustainable solutions is eminent. The introduction of asphalt mixtures that can be produced at lower temperatures is an important development in this direction. Lower temperature means in general that lower than 140°C. In this article, developments with the so-called half-warm foamed bitumen mixtures produced at temperatures below 100°C and even as low as 90°C are discussed. Mixtures used in binder and base layers are considered. The role of life-cycle assessment as used in the Netherlands is described for half-warm foamed bitumen mixtures. The performance properties according to the CE marking are also discussed at the same time. Finally, the workability of these mixtures is studied, showing how compaction of this type of mixtures can be managed. In all cases, a reference hot base course mixture is used for comparison. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

Pramesti F.P.,Technical University of Delft | Pramesti F.P.,Sebelas Maret University | Molenaar A.A.A.,Technical University of Delft | Van De Ven M.F.C.,Technical University of Delft | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Testing and Evaluation | Year: 2014

The objective of this study is to compare the fatigue behavior in two beam fatigue tests: the Four Point Bending Test (FPBT) and the Beam on Elastic Foundation (BOEF) test. It is believed that the BOEF test simulates the fatigue behavior of asphalt mixtures in a more realistic way. The beam specimens used for both the FPBT and BOEF tests are made of gravel asphalt concrete (GAC). Finite element simulations of the BOEF test are carried out to understand better the behavior of the GAC beam. The results show that in the BOEF tests, cracks will develop from the middle bottom of beam while the FPBTs at low temperature show no crack. This finding further supports the idea that improved fatigue tests are needed which better represent the cracking behavior of asphalt pavements. However, the BOEF test also shows the development of an accumulated strain along with the cyclic strain. This shows that further investigation is needed to determine the cause of fatigue cracks; are they due to the cyclic strain or due to the accumulated strain? Another important finding is that at a temperature of 5°C and a frequency of 8 Hz, the fatigue life obtained with the BOEF test is 20 times higher (on average) than FPBT fatigue life. © Copyright VC 2014 by ASTM International.

Woldekidan M.,Technical University of Delft | Huurman M.,BAM Wegen Bv | Pronk A.,Advanced Concrete Pavement Consultancy
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2013

Bituminous materials exhibit either one or a combination of viscous, elastic, and viscoelastic responses. When applied loads are limited, the materials' behavior can be considered linear. For higher loads they exhibit a nonlinear response. In relation to pavement performance, understanding the behavior of the binders for loads corresponding to the magnitude and frequency of the truck loading is important. With the framework of porous asphalt (PA) application, this paper investigates the behavior of a bituminous mortar at various temperatures and shear stress levels. A dynamic shear rheometer setup with specimen geometry specially designed for mortar testing was used. The mortar, which consisted of bitumen, filler, and fine fractions of sand, was produced according to a standard PA mixture recipe. Various measurements conducted at the linear viscoelastic range showed that the utilized setup provided very good test result repeatability. The nonlinear behavior was obtained by performing tests at high shear stress levels. The observed nonlinear behavior was described by using Schapery nonlinear theory. To allow numerical use, a three-dimensional form of the theory was implemented in ABAQUS by using user material subroutines. For code verification, time and frequency domain simulations were performed to reproduce the experimental data. Good comparisons between simulated and measured data were obtained. The paper presents the details of the laboratory and numerical studies and also discusses the theoretical implications of the results for PA design.

Mo L.,Wuhan University of Technology | Shu D.,Wuhan University of Technology | Li X.,Wuhan University of Technology | Huurman M.,BAM Wegen bv | Wu S.,Wuhan University of Technology
Materials and Design | Year: 2012

Bituminous plug expansion joint materials containing high content of crumb rubber powder and granules were investigated. 20. wt% crumb rubber powder was added into SBS modified bitumen to produce a blended binder. Rheological test, which was done by a dynamic shear rheometer (DRS), demonstrated that this blended binder exhibited good performance at high and low temperatures. The replacement of part of mineral aggregates by rubber granules allowed preparing more flexible joint materials. Combining the data obtained from wheel-tracking rutting test and three-point bending test, it was found that 9.2. vol% rubber granule was the critical content for rutting resistance at high temperature and flexibility at low temperature. It was concluded that bituminous plug expansion joint materials containing high content of crumb rubber powder and granules performed well to deal with thermal and traffic loads. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Mo L.,Wuhan University of Technology | Li X.,Wuhan University of Technology | Fang X.,Wuhan University of Technology | Huurman M.,BAM Wegen Bv | Wu S.,Wuhan University of Technology
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2012

This paper focuses on the compaction characteristics and performance of warm mix asphalt containing chemical additive. Viscosity tests indicated the used chemical additive had a limited effect on viscosity reduction. Investigation into the ease of compaction showed that asphalt mixtures containing 2% chemical additive allowed compacting at lower temperatures and mixture compactability was less dependent on bitumen viscosity. It was demonstrated that the compactability of warm mix asphalt could be well ranked by using various indicators including the number of gyrations to achieve a design void content, the slope of accumulated compaction energy against the number of gyrations as well as compaction energy indices at various compaction phases. Data obtained from immersion wheel tracking tests indicated that warm mix asphalt containing chemical additive did not have a performance comparable to that of hot mix asphalt. Rutting and stripping were found to be the main causes resulting in poor performance. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mo L.T.,Wuhan University of Technology | Fang X.,Wuhan University of Technology | Yan D.P.,Chongqing Pengfang Pavement Engineering Research Institute | Huurman M.,BAM Wegen Bv | Wu S.P.,Wuhan University of Technology
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2012

The paper is focused on development of response and fatigue models of thin epoxy polymer overlay materials. Test data indicated that epoxy binder-steel bonding exhibited a strong temperature dependency. Fatigue models on epoxy binder-steel bonding and epoxy polymer concrete were developed using the power-law equation. Response models of epoxy binder and its concrete were properly established by using the Prony series. The developed response models could be served for finite element simulations on epoxy polymer concrete overlay upon orthotropic steel bridge decks. When the material stress or strain in the overlay is computed, life prediction becomes available by using the fatigue models. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mo L.,Wuhan University of Technology | Huurman M.,BAM Wegen bv | Wu S.,Wuhan University of Technology | Molenaar A.A.A.,Technical University of Delft
Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions | Year: 2014

This paper presents the development of a practical mortar fatigue model on the basis of the dissipated energy concept. A specially designed test setup was developed for characterization of mortar fatigue at meso-scale by means of dynamic shear rheometer. Test results showed that mortar fatigue models based on the dissipated energy concept can be developed for the purpose of life predictions under complicated loading conditions. The dissipated energy per cycle in the initial phase of fatigue tests is a practical indicator for fatigue life determination purposes than the total energy dissipated during a fatigue test. Since a mortar fatigue model based on the initial dissipated energy per cycle was adopted, effects of random stress and strain signals on mortar fatigue can be taken into account. © 2013 RILEM.

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