Jurmala, Latvia

The Baltic International Academy is the only Russian language university in Latvia and the largest non-government higher education establishment in the Baltic States. It was established in 1992 as the Baltic Russian Institute after Latvia regained its independence and Latvian replaced Russian as a language of higher education in public universities. It adopted its current name in 2006. The university has its main campus in Riga and has locations in Daugavpils, Liepāja, Rēzekne, Jēkabpils, Ventspils, Smiltene and Jelgava. It has 4,500 students, including 450 foreign students from 15 countries. Wikipedia.


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Sjolin J.,Baltic International Academy | Stanciu T.,Technical University Gheorghe Asachi
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

With the every ambitious expanding Strategy 2020 of the European Union, to become the most competitive region globally, generates the urgent need to handle multinational (across national) EU and non EU groups in terms of joint training activities. This paper tries to build a bridge between traditional research in terms of national cultures, primarily between the Hofstedeand Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner theory buildings and applied methodology. The paper tackles some first steps in terms of how this traditional research could be applied in education for engineering, business, and economics. Thereby showing opportunities to bring a better learning outcome by avoiding cultural "failures" made obvious by this research. The theoretical framework applies into planning phase, delivery phase and follow up phase of the pedagogical cycle. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Lemberski I.,Baltic International Academy | Fiser P.,Czech Technical University
Proceedings - 13th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design: Architectures, Methods and Tools, DSD 2010 | Year: 2010

Asynchronous circuit implementations operating under strong constraints (DIMS, Direct Logic, some of NCL gates, etc.) are attractive due to: 1) regularity; 2) combined implementation of the functional and completion detection logics, what simplifies the design process; 3) circuit output latency is based on the actual gate delays of the unbounded nature; 4) absence of additional synchronization chains (even of a local nature). However, the area and speed penalty is rather high. In contrast to the state-of-the-art approaches, where simple (NAND, NOR, etc.) 2-input gates are used, we propose a synthesis method based on complex nodes, i.e., nodes implementing any function of an arbitrary number of inputs. Synchronous synthesis procedures may be freely adopted for this purpose. Numerous experiments on standard benchmarks were performed and the efficiency of the proposed complex gate based method is clearly shown. DIMS and Direct Logic based asynchronous designs are considered in the paper. © 2010 IEEE.


Lemberski I.,Baltic International Academy | Fiser P.,Czech Technical University
Integration, the VLSI Journal | Year: 2014

A synthesis flow oriented on producing the delay-insensitive dual-rail asynchronous logic is proposed. Within this flow, the existing synchronous logic synthesis tools are exploited to design technology independent single-rail synchronous Boolean network of complex (AND-OR) nodes. Next, the transformation into a dual-rail Boolean network is done. Each node is minimized under the formulated constraint to ensure hazard-free implementation. Then the technology dependent mapping procedure is applied. The MCNC and ISCAS benchmark sets are processed and the area overhead with respect to the synchronous implementation is evaluated. The implementations of the asynchronous logic obtained using the proposed (with AND-OR nodes) and the state-of-the-art (nodes are designed based on DIMS, direct logic and NCL) network structures are compared. A method, where nodes are designed as simple (NAND, NOR, etc.) gates is chosen for a detailed comparison. In our approach, the number of completion detection logic inputs is reduced significantly, since the number of nodes that should be supplied with the completion detection is less than in the case of the network structure that is based on simple gates. As a result, the improvement in sense of the total complexity and performance is obtained. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Nechval N.,University of Latvia | Nechval K.,Transport and Telecommunication Institute | Purgailis M.,University of Latvia | Strelchonok V.,Baltic International Academy
International Journal of Performability Engineering | Year: 2011

Fatigue is one of the most important problems of aircraft arising from their nature as multiple-component structures, subjected to random dynamic loads and representing Multi-State Systems. For guaranteeing safety, the structural life ceiling limits of the fleet aircraft are defined from three distinct approaches: Safe-Life, Fail-Safe, and Damage Tolerance approaches. The common objectives to define fleet aircraft lives by the three approaches are to ensure safety while at the same time reducing total ownership costs. In this paper, the Damage Tolerance approach is considered and the focus is on the inspection scheme of the fatigued Multi-State System (MSS) with decreasing intervals between inspections. The paper proposes an analysis methodology to determine appropriate decreasing intervals between inspections of fatigue-sensitive aircraft structures (as alternative to constant intervals between inspections often used in practice), so that risk of catastrophic accident during flight is minimized. The suggested approach is unique and novel in that it allows one to utilize judiciously the results of earlier inspections of fatigued aircraft structures for the purpose of determining the time of the next inspection and estimating the values of several parameters involved in the problem that can be treated as uncertain. An illustrative example is given. © RAMS Consultants.


