Ballymena, United Kingdom
Ballymena, United Kingdom

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Moore J.E.,Belfast City Hospital | Moore J.E.,University of Ulster | Rao J.R.,University of Ulster | Rao J.R.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland | And 5 more authors.
Aquatic Ecology | Year: 2010

Antibiotic resistance (ABR) has now become a major public health issue. Relatively little studies have been published on the incidence of ABR in environmental isolates circulating within the community. A study was performed to determine the diversity of total ABR (intrinsic + acquired resistance) in waterborne bacteria. Surface water from 12 waterways, including 11 rivers/steams and 1 lake, were examined for the presence of ABR phenotypes, using a direct antibiotic susceptibility assay and demonstrated the presence of ABR (in increasing order of resistance), to the following 19 agents: amikacin (17%), gentamicin (17%), ciprofloxacin (33%), colistin (42%), linezolid (42%), tobramycin (42%), vancomycin (42%), ertapenem (67%), erythromycin (75%), meropenem (75%), rifampin (75%), teichoplanin (75%), tetracycline (75%), trimethoprim (75%), fusidic acid (83%), aztreonam (92%), clindamycin (92%), penicillin (92%) and cefoxitin (100%). Multiple resistance to the major classes of antibiotics was noted, which varied from one to six classes, with a mean resistance to 3. 7 major antibiotics classes, with diminishing antibacterial effectiveness in the following order: aminoglycosides > fluoroquinolones > glycopeptides > macrolides > tetracyclines > β-lactams. Overall, these data indicate that waterborne bacteria are an important source of ABR determinants and contribute to the mass balance of ABR in the environment, and may be used as an indicator of ecological change in water ecosystems. The waterborne ABR organisms may potentially act as donors in pathogens, which may acquire these through horizontal gene transfer or other genetic exchange events, thus leading to clinically significant cases in both animal and human health. Therefore, environmental bacteria should not be regarded as being devoid of ABR determinants, simply because they are physically removed from clinical settings. Such bacteria have natural intrinsic resistance, as well as having the ability to acquire determinants from agricultural run-off and human wastewater discharge, which may contain ABR organisms, as well as sublethal concentrations of metabolically active antibiotic. The tracking of such organisms to their source may help determine the source of fecal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.


Ferson K.,Belfast City Hospital | Ferson K.,Durham University | Montgomery J.,Belfast City Hospital | Moore R.E.,Belfast City Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics | Year: 2014

What is known and objective To date, there is no evidence to indicate the reliability of how patients self-report their own antibiotic usage in the community. Such data are fundamental in supporting antimicrobial stewardship practices, and so there is a need to determine its accuracy and reliability. Comment Patients in the community (n = 476) were required to recollect their antibiotic usage in the past three months. Simultaneously, similar information was obtained by careful extraction from their respective medical notes, which was qualitatively compared with the patient's recollection. Overall, concordance was high (88·1%), but age (<20 and >80 years) and sex (female) were significant factors of reliability. What is new and conclusion This study suggests that basic self-reporting of antibiotic usage amongst patients is relatively reliable, with increasing accuracy with years until 80 years. Where such information is critical, the current study can help decide who to interview and whose notes to interrogate, in the quest to obtain reliable and accurate information. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Moore P.J.A.,Belfast City Hospital | Moore P.J.A.,Ballymena Academy | Rao J.R.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland | Rao J.R.,University of Ulster | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Marine Research | Year: 2013

Relatively little work has been published on the incidence of antibiotic resistance (ABR) in the marine microbiological environment, which is of importance to animal (fish, mammals, birds) health, zoonotic transmission, distribution of ABR bacteria with oceanic drift, and ultimately human health. A study was performed to determine the diversity of total ABR (intrinsic and acquired resistance) in marine bacteria in shallow coastal waters surrounding Northern Ireland through the use of a novel Relative Resistance Index (RRI) as a surrogate marker for ecological change, particularly in comparing marine water in commercial versus non-commercial sites. Total antibiotic resistance was observed to varying degrees in all marine water specimens and specific resistance levels were as follows, in order of diminishing antibacterial effectiveness: fluoroquinolones > rifampicin > polymyxin > tetracycline>sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim>third generation cephalosporin and streptomycin> carbapenem > macrolide > clindamycin > vancomycin > fucidic acid > penicillin. None of the sampling sites contained endogenous bacteria that were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while nearly all (19 of 20 sites; 95%) contained bacteria that were resistant to penicillin. Commercial sites had a higher mean RRI score of 6.57±3.58 than non-commercial sites (RRI = 4.08±2.02), whichwas statistically significant (p = 0.037), indicating that bacteria isolated from seawater in commercial coastal harbors had a higher frequency of antibiotic resistance than non-commercial sources. This novel RRI marker may be useful in assessing ecological change in marine water environments. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that there can be a high level of total ABR (intrinsic and acquired) in bacterial populations in marinewater environments, which are multi- and pan-resistant to up to 11 major classes of antibiotics simultaneously. Ecological studies are urgently needed to help define the fate of ABR marine bacteria in their natural environment and their ability to act as reservoirs and donors of ABR to pathogenic bacteria, many of which transiently inhabit the natural environment. © 2013 Peter J. A. Moore, Juluri R. Rao, B. Cherie Millar, Colin E. Goldsmith, Wilson A. Coulter and John E. Moore.


