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McGowan A.K.,Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion | Lee M.M.,PolicyLink | Meneses C.M.,Baltimore | Perkins J.,National Health Law Program | Youdelman M.,National Health Law Program
Annual Review of Public Health | Year: 2016

To improve health in the twenty-first century, to promote both access to and quality of health care services and delivery, and to address significant health disparities, legal and policy approaches, specifically those focused on civil rights, could be used more intentionally and strategically. This review describes how civil rights laws, and their implementation and enforcement, help to encourage health in the United States, and it provides examples for peers around the world. The review uses a broad lens to define health for both classes of individuals and their communities - places where people live, learn, work, and play. Suggestions are offered for improving health and equity broadly, especially within societal groups and marginalized populations. These recommendations include multisectorial approaches that focus on the social determinants of health. Copyright © 2016 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Culkin D.J.,University of Oklahoma | Exaire E.J.,University of Oklahoma | Green D.,Northwestern University | Soloway M.S.,University of Miami | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Urology | Year: 2014

Purpose Given the lack of urology specific directives for the periprocedural management of anticoagulant and antiplatelet medications, the AUA (American Urological Association) and ICUD (International Consultation on Urological Disease) named an international multidisciplinary panel to develop consensus based recommendations. Materials and Methods A systematic literature review was queried by a methodologist for 3 questions. 1) When and in whom can anticoagulant/antiplatelet prophylaxis be stopped in preparation for surgery? 2) What procedures can be safely performed without discontinuing anticoagulant/antiplatelet prophylaxis? 3) What periprocedural strategies can adequately balance the risk of major surgical bleeding vs the risk of major thrombotic event? Hematology and cardiology guidelines, and 79 articles were selected for full review. Results Multidisciplinary management of anticoagulant/antiplatelet medications for patients with recent thromboembolic events, mechanical cardiac valves, atrial fibrillation and cardiac stents would reduce the high morbidity and mortality of inexpertly discontinuing or modifying these lifesaving therapies. No elective procedures requiring interruption of dual antiplatelet therapies should be performed with a recent bare metal or drug eluting stent. The risk of significant bleeding complications is low for patients who require continuation of aspirin for ureteroscopy, transrectal prostate biopsies, laser prostate outlet procedures and percutaneous renal biopsy. Open extirpative prostate and renal procedures can be performed with a low risk of significant hemorrhage for patients on aspirin and those requiring heparin based bridging strategies. The current literature does not give direction on the timing of the resumption of anticoagulant/antiplatelet prophylaxis other than that it be resumed as soon as the risk of bleeding has decreased. Conclusions A total of 2,674 nonredundant article abstracts were obtained and assessed for relevance to key questions outlined by the panel. Overall 106 articles were selected for full text review and accepted or rejected based on the relation to the topic, quality of information and key questions. A total of 79 articles were accepted. Reasons for rejection (27 articles) included abstract only (12), insufficient information or unrelated to topic (13) and redundancy (2). We extracted study design, patient population, followup period and results from accepted articles, which serve as the evidence base. © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc.


Kaye D.R.,James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute | Mullins J.K.,James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute | Carter H.B.,James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute | Bivalacqua T.J.,Baltimore
Nature Reviews Urology | Year: 2015

