Mount Maunganui, New Zealand
Mount Maunganui, New Zealand

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Ni K.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Ni K.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Ding W.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Zaman M.,Ballance Agri Nutrients Ltd | And 4 more authors.
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2012

Nitrous oxide emission (N 2O) from applied fertilizer across the different agricultural landscapes especially those of rainfed area is extremely variable (both spatially and temporally), thus posing the greatest challenge to researchers, modelers, and policy makers to accurately predict N 2O emissions. Nitrous oxide emissions from a rainfed, maize-planted, black soil (Udic Mollisols) were monitored in the Harbin State Key Agroecological Experimental Station (Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China). The four treatments were: a bare soil amended with no N (C0) or with 225 kg N ha -1 (CN), and maize (Zea mays L.)-planted soils fertilized with no N (P0) or with 225 kg N ha -1 (PN). Nitrous oxide emissions significantly (P < 0. 05) increased from 141 ± 5 g N 2O-N ha -1 (C0) to 570 ± 33 g N 2O-N ha -1 (CN) in unplanted soil, and from 209 ± 29 g N 2O-N ha -1 (P0) to 884 ± 45 g N 2O-N ha -1 (PN) in planted soil. Approximately 75 % of N 2O emissions were from fertilizer N applied and the emission factor (EF) of applied fertilizer N as N 2O in unplanted and planted soils was 0. 19 and 0. 30 %, respectively. The presence of maize crop significantly (P < 0. 05) increased the N 2O emission by 55 % in the N-fertilized soil but not in the N-unfertilized soil. There was a significant (P < 0. 05) interaction effect of fertilization × maize on N 2O emissions. Nitrous oxide fluxes were significantly affected by soil moisture and soil temperature (P < 0. 05), with the temperature sensitivity of 1. 73-2. 24, which together explained 62-76 % of seasonal variation in N 2O fluxes. Our results demonstrated that N 2O emissions from rainfed arable black soils in Northeast China primarily depended on the application of fertilizer N; however, the EF of fertilizer N as N 2O was low, probably due to low precipitation and soil moisture. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Li J.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Li J.,Agresearch Ltd. | Shi Y.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Luo J.,Agresearch Ltd. | And 5 more authors.
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2014

Applications of dairy farm effluents to land may lead to ammonia (NH3) volatilization and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Nitrogen (N) transformation process inhibitors, such as urease inhibitors (UIs) and nitrification inhibitors (NIs), have been used to reduce NH3 and N2O losses derived from agricultural N sources. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of amending dairy effluents with UI (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBTPT)) and NI (dicyandiamide (DCD)) on NH3 and N2O emissions. Treatments included either fresh or stored manure and either fresh or stored farm dairy effluent (FDE), with and without NBTPT (0.25 g kg-1 N) or DCD (10 kg ha-1), applied to a pasture on a free-draining volcanic parent material soil. The nutrient loading rate of FDE and manure, which had different dry matter contents (about 2 and 11 %, respectively) was 100 kg N ha-1. Application of manure and FDE led to NH3 volatilization (15, 1, 17 and 0.4 % of applied N in fresh manure, fresh FDE, stored manure and stored FDE, respectively). With UI (NBTPT), NH3 volatilization from fresh manure was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased to 8 % from 15 % of applied N, but the UI did not significantly reduce NH3 volatilization from fresh FDE. The N2O emission factors (amount of N2O-N emitted as a percentage of applied N) for fresh manure, fresh FDE and stored FDE were 0.13 ± 0.02, 0.14 ± 0.03 and 0.03 ± 0.01 %, respectively. The NI (DCD) was effective in decreasing N2O emissions from stored FDE, fresh FDE and fresh manure by 90, 51 and 46 % (P < 0.05), respectively. All types of effluent increased pasture production over the first 21 days after application (P < 0.05). The addition of DCD resulted in an increase in pasture production at first harvest on day 21 (P < 0.05). This study illustrates that UIs and NIs can be effective in mitigating NH3 and N2O emissions from land-applied dairy effluents. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Kurepin L.V.,University of Western Ontario | Zaman M.,Ballance Agri Nutrients Ltd | Pharis R.P.,University of Calgary
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2014

There is increasing interest in the use of naturally occurring 'biostimulators' for enhancing the growth of agricultural and horticultural crops. Bacteria, fungi and protozoa, as well as marine algae-based seaweed extracts, can produce or contain biostimulators. The activity of biostimulators to promote plant growth is often attributed to their ability to directly or indirectly provide mineral nutrients (mostly N, but also P, S and other macro- and micro-nutrients) to plants. Alternatively, biostimulators are postulated to increase the plant's ability to assimilate these mineral nutrients, often in return for photo-assimilates (as occurs with certain bacteria and fungi associations). Although optimal growth of plants depends on the availability of adequate mineral nutritients, that growth (and also development, including reproduction) is also regulated by plant hormones (phytohormones), including gibberellins, auxins and cytokinins. This review describes and discusses the evidence that the presence or application of biostimulators also increases plant growth directly via phytohormone action and also influences the plant's ability to control its own hormone biosynthesis and homeostasis. Finally, it discusses the need for a better understanding of the role(s) that are played by the naturally occurring biostimulators associated with the plant in the crop field. It is suggested that better understanding will allow for optimal crop yield returns, since disruptions of phytohormone homeostasis in plant organs and tissues can yield either beneficial or sub-optimal outcomes. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

