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Jurmala, Latvia

The Baltic International Academy is the only Russian language university in Latvia and the largest non-government higher education establishment in the Baltic States. It was established in 1992 as the Baltic Russian Institute after Latvia regained its independence and Latvian replaced Russian as a language of higher education in public universities. It adopted its current name in 2006. The university has its main campus in Riga and has locations in Daugavpils, Liepāja, Rēzekne, Jēkabpils, Ventspils, Smiltene and Jelgava. It has 4,500 students, including 450 foreign students from 15 countries. Wikipedia.


Lemberski I.,Baltic International Academy
Journal of Circuits, Systems and Computers | Year: 2015

In the case of the reconfigurable module, the popular logic function implementation is based on the look-up-table (LUT) structure. Once a Boolean network of single-rail n-variable node functions is transformed into a dual-rail one, each variable is represented as two literals: x and its inversion x′ and implemented using two separate signals. As a result, (2n + 1)-input LUTs are required for mapping node functions. To reduce the capacity of required LUTs, the literal decomposition method is proposed. It is applied to implement a dual-rail node function using k-input LUTs, n < k < (2n + 1). The literal decomposition over the chosen variable is based on creating two clusters where one of the clusters contains minterms with the literal x of the chosen variable, the other one contains minterms with the literal x′. Functions created based on each cluster minterms depend on less literals number than the original one. The procedure is repeated until the required number of literals is reached. The literal decomposition is used as a post processing of the conventional decomposition procedure. Depending on the logic architecture, different implementations are considered and discussed. The implementation complexity (in terms of LUTs number) for different values n, k is given. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source


Lemberski I.,Baltic International Academy
Electronics Letters | Year: 2014

The method of quasi-delay-insensitive logic synthesis using look-up tables (LUTs) is described. It is shown that the dual-rail sum-ofminterm function hazard-free implementation can be done using a single LUT. Namely, instead of the conventional approach based on a DIMS representation where each minterm is implemented on a C-element, the whole sum-of-minterm function is mapped into the single C-element. For Boolean network implementation, it is proved that a fork with branches to different nodes is not required to be isochronic. It simplifies technological synthesis and allows using existing placement and routine methods and tools supposed for synchronous logic. Compared to the conventional approach, the method reduces significantly circuit complexity (in terms of the number of LUTs). Source


Nechval N.,University of Latvia | Nechval K.,Transport and Telecommunication Institute | Purgailis M.,University of Latvia | Strelchonok V.,Baltic International Academy
International Journal of Performability Engineering | Year: 2011

Fatigue is one of the most important problems of aircraft arising from their nature as multiple-component structures, subjected to random dynamic loads and representing Multi-State Systems. For guaranteeing safety, the structural life ceiling limits of the fleet aircraft are defined from three distinct approaches: Safe-Life, Fail-Safe, and Damage Tolerance approaches. The common objectives to define fleet aircraft lives by the three approaches are to ensure safety while at the same time reducing total ownership costs. In this paper, the Damage Tolerance approach is considered and the focus is on the inspection scheme of the fatigued Multi-State System (MSS) with decreasing intervals between inspections. The paper proposes an analysis methodology to determine appropriate decreasing intervals between inspections of fatigue-sensitive aircraft structures (as alternative to constant intervals between inspections often used in practice), so that risk of catastrophic accident during flight is minimized. The suggested approach is unique and novel in that it allows one to utilize judiciously the results of earlier inspections of fatigued aircraft structures for the purpose of determining the time of the next inspection and estimating the values of several parameters involved in the problem that can be treated as uncertain. An illustrative example is given. © RAMS Consultants. Source


Lemberski I.,Baltic International Academy | Fiser P.,Czech Technical University
Integration, the VLSI Journal | Year: 2014