Kochetkov Y.,Baltic International Academy | Yurkovskaya T.,Baltic International Academy
Engineering Economics | Year: 2015

Object of the research is the condition of energy supply in Latvia. Goal of the research – analysis of data on electric energy production in Latvia and expert estimate of the ways for creating energy security potential of the country. Methods of the research are analysis of statistical data, and methods of expert evaluation. Novelty of the paper is conditioned by the fact that expert estimation of the possible ways for creation of energy security potential of Latvia has been performed for the first time, and the consolidated opinion of a group of independent experts has been obtained on the most prospective ways. One of the main aims is diversification of ways of energy resources supply to Latvia. By the year 2030, the Ministry of Economic Affairs of the Republic of Latvia has been planning to decrease the volume of imported energy resources by 2 times and produce half of the energy by using its own renewable energy sources. Currently there are the ongoing negotiations in Latvia about the construction of another large hydropower plant (HPP) with the output of about 200 MW on the Daugava River. In the discussions the new HPP is considered to be a more ecological and economic alternative than the construction of Visaginas Nuclear PP. The estimates obtained from the expert query show large differences in their opinions. Altogether four methods are used for the processing of results of expert estimation, all the results of alternative ranking are compared and analysed by four methods. The conducted analysis makes it possible to conclude the following: the most promising directions for electric energy industry development in Latvia and, on this basis, for the creation of energy security potential of the country is the construction of HPP and heat power plants using its own energy resources. The direction of wind power industry development is recognised as important. © 2015, Kauno Technologijos Universitetas. All rights reserved.


Lemberski I.,Baltic International Academy
Journal of Circuits, Systems and Computers | Year: 2015

In the case of the reconfigurable module, the popular logic function implementation is based on the look-up-table (LUT) structure. Once a Boolean network of single-rail n-variable node functions is transformed into a dual-rail one, each variable is represented as two literals: x and its inversion x′ and implemented using two separate signals. As a result, (2n + 1)-input LUTs are required for mapping node functions. To reduce the capacity of required LUTs, the literal decomposition method is proposed. It is applied to implement a dual-rail node function using k-input LUTs, n < k < (2n + 1). The literal decomposition over the chosen variable is based on creating two clusters where one of the clusters contains minterms with the literal x of the chosen variable, the other one contains minterms with the literal x′. Functions created based on each cluster minterms depend on less literals number than the original one. The procedure is repeated until the required number of literals is reached. The literal decomposition is used as a post processing of the conventional decomposition procedure. Depending on the logic architecture, different implementations are considered and discussed. The implementation complexity (in terms of LUTs number) for different values n, k is given. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company.


Lemberski I.,Baltic International Academy
Electronics Letters | Year: 2014

The method of quasi-delay-insensitive logic synthesis using look-up tables (LUTs) is described. It is shown that the dual-rail sum-ofminterm function hazard-free implementation can be done using a single LUT. Namely, instead of the conventional approach based on a DIMS representation where each minterm is implemented on a C-element, the whole sum-of-minterm function is mapped into the single C-element. For Boolean network implementation, it is proved that a fork with branches to different nodes is not required to be isochronic. It simplifies technological synthesis and allows using existing placement and routine methods and tools supposed for synchronous logic. Compared to the conventional approach, the method reduces significantly circuit complexity (in terms of the number of LUTs).


Roldugin V.I.,Baltic International Academy
Advances in Systems Science and Applications | Year: 2013

The first objective is to investigate the on-going monetary policy of the Bank of Latvia, to analyse the basic principles of its operations and influence on national economic growth. The second objective of this article is to follow the main trends in the development in the Latvian's monetary policy and the European Monetary system accession process, with a focus on the local currency stability problems. It discusses the process and strategies for choice of the strategy as well as the main issues that have arisen in the accession process. Both objectives fully corresponding to the article's research object, i.e. to a monetary policy of the Bank of Latvia. Regarding the developed countries the general monetary policy objectives deals not only with maintenance of stability of the exchange rate and general price level, but also with stimulation of economic development, growth of employment and incomes of the citizens. The period from 2004 till 2011 is being investigated. The author uses a wide range of research methods, such as: grouping method, method of comparison of financial ratios, etc.