Surgical robotic use has grown exponentially in spite of limited or uncertain benefits and large costs. In certain situations, adoption of robotic technology provides value to patients and society. In other cases, however, the robot provides little or no increase in surgical quality, with increased expense, and, therefore, does not add value to health care. The surgical robot is expensive to purchase, maintain and operate, and can contribute to increased consumerism in relation to surgical procedures, and increased reliance on the technology, thus driving future increases in health-care expenditure. Given the current need for budget constraints, the cost-effectiveness of specific procedures must be evaluated. The surgical robot should be used when cost-effective, but traditional open and laparoscopic techniques also need to be continually fostered. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Endara M.,Baltimore | Masden D.,Baltimore | Goldstein J.,Baltimore | Gondek S.,Baltimore | And 2 more authors.
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: The exact risk that poor glucose control introduces to patients undergoing surgical closure has yet to be fully defined. METHODS: The authors retrospectively analyzed a prospectively collected database of patients seen at their wound care center to evaluate the effects of chronic and perioperative glucose control in high-risk patients undergoing surgical wound closure. Hemoglobin A1c and blood glucose levels for the 5 days before and after surgical closure were recorded and compared with the primary endpoints of dehiscence, infection, and reoperation. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: Seventy-nine patients had perioperative glucose levels and 64 had hemoglobin A1C levels available for analysis. Preoperative and postoperative hyperglycemia (defined as any blood glucose measurement above 200 mg/dl) as well as elevated A1C levels (above 6.5 percent or 48 mmol/ml) were significantly associated with increased rates of dehiscence (odds ratio, 3.2, p = 0.048; odds ratio, 3.46, p = 0.028; and odds ratio, 3.54, p = 0.040, respectively). Variability in preoperative glucose (defined as a range of glucose levels exceeding 200 points) was significantly associated with increased rates of reoperation (odds ratio, 4.14, p = 0.025) and trended toward significance with increased rates of dehiscence (p = 0.15). In multivariate regression, only perioperative hyperglycemia and elevated A1c were significantly associated with increased rates of dehiscence. CONCLUSIONS: In primary closure of surgical wounds in high-risk patients, poor glycemic control is significantly associated with worse outcomes. Every effort should be made to ensure tight control in both the chronic and subacute perioperative periods. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.


Peedicayil J.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Grayson D.R.,Chicago | Avramopoulos D.,Baltimore
Epigenetics in Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Epigenetics in Psychiatry covers all major areas of psychiatry in which extensive epigenetic research has been performed, fully encompassing a diverse and maturing field, including drug addiction, bipolar disorder, epidemiology, cognitive disorders, and the uses of putative epigenetic-based psychotropic drugs. Uniquely, each chapter correlates epigenetics with relevant advances across genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. The book acts as a catalyst for further research in this potentially very important and useful area of psychiatry. The elucidation of basic principles of epigenetic biology points to the creation of more optimal and effective therapies for major classes of psychiatric disease. In this regard, epigenetic therapy, the use of drugs to correct epigenetic defects, may help in the pharmacotherapy of patients with these disorders. With time, such advances may eventually point to replacements for psychotropic drugs presently of symptomatic value and low efficacy. Moreover, there is evidence to suggest that other forms of treatment commonly used in the management of psychiatric disorders, like psychotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy, may also act by epigenetic mechanisms. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Richardson D.C.,Baltimore
Erosion Control | Year: 2014

A good portion of the newly discovered petrochemical potential in places far from the conventional crude drilling sites in Texas and Oklahoma can be attributed to technological advances. Alex Demas, a public affairs specialist with the US Geological Survey who has been covering energy resources notes that hydrofracking is just one component of a suite of new techniques being used to extract and collect petrochemical resources that would have been considered inaccessible. Hydraulic fracturing operations are a method of creating these pathways pumping down water and chemicals under high pressure to pry apart the rock and introducing some kind of sand to the solutions to keep the fractures open to extract the petrochemicals. Experts also state that the deposits of rock containing valuable hydrocarbons can take on a number of different configurations.


Penile transplantation may provide improved outcomes compared with autogenous phalloplastic reconstruction. The optimal approach to vascularizing penile allografts is unknown. In penile replantation, typically only the dorsal arteries are repaired, but using the cavernosal and external pudendal arteries may improve erectile function and shaft skin perfusion, respectively. The authors sought to demonstrate the technical feasibility of using the dorsal, cavernosal, and external pudendal vessels for penile transplantation and to assess differences in their perfusion territories. Cadaveric penile transplantation was performed. Different colored dyes were injected at physiologic pressure into the dorsal, cavernosal, and external pudendal arteries, and tissue perfusion territories were assessed visually. Cavernosal artery exposure and repair required minimal dissection of the corpora cavernosa; extra length taken from the donor compensated for resultant shortening of the proximal shaft stump. The external pudendal system was easily accessed in the groin. Dye injected into the cavernosal artery strongly perfused the corpora cavernosa, with minimal communication to skin. The dorsal artery principally perfused the glans and corpus spongiosum. The external pudendal artery perfused the shaft and surrounding skin. Anastomosing the cavernosal arteries may augment corporal inflow, which is necessary for erection. Although the dorsal arteries are critical for distal penile skin perfusion, the external pudendal artery should be used in proximal transplantation to ensure adequate shaft skin perfusion. Each of these arteries has a distinct and seemingly important perfusion territory that should be considered in the setting of penile transplantation.


