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Zou T.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Zou T.,Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center 112 | Rao J.N.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Rao J.N.,Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center 112 | And 10 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biology | Year: 2010

Polyamines critically regulate all mammalian cell growth and proliferation by mechanisms such as the repression of growth-inhibitory proteins, including JunD. Decreasing the levels of cellular polyamines stabilizes JunD mRNA without affecting its transcription, but the exact mechanism whereby polyamines regulate JunD mRNA degradation has not been elucidated. RNA-binding proteins HuR and AUF1 associate with labile mRNAs bearing AU-rich elements located in the 3′ untranslated regions (3′-UTRs) and modulate their stability. Here, we show that JunD mRNA is a target of HuR and AUF1 and that polyamines modulate JunD mRNA degradation by altering the competitive binding of HuR and AUF1 to the JunD 3′-UTR. The depletion of cellular polyamines enhanced HuR binding to JunD mRNA and decreased the levels of JunD transcript associated with AUF1, thus stabilizing JunD mRNA. The silencing of HuR increased AUF1 binding to the JunD mRNA, decreased the abundance of HuR-JunD mRNA complexes, rendered the JunD mRNA unstable, and prevented increases in JunD mRNA and protein in polyamine-deficient cells. Conversely, increasing the cellular polyamines repressed JunD mRNA interaction with HuR and enhanced its association with AUF1, resulting in an inhibition of JunD expression. These results indicate that polyamines modulate the stability of JunD mRNA in intestinal epithelial cells through HuR and AUF1 and provide new insight into the molecular functions of cellular polyamines. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Rao J.N.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Rao J.N.,Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center 112 | Rathor N.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Rathor N.,Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center 112 | And 12 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology | Year: 2010

Early epithelial restitution is an important repair modality in the gut mucosa and occurs as a consequence of epithelial cell migration. Canonical transient receptor potential-1 (TRPC1) functions as a store-operated Ca 2+ channel (SOCs) in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and regulates intestinal restitution, but the exact upstream signals initiating TRPC1 activation after mucosal injury remain elusive. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is a single membrane-spanning protein and is recently identified as essential components of SOC activation. The current study was performed to determine whether STIM1 plays a role in the regulation of intestinal epithelial restitution by activating TRPC1 channels. STIM1 translocation to the plasma membrane increased after wounding, which was followed by an increase in IEC migration to reseal wounds. Increased STIM1 levels at the plasma membrane by overexpressing EF-hand mutant STIM1 enhanced Ca2+ influx through SOCs and stimulated IEC migration after wounding. STIM1 interacted with TRPC1 and formed STIM1/TRPC1 complex, whereas inactivation of STIM1 by STIM1 silencing decreased SOC-mediated Ca2+ influx and inhibited epithelial restitution. In cells overexpressing EF-hand mutant STIM1, TRPC1 silencing also decreased STIM1/TRPC1 complex, reduced SOC-mediated Ca2+ influx, and repressed cell migration after wounding. Our findings demonstrate that induced STIM1 translocation to the plasma membrane promotes IEC migration after wounding by enhancing TRPC1-mediated Ca2+ signaling and provide new insight into the mechanism of intestinal epithelial restitution.


Zou T.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Zou T.,Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center 112 | Rao J.N.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Rao J.N.,Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center 112 | And 14 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology | Year: 2012

Polyamines regulate multiple signaling pathways and are implicated in many aspects of cellular functions, but the exact molecular processes governed by polyamines remain largely unknown. In response to environmental stress, repression of translation is associated with the assembly of stress granules (SGs) that contain a fraction of arrested mRNAs and are thought to function as mRNA storage. Here we show that polyamines modulate the assembly of SGs in normal intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and that induced SGs following polyamine depletion are implicated in the protection of IECs against apoptosis. Increasing the levels of cellular polyamines by ectopic overexpression of the ornithine decarboxylase gene decreased cytoplasmic levels of SG-signature constituent proteins eukaryotic initiation factor 3b and T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1)-related protein and repressed the assembly of SGs induced by exposure to arsenite-induced oxidative stress. In contrast, depletion of cellular polyamines by inhibiting ornithine decarboxylase with α-difluoromethylornithine increased cytoplasmic eukaryotic initiation factor 3b and TIA-1 related protein abundance and enhanced arsenite-induced SG assembly. Polyamine-deficient cells also exhibited an increase in resistance to tumor necrosis factor-α/cycloheximide-induced apoptosis, which was prevented by inhibiting SG formation with silencing SG resident proteins Sort1 and TIA-1. These results indicate that the elevation of cellular polyamines represses the assembly of SGs in normal IECs and that increased SGs in polyamine-deficient cells are crucial for increased resistance to apoptosis. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.


Xiao L.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Xiao L.,Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center 112 | Rao J.N.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Rao J.N.,Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center 112 | And 12 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology | Year: 2010

Intestinal epithelium is a rapidly self-renewing tissue in the body, and its homeostasis is tightly regulated by numerous factors including polyamines. Decreased levels of cellular polyamines increase activating transcription factor (ATF)-2, but the exact role and mechanism of induced ATF-2 in the regulation of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) growth remain elusive. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 is necessary for the G1-to-S phase transition during the cell cycle, and its expression is predominantly controlled at the transcription level. Here, we reported that induced ATF-2 following polyamine depletion repressed CDK4 gene transcription in IECs by increasing formation of the ATF-2/JunD heterodimers. ATF-2 formed complexes with JunD as measured by immunoprecipitation using the ATF-2 and JunD antibodies and by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays using GST-ATF-2 fusion proteins. Studies using various mutants of GST-ATF-2 revealed that formation of the ATF-2/JunD dimers depended on the COOH-terminal basic region-leucine zipper domain of ATF-2. Polyamine depletion increased ATF-2/JunD complex and inhibited CDK4 transcription as indicated by a decrease in the levels of CDK4-promoter activity and its mRNA. ATF-2 silencing not only prevented inhibition of CDK4 transcription in polyamine-deficient cells but also abolished repression of CDK4 expression induced by ectopic JunD overexpression. ATF-2 silencing also promoted IEC growth in polyamine-depleted cells. These results indicate that induced ATF-2/JunD association following polyamine depletion represses CDK4 transcription, thus contributing to the inhibition of IEC growth.

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