Globalisation contributes to stabilisation of monetary policy of countries, achievement of price stability and decrease rates of inflation. There is no clear generally accepted concept for “inflation”. A number of experts consider inflation to be a complicated multisided process, which depends not only on economical but also on social and political reasons. One of the main aims of state governments and central banks of the majority of world countries is the decrease of inflation due to its negative effect on the economy. Researches have shown that in developed countries inflation higher than 3% leads to substantial slowdown of economy growth rate. A. Phillips determined the presence of negative correlation between the rate of inflation and the rate of unemployment. On the basis of so called Phillips curve a wrong conclusion was done that by increasing inflation it is possible to decrease unemployment. It wasn't confirmed in practice. There is a hypothesis stating that unemployment has a certain “natural” Not Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment (NAIRU). Nowadays Phillips curve (1958) is considered in a wider sense as a complicated event, developing in the absence of neutrality of money in economic processes. The object of the research is interconnection of inflation and unemployment in Latvia. The goal of the research – analysis of interconnection between inflation and unemployment in Latvia, estimation of the “natural” rate of unemployment. All these researches have not been done before. By using the statistical data of Latvia and analysis thereof show the possibility of using modern mathematical regression models for researches of macroeconomic indicators. Methods of the research are mathematical modelling, correlation and regression analysis.In Latvia systematic accounting of unemployment is done from 1996. For analysis of the interconnection between time series of inflation rate and unemployment a non-linear regression equation - a quadratic parabola was computed and estimated. The considered period is from the year 1996 until 2008. The negative correlation between inflation and unemployment occurs within the whole considered time length. Classical Phillips curve is missing. However, within the period from the year 1999 until 2008 negative correlation occurs, as it is with Phillips curve. Such change of correlation between inflation and unemployment from positive to negative value at the turn of 1998-99 is obviously explained by macroeconomic changes and development peculiarities in Latvia. To identify peculiarities of inflation in Latvia the period from 1999 to 2008 has been analysed separately. To check the quality of the regression models the correlation and regression analysis was done. The calculated index and coefficient of determination in both cases point at quite good quality of regression models: with the help thereof it is possible to explain 70% and 60% of inflation respectively. It is possible to say that both models of regression adequately fit empirical data and are appropriate for use. As long as analysis of dynamics time series is fulfilled, a check has been done for the presence of autocorrelation in residuals, which is subjected to autoregressive process of the first order. For the check of the main hypothesis Но: ρ = 0 Durbin-Watson test statistics has been used. Analysis showed that in these models there is no autocorrelation, econometric models can be used for analyses. A multiple linear equation of inflation autoregression model was obtained and analysed also. To determine the “natural” rate of unemployment in Latvia (NAIRU) the last equation is changed. As a result it is obtained that the estimate of the “natural” rate of unemployment for Latvia's economy is quite large 16%. In developed market economies NAIRU is much less. This denotes existence of disproportions and drawbacks of macroeconomic development. This is confirmed by very adverse consequences of the financial and economic crisis for Latvia. A number of macroeconomic experts believe that Latvia needs an "industrial revolution": accent on development of the priority branches of industry, export. Changes in the structure of government, education, as well as creation of attractive environment for investments are necessary also. The analysis of interconnection between inflation and unemployment in Latvia, which was done according to mathematical regression models quite sufficiently corresponding to empirical data, points to the possibility of successful application of such models for analysis and researches of macroeconomic indicators © 2012 Inzinerine Ekonomika-Engineering Economics All right received.


Aim of the study was to explore the relationships between health literacy (HL) and financial wellbeing in residents of Almaty oblast (region). The survey was conducted among 826 residents of Almaty region aged 18 y.o. Over 56.5% were female residents. To estimate health literacy, self assessed health, financial wellbeing and attitude towards health /work -questionnaire HLS-EU-Q was used. The results confirmed a significant relationship between financial wellbeing, health literacy and health outcomes residents of Almaty region. Relationships between HL and self- assessed health and attitudes towards health /work balance were observed only in respondents with low financial deprivation index, in respondents with low financial wellbeing (high financial deprivation index) no such relationships were observed. Higher financial deprivation index and lower health literacy were observed in respondents for whom work meant more than health. Lower financial deprivation index and higher health literacy were in those respondents for whom health meant more than work. Improvement of HL and motivation for healthy behavior are important challenges for public health. To answer them populations financial wellbeing improvement alone is not enough, as complex change of consumer behavior in healthcare system is needed. HL enhancing in disadvantaged population groups should inform about possibilities of free healthcare services, medications and about the structure of public healthcare service.

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