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Balzers, Liechtenstein

A method of magnetron sputtering, comprises rotating a magnet of a magnetron with an angular frequency , and, during sputtering of material from a source of the magnetron onto a substrate, periodically modulating a power level applied to the source with at least a component comprising a frequency f which is a harmonic of the angular frequency of rotation of the magnet other than the first harmonic.


An etching chamber is equipped with an actively-cooled element preferentially adsorbs volatile compounds that are evolved from a polymeric layer of a wafer during etching, which compounds will act as contaminants if re-deposited on the wafer, for example on exposed metal contact portions where they may interfere with subsequent deposition of metal contact layers. In desirable embodiments, a getter sublimation pump is also provided in the etching chamber as a source of getter material. Methods of etching in such a chamber are also disclosed.


An apparatus for generating sputtering of a target to produce a coating on a substrate is provided. The apparatus comprises a magnetron including a cathode and an anode. A power supply is operably connected to the magnetron and at least one capacitor is operably connected to the power supply. A first switch is also provided. The first switch operably connects the power supply to the magnetron to charge the magnetron and the first switch is configured to charge the magnetron according to a first pulse. An electrical bias device is operably connected to the substrate and configured to apply a substrate bias.


A transport and handing-over arrangement for disc shaped substrates, comprising a carrier (


A method for the deposition of an anti-reflection film on a substrate is disclosed. A substrate including a plurality of solar cell structures is provided and placed in a vacuum chamber with a target including silicon. A flow of a nitrogen-containing reactive gas into the vacuum chamber is set to a first value while a voltage between the target and ground is switched off and then increased to a second value. A voltage is applied between the target and ground, whereby a film of silicon and nitrogen is deposited on the substrate in a flow of the nitrogen-containing reactive gas which is higher than the first value.

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