Moore J.E.,Belfast City Hospital | Moore J.E.,University of Ulster | Moore P.J.A.,Ballymena Academy | Millar B.C.,Belfast City Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2010

Antibiotic resistance (ABR) has now become a major public health issue. Relatively little work has been published on the incidence of ABR in environmental isolates within the environment, which is of importance to animal health, zoonotic transmission and human health. A study was performed to determine the diversity of total ABR (intrinsic + acquired resistance) in waterborne bacteria in a model watercourse system, namely the River Lagan, Northern Ireland, which is used a major source of drinking water by large populations of beef and dairy cattle. Total numbers of culturable bacteria at each sampling point ranged from 3.8 to 4.3. log. colony forming units (cfu)/ml water, with a mean of 4. 1 ± 0.1. log. cfu/ml. Total antibiotic resistance was observed to varying degrees and specific resistance levels were as follows with diminishing antibacterial effectiveness in the order: amikacin/aminoglycosides>carbapenems>fluoroquinolones>macrolides/tetracyclines/polymyxins>β-lactams/oxozolidones/rifampicin/trimethoprim/glycopeptides. Monitoring of the upstream ecology of waterways in terms of antibiotic susceptibility, from which agricultural animals gain their water, as well as the use of such water in agricultural crop irrigation is important, as well as the tracking of such organisms to their source may help determine the source of fecal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Murayama M.,Belfast City Hospital | Murayama M.,Azabu University | Kakinuma Y.,Belfast City Hospital | Kakinuma Y.,Azabu University | And 15 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2010

Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the universal 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was performed on a collection of 38 bacterial isolates, originating from air sampled immediately adjacent to the agricultural spreading of bovine slurry. A total of 16 bacterial genera were identified including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative genera. Gram-positive organisms accounted for 34/38 (89.5%) of total bacterial numbers consisting of 12 genera and included Staphylococcus (most common genus isolated), Arthrobacter (2nd most common genus isolated), Brachybacterium, Exiguobacterium, Lactococcus, Microbacterium and Sporosarcina (next most common genera isolated) and finally, Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Frigoribacterium, Mycoplana and Pseudoclavibacter. Gram-negative organisms accounted for only 4/38 (10.5%) bacterial isolates and included the following genera, Brevundimonas, Lysobacter, Psychrobacter and Rhizobium. No gastrointestinal pathogens were detected. Although this study demonstrated a high diversity of the microorganisms present, only a few have been shown to be opportunistically pathogenic to humans and none of these organisms described have been described previously as having an inhalational route of infection and therefore we do not believe that the species of organisms identified pose a significant health and safety threat for immunocompetant individuals. © 2009 Elsevier Inc.


Moore J.E.,Belfast City Hospital | Moore J.E.,University of Ulster | Moore J.E.,Queen's University of Belfast | Huang J.,Xian Medical College | And 7 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to examine the microbiological and related parameters (antibiotic resistance and pathogen identification) of water at two salmonid fish farms in Northern Ireland. Total Bacterial Counts at the Movanagher Fish Farm was 1730 colony forming units (cfu)/ml water (log10 3.24cfu/ml) and 3260cfu/ml (log10 3.51cfu/ml) at the Bushmills Salmon Station. Examination of resulting organisms revealed 10 morphological phenotypes, which were subsequently sequenced to determine their identification. All these organisms were Gram-negative and no Gram-positive organisms were isolated from any water sample. From these phenotypes, eight different genera were identified including Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Chryseobacterium, Erwinia, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas and Rheinheimera. One unnamed novel taxon was identified from water at the Movanagher Fish Farm, belonging to the genus Acinetobacter and has been tentatively named Acinetobacter movanagherensis. No other novel taxa were observed. All but one of these environmental organisms (Erwinia) are potential pathogens of fish disease. Total antibiotic resistance was observed to varying degrees in water specimens. The most resistant populations were observed in water taken from the Bushmills Salmon Station inlet, followed by water from the Movanagher Fish Farm. No resistance was observed against tetracycline and there was only one occurrence of resistance against ciprofloxacin. Overall, this study indicates that potential fish pathogens made up the majority of environmental organisms identified, even in the absence of recorded fish disease. There was also relatively high levels of total antibiotic resistance in the bacterial water populations examined, where tetracycline was the only antibiotic with zero resistance. These data indicate that the threat of bacterial disease is relatively close due to the indigenous colonization of farm water and that husbandry standards should be maintained at a high standard to avert bacterial disease outbreaks, rather than relying on the absence of specific pathogens in the immediate farm environment. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

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