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Berlin, Germany

The Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing is a German material research institute. Wikipedia.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: MG-4.1-2014 | Award Amount: 25.13M | Year: 2015

The project HERCULES-2 is targeting at a fuel-flexible large marine engine, optimally adaptive to its operating environment. The objectives of the HERCULES-2 project are associated to 4 areas of engine integrated R&D: Improving fuel flexibility for seamless switching between different fuel types, including non-conventional fuels. Formulating new materials to support high temperature component applications. Developing adaptive control methodologies to retain performance over the powerplant lifetime. Achieving near-zero emissions, via combined integrated aftertreatment of exhaust gases. The HERCULES-2 is the next phase of the R&D programme HERCULES on large engine technologies, which was initiated in 2004 as a joint vision by the two major European engine manufacturer groups MAN and WARTSILA. Three consecutive projects namely HERCULES - A, -B, -C spanned the years 2004-2014. These three projects produced exceptional results and received worldwide acclaim. The targets of HERCULES-2 build upon and surpass the targets of the previous HERCULES projects, going beyond the limits set by the regulatory authorities. By combining cutting-edge technologies, the Project overall aims at significant fuel consumption and emission reduction targets using integrated solutions, which can quickly mature into commercially available products. Focusing on the applications, the project includes several full-scale prototypes and shipboard demonstrators. The project HERCULES-2 comprises 4 R&D Work Package Groups (WPG): - WPG I: Fuel flexible engine - WPG II: New Materials (Applications in engines) - WPG III: Adaptive Powerplant for Lifetime Performance - WPG IV: Near-Zero Emissions Engine The consortium comprises 32 partners of which 30% are Industrial and 70% are Universities / Research Institutes. The Budget share is 63% Industry and 37% Universities. The HERCULES-2 proposal covers with authority and in full the Work Programme scope B1 of MG.4.1-2014.

Stark W.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing
Polymer Testing | Year: 2013

Carbon fibre prepregs have found widespread application in lightweight constructions. They are based on a carbon fibre fabric impregnated with reactive epoxy resin. Measurements were carried out using commercially available prepreg material. For Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), a single cantilever measuring device was applied. The DMA results were refined by additional DSC measurements. The measurements were carried out with dynamic heating in the temperature range -90 to 280 °C. The heating rates were 1 and 2 K/min, respectively. A glass transition of the uncured material (Tg0) near 1 °C, and crosslinking-induced vitrification and devitrification at the maximal glass transition temperature of the cured material (Tgmax) in the temperature range 220 to 230 °C were found. The activation energies for the glass transitions were determined using an Arrhenius plot. By detailed consideration of the influence of the frequency on the DMA data, indications for gelation were deduced. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Muller W.W.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing
Geotextiles and Geomembranes | Year: 2014

Data from four samples of commercially available PET geogrids (made either of yarns or bars), which were measured by BAM or other institute, are analyzed to discuss the procedure and problems of determining the chemical reduction factor RFCH associated with a certain service life. Estimates from Arrhenius extrapolation usually have very large statistical errors. The level of confidence must therefore be specified. A reliable estimate requires data from immersion tests below the glass transition temperature of PET. To extrapolate the time of reductions for each reduction factor at such low temperatures, one has to know the functional form of the mechanical degradation curve. It is shown how the degradation curve of the tensile strength may be obtained by determining the relation between increase in concentration of carboxyl end group (CEG) and decrease in tensile strength. Therefore, experimental studies to determine the chemical reduction factor should be accompanied by the measurements of the CEG concentration and the intrinsic viscosity. Furthermore, such measurements allow a non-ambiguous determination of the molecular mass. Hydrolytic molecular degradation will proceed continuously even at 20°C with half-life of the inverse of the CEG concentration of 40-100y. Nevertheless, small chemical reduction factors at a lifetime of 100y are obtained with high level of confidence for materials with low initial CEG concentration and high molecular mass. This is shown by pooling data from samples with comparable CEG concentration, molecular mass and above all comparable intrinsic relation between increase in CEG concentration and decrease in strength. Therefore, the recommendation of ISO TR 20432, Table2, for chemical reduction factors seems to be applicable to PET geogrids with index properties well below the one specified by the technical report. Whether these index properties are actually a sufficient condition to have small chemical reduction factors even at a very long service life is still an open question. The determination of chemical reduction factor should be based on aging experiments, at least for products with index properties close to the limiting values for the following reasons. (1) Even so standards are available, results of different laboratories on absolute values of CEG concentration and number averaged molecular mass differ to a certain extent. (2) Other factors, like crystallization, affect the mechanical degradation significantly. (3) There is no universally applicable form of the mechanical degradation curve. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Wurth C.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing
Nature protocols | Year: 2013

Luminescence techniques are among the most widely used detection methods in the life and material sciences. At the core of these methods is an ever-increasing variety of fluorescent reporters (i.e., simple dyes, fluorescent labels, probes, sensors and switches) from different fluorophore classes ranging from small organic dyes and metal ion complexes, quantum dots and upconversion nanocrystals to differently sized fluorophore-doped or fluorophore-labeled polymeric particles. A key parameter for fluorophore comparison is the fluorescence quantum yield (Φf), which is the direct measure for the efficiency of the conversion of absorbed light into emitted light. In this protocol, we describe procedures for relative and absolute determinations of Φf values of fluorophores in transparent solution using optical methods, and we address typical sources of uncertainty and fluorophore class-specific challenges. For relative determinations of Φf, the sample is analyzed using a conventional fluorescence spectrometer. For absolute determinations of Φf, a calibrated stand-alone integrating sphere setup is used. To reduce standard-related uncertainties for relative measurements, we introduce a series of eight candidate quantum yield standards for the wavelength region of ∼350-950 nm, which we have assessed with commercial and custom-designed instrumentation. With these protocols and standards, uncertainties of 5-10% can be achieved within 2 h. Source

Unger J.F.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing
Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids | Year: 2013

In this paper, a new methodology based on the Hill-Mandel lemma in an FE2 sense is proposed that is able to deal with localized deformations. This is achieved by decomposing the displacement field of the fine scale model into a homogeneous part, fluctuations, and a cracking part based on additional degrees of freedom (X1) - the crack opening in normal and tangential directions. Based on this decomposition, the Hill-Mandel lemma is extended to relate coarse and fine scale energies using the assumption of separation of scales such that the fine scale model is not required to have the same size as the corresponding macroscopic integration point. In addition, a procedure is introduced to mimic periodic boundary conditions in the linear elastic range by adding additional shape functions for the boundary nodes that represent the difference between periodic boundary conditions and pure displacement boundary conditions due to the same macroscopic strain. In order to decrease the computational effort, an adaptive strategy is proposed allowing different macroscopic integration points to be resolved in different levels on the fine scale. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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