Davis S.N.,Baltimore | Tate D.,Baltimore | Hedrington M.S.,Baltimore
Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association | Year: 2014

It is well established that diabetes can lead to multiple microvascular and macrovascular complications. Several large scale randomized multicenter studies have shown that intensifying glucose control decreases microvascular and, to a certain extent, macrovascular complications of diabetes. However, intensifying glucose control in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes increases the risk of developing hypoglycemia, one of the most feared complications of people with the disease. The mechanisms responsible for intensive therapy causing increased hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes have been extensively investigated. It is now known that a single episode of hypoglycemia can blunt the body's normal counterregulatory defenses against subsequent hypoglycemia or exercise. Similarly, a single bout of exercise can also blunt counterregulatory responses against subsequent hypoglycemia. Both neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system responses are reduced by prior hypoglycemia and/or exercise. Work from several laboratories has identified multiple physiologic mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this hypoglycemia and exercise-associated counterregulatory failure. By continuing to study these mechanisms, some promising approaches to amplify counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia are being discovered.


Broyles J.M.,Baltimore | Alrakan M.,Baltimore | Ensor C.R.,Baltimore | Khalifian S.,Baltimore | And 5 more authors.
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Vascularized composite allotransplants consist of heterogeneous tissues from different germ layers, which include skin, muscle, bone, fat, nerves, and lymph nodes. The antigenic diversity of these tissues, particularly of the highly immunogenic skin component, necessitates potent immunosuppressive regimens similar to that of some solid organ transplants. Indeed, the lifelong, high-dose, multidrug immunosuppressive protocols expose vascularized composite allotransplant recipients to considerable risk of infectious, metabolic, and neoplastic sequelae. In this article, the authors review the infectious risk to patients after vascularized composite allotransplantation, with special attention to the somewhat limited experience with the prophylaxis and treatment of infections after this innovative reconstructive surgery. METHODS: A review of the literature was undertaken to elucidate the characterization, prophylaxis, and treatment of all documented infectious complications. RESULTS: Infections in face and hand vascularized composite allotransplants follow a course similar to that of solid organ transplants. Several differences exist, including the unique flora of craniomaxillofacial transplants, the increased risk of donor-derived infections, and the alteration of the risk-to-benefit ratio for cytomegalovirus infections. CONCLUSIONS: The patient with a face or limb transplant has many of the same infectious risks as a lung transplant recipient, which include bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. Because of the anatomy, mucosal exposure, and differing donor flora, however, the face or limb transplant is susceptible to invasive diseases from a variety of microbes. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.


Vascularized composite tissue allotransplant recipients are often highly sensitized to human leukocyte antigens because of multiple prior blood transfusions and other reconstructive operations. The use of peripheral blood obtained from dead donors for crossmatching may be insufficient because of life support measures taken for the donor before donation. No study has been published investigating human leukocyte antigen matching practices in this field. A survey addressing human leukocyte antigen crossmatching methods was generated and sent to 22 vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation centers with active protocols worldwide. Results were compiled by center and compared using two-tailed t tests. Twenty of 22 centers (91 percent) responded to the survey. Peripheral blood was the most commonly reported donor sample for vascularized composite tissue allotransplant crossmatching [78 percent of centers (n=14)], with only 22 percent (n=4) using lymph nodes. However, 56 percent of the 18 centers (n=10) that had performed vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation reported that they harvested lymph nodes for crossmatching. Of responding individuals, 62.5 percent (10 of 16 individuals) felt that lymph nodes were the best donor sample for crossmatching. A slight majority of vascularized composite tissue allotransplant centers that have performed clinical transplants have used lymph nodes for human leukocyte antigen matching, and centers appear to be divided on the utility of lymph node harvest. The use of lymph nodes may offer a number of potential benefits. This study highlights the need for institutional review board-approved crossmatching protocols specific to vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation, and the need for global databases for sharing of vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation experiences.

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