A synthesis flow oriented on producing the delay-insensitive dual-rail asynchronous logic is proposed. Within this flow, the existing synchronous logic synthesis tools are exploited to design technology independent single-rail synchronous Boolean network of complex (AND-OR) nodes. Next, the transformation into a dual-rail Boolean network is done. Each node is minimized under the formulated constraint to ensure hazard-free implementation. Then the technology dependent mapping procedure is applied. The MCNC and ISCAS benchmark sets are processed and the area overhead with respect to the synchronous implementation is evaluated. The implementations of the asynchronous logic obtained using the proposed (with AND-OR nodes) and the state-of-the-art (nodes are designed based on DIMS, direct logic and NCL) network structures are compared. A method, where nodes are designed as simple (NAND, NOR, etc.) gates is chosen for a detailed comparison. In our approach, the number of completion detection logic inputs is reduced significantly, since the number of nodes that should be supplied with the completion detection is less than in the case of the network structure that is based on simple gates. As a result, the improvement in sense of the total complexity and performance is obtained. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Globalisation contributes to stabilisation of monetary policy of countries, achievement of price stability and decrease rates of inflation. There is no clear generally accepted concept for “inflation”. A number of experts consider inflation to be a complicated multisided process, which depends not only on economical but also on social and political reasons. One of the main aims of state governments and central banks of the majority of world countries is the decrease of inflation due to its negative effect on the economy. Researches have shown that in developed countries inflation higher than 3% leads to substantial slowdown of economy growth rate. A. Phillips determined the presence of negative correlation between the rate of inflation and the rate of unemployment. On the basis of so called Phillips curve a wrong conclusion was done that by increasing inflation it is possible to decrease unemployment. It wasn't confirmed in practice. There is a hypothesis stating that unemployment has a certain “natural” Not Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment (NAIRU). Nowadays Phillips curve (1958) is considered in a wider sense as a complicated event, developing in the absence of neutrality of money in economic processes. The object of the research is interconnection of inflation and unemployment in Latvia. The goal of the research – analysis of interconnection between inflation and unemployment in Latvia, estimation of the “natural” rate of unemployment. All these researches have not been done before. By using the statistical data of Latvia and analysis thereof show the possibility of using modern mathematical regression models for researches of macroeconomic indicators. Methods of the research are mathematical modelling, correlation and regression analysis.In Latvia systematic accounting of unemployment is done from 1996. For analysis of the interconnection between time series of inflation rate and unemployment a non-linear regression equation - a quadratic parabola was computed and estimated. The considered period is from the year 1996 until 2008. The negative correlation between inflation and unemployment occurs within the whole considered time length. Classical Phillips curve is missing. However, within the period from the year 1999 until 2008 negative correlation occurs, as it is with Phillips curve. Such change of correlation between inflation and unemployment from positive to negative value at the turn of 1998-99 is obviously explained by macroeconomic changes and development peculiarities in Latvia. To identify peculiarities of inflation in Latvia the period from 1999 to 2008 has been analysed separately. To check the quality of the regression models the correlation and regression analysis was done. The calculated index and coefficient of determination in both cases point at quite good quality of regression models: with the help thereof it is possible to explain 70% and 60% of inflation respectively. It is possible to say that both models of regression adequately fit empirical data and are appropriate for use. As long as analysis of dynamics time series is fulfilled, a check has been done for the presence of autocorrelation in residuals, which is subjected to autoregressive process of the first order. For the check of the main hypothesis Но: ρ = 0 Durbin-Watson test statistics has been used. Analysis showed that in these models there is no autocorrelation, econometric models can be used for analyses. A multiple linear equation of inflation autoregression model was obtained and analysed also. To determine the “natural” rate of unemployment in Latvia (NAIRU) the last equation is changed. As a result it is obtained that the estimate of the “natural” rate of unemployment for Latvia's economy is quite large 16%. In developed market economies NAIRU is much less. This denotes existence of disproportions and drawbacks of macroeconomic development. This is confirmed by very adverse consequences of the financial and economic crisis for Latvia. A number of macroeconomic experts believe that Latvia needs an "industrial revolution": accent on development of the priority branches of industry, export. Changes in the structure of government, education, as well as creation of attractive environment for investments are necessary also. The analysis of interconnection between inflation and unemployment in Latvia, which was done according to mathematical regression models quite sufficiently corresponding to empirical data, points to the possibility of successful application of such models for analysis and researches of macroeconomic indicators © 2012 Inzinerine Ekonomika-Engineering Economics All right received. Source

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