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Martin S.L.,Cornell University | Thuita F.,University of Nairobi | Bingham A.,PATH | Mukuria A.G.,Baltimore
Social Science and Medicine

Background: Peer-led dialogue groups (i.e., support or self-help groups) are a widely used community-based strategy to improve maternal and child health and nutrition. However, the experiences and motivation of peer educators who facilitate these groups are not well documented. Objective: We implemented eight father and ten grandmother peer dialogue groups in western Kenya to promote and support recommended maternal dietary and infant and young child feeding practices and sought to understand factors that influenced peer educator motivation. Methods: After four months of implementation, we conducted 17 in-depth interviews with peer educators as part of a process evaluation to understand their experiences as group facilitators as well as their motivation. We analyzed the interview transcripts thematically and then organized them by level: individual, family, peer dialogue group, organization, and community. Results: Father and grandmother peer educators reported being motivated by multiple factors at the individual, family, dialogue group, and community levels, including increased knowledge, improved communication with their wives or daughters-in-law, increased respect and appreciation from their families, group members' positive changes in behavior, and increased recognition within their communities. This analysis also identified several organization-level factors that contributed to peer educator motivation, including clearly articulated responsibilities for peer educators; strong and consistent supportive supervision; opportunities for social support among peer educators; and working within the existing health system structure. Conclusion: Peer educator motivation affects performance and retention, which makes understanding and responding to their motivation essential for the successful implementation, sustainability, and scalability of community-based, peer-led nutrition interventions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

A good portion of the newly discovered petrochemical potential in places far from the conventional crude drilling sites in Texas and Oklahoma can be attributed to technological advances. Alex Demas, a public affairs specialist with the US Geological Survey who has been covering energy resources notes that hydrofracking is just one component of a suite of new techniques being used to extract and collect petrochemical resources that would have been considered inaccessible. Hydraulic fracturing operations are a method of creating these pathways pumping down water and chemicals under high pressure to pry apart the rock and introducing some kind of sand to the solutions to keep the fractures open to extract the petrochemicals. Experts also state that the deposits of rock containing valuable hydrocarbons can take on a number of different configurations. Source

Kaye D.R.,James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute | Mullins J.K.,James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute | Carter H.B.,James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute | Bivalacqua T.J.,Baltimore
Nature Reviews Urology

Surgical robotic use has grown exponentially in spite of limited or uncertain benefits and large costs. In certain situations, adoption of robotic technology provides value to patients and society. In other cases, however, the robot provides little or no increase in surgical quality, with increased expense, and, therefore, does not add value to health care. The surgical robot is expensive to purchase, maintain and operate, and can contribute to increased consumerism in relation to surgical procedures, and increased reliance on the technology, thus driving future increases in health-care expenditure. Given the current need for budget constraints, the cost-effectiveness of specific procedures must be evaluated. The surgical robot should be used when cost-effective, but traditional open and laparoscopic techniques also need to be continually fostered. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Culkin D.J.,University of Oklahoma | Exaire E.J.,University of Oklahoma | Green D.,Northwestern University | Soloway M.S.,University of Miami | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Urology

Purpose Given the lack of urology specific directives for the periprocedural management of anticoagulant and antiplatelet medications, the AUA (American Urological Association) and ICUD (International Consultation on Urological Disease) named an international multidisciplinary panel to develop consensus based recommendations. Materials and Methods A systematic literature review was queried by a methodologist for 3 questions. 1) When and in whom can anticoagulant/antiplatelet prophylaxis be stopped in preparation for surgery? 2) What procedures can be safely performed without discontinuing anticoagulant/antiplatelet prophylaxis? 3) What periprocedural strategies can adequately balance the risk of major surgical bleeding vs the risk of major thrombotic event? Hematology and cardiology guidelines, and 79 articles were selected for full review. Results Multidisciplinary management of anticoagulant/antiplatelet medications for patients with recent thromboembolic events, mechanical cardiac valves, atrial fibrillation and cardiac stents would reduce the high morbidity and mortality of inexpertly discontinuing or modifying these lifesaving therapies. No elective procedures requiring interruption of dual antiplatelet therapies should be performed with a recent bare metal or drug eluting stent. The risk of significant bleeding complications is low for patients who require continuation of aspirin for ureteroscopy, transrectal prostate biopsies, laser prostate outlet procedures and percutaneous renal biopsy. Open extirpative prostate and renal procedures can be performed with a low risk of significant hemorrhage for patients on aspirin and those requiring heparin based bridging strategies. The current literature does not give direction on the timing of the resumption of anticoagulant/antiplatelet prophylaxis other than that it be resumed as soon as the risk of bleeding has decreased. Conclusions A total of 2,674 nonredundant article abstracts were obtained and assessed for relevance to key questions outlined by the panel. Overall 106 articles were selected for full text review and accepted or rejected based on the relation to the topic, quality of information and key questions. A total of 79 articles were accepted. Reasons for rejection (27 articles) included abstract only (12), insufficient information or unrelated to topic (13) and redundancy (2). We extracted study design, patient population, followup period and results from accepted articles, which serve as the evidence base. © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Source

Penile transplantation may provide improved outcomes compared with autogenous phalloplastic reconstruction. The optimal approach to vascularizing penile allografts is unknown. In penile replantation, typically only the dorsal arteries are repaired, but using the cavernosal and external pudendal arteries may improve erectile function and shaft skin perfusion, respectively. The authors sought to demonstrate the technical feasibility of using the dorsal, cavernosal, and external pudendal vessels for penile transplantation and to assess differences in their perfusion territories. Cadaveric penile transplantation was performed. Different colored dyes were injected at physiologic pressure into the dorsal, cavernosal, and external pudendal arteries, and tissue perfusion territories were assessed visually. Cavernosal artery exposure and repair required minimal dissection of the corpora cavernosa; extra length taken from the donor compensated for resultant shortening of the proximal shaft stump. The external pudendal system was easily accessed in the groin. Dye injected into the cavernosal artery strongly perfused the corpora cavernosa, with minimal communication to skin. The dorsal artery principally perfused the glans and corpus spongiosum. The external pudendal artery perfused the shaft and surrounding skin. Anastomosing the cavernosal arteries may augment corporal inflow, which is necessary for erection. Although the dorsal arteries are critical for distal penile skin perfusion, the external pudendal artery should be used in proximal transplantation to ensure adequate shaft skin perfusion. Each of these arteries has a distinct and seemingly important perfusion territory that should be considered in the setting of penile transplantation. Source

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