Zaman M.,Ballance Agri Nutrients Ltd | Zaman S.,University of Canterbury | Adhinarayanan C.,Eagle Street | Nguyen M.L.,International Atomic Energy Agency | And 2 more authors.
Soil Science and Plant Nutrition | Year: 2013

The effects of a urease inhibitor [N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT- trade name Agrotain®)] alone and a combination of nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) and nBTPT, defined as a double inhibitor (DI), on urea fertilizer use efficiency in pastoral systems were investigated. The treatments comprised urea alone, urea with nBTPT, urea with DI at a low rate (LDI), and urea with DI at a high rate (HDI). Each treatment had three replicates and was applied at two rates - 30 and 60 kg nitrogen (N) ha-1 to three trial sites (North Island-1, North Island-2 and South Island) in New Zealand during the 2005-2006 seasons. The trials at North Island-1 and South Island received six applications of fertilizers, giving total N application rates of 180 and 360 kg N ha-1 over an18-month period. The North Island-2 trial received these treatments five times during a one-year period, giving total N application rates of 150 and 300 kg N ha-1. Soil samples collected after the first fertilizer application from the South Island trial indicated that compared to urea alone, urea with nBTPT and urea with the DI treatments applied at the 60 kg N ha-1 rate exhibited a significantly slower release of ammonium-N during the first two weeks. Nitrate-N production was only partially delayed by DCD applied in the DI treatment during the first week. On individual site and over all sites, urea applied with nBTPT and, to a lesser extent, urea applied with the DI treatment consistently produced significantly higher pasture dry matter (PDM) and nitrogen response efficiency (NRE), relative to pastures receiving urea alone at the two N rates. Across all three sites at the 30 kg N ha-1 rate, over the entire period, urea with nBTPT produced 20,441 kg DM ha-1 compared to 18,383 kg DM ha-1 produced by urea alone, representing an increase of 11.2% over urea alone. At the 60 kg N ha-1 rate, the increase in PDM by urea with nBTPT was 8.3% over urea alone. PDM yields from urea with LDI and HDI treatments were slightly lower than PDM yields of pastures receiving urea with nBTPT, but significantly higher than those of urea alone. The NRE of individual sites and over all sites were significantly higher for the treatments of urea + nBTPT, or urea + DI, relative to those pastures receiving urea alone. NRE values dropped at the higher urea rate (60 kg N ha-1). Compared to urea alone, urea with nBTPT or urea with the DI treatments also showed an improvement in N uptake in pasture herbage. However, these improvements in pasture N uptake were only significant for HDI and LDI treatments at 60 kg N ha-1. This suggests that applying urea with nBTPT alone has the most potential to improve the efficiency of urea fertilizer use. The DI treatments may have other environmental benefits, like reduction in N2O emission and NO3 - leaching, though the agronomic benefits appear unlikely to be greater than those achieved by using urea with nBTPT alone. © 2013 Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition.

Dawar K.,University of Canterbury | Zaman M.,Ballance Agri Nutrients Ltd | Rowarth J.S.,Massey University | Blennerhassett J.,Summit Quinphos NZ Ltd | Turnbull M.H.,University of Canterbury
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2011

A glasshouse-based study was conducted to investigate the effect of urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide ('Agrotain') and irrigation on urea hydrolysis and its movement in a Typic Haplustept silt loam soil (in 72 repacked soil cores). Half (36) of these cores were adjusted to soil moisture contents of 80% field capacity (FC) and the remaining 36 cores to 50% FC. Granular urea with or without Agrotain was applied at a rate equivalent to 100 kg N ha-1. There were three replicates to these two sets of soil cores. After 1 day of treatment application, soil cores of the 50% FC were adjusted to 80% FC by applying surface irrigation. Twelve pots were destructively sampled at each day after 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 10 days of treatment application to determine urea hydrolysis and its lateral and vertical movement in different soil layers. Agrotain-treated urea delayed urea hydrolysis during the first 7 days after its application. This delay in urea hydrolysis caused by Agrotain enabled added urea, which is uncharged, to move away from the surface soil layer to the sub-surface soil layer both vertically and laterally. In contrast, most urea hydrolysed to soil NH4+ within 2 days of its application. Irrigation after 1 day resulted in further urea movement both laterally and vertically from the surface soil layer (0-10 mm) to the sub-soil layer (30-50 mm) in Agrotain-treated urea. These results suggest that Agrotain delayed urea hydrolysis and allowed more time for rainfall or irrigation to move added urea from the surface layer to sub-soil layers where it is likely to make good contact with plant roots. This distribution of urea in the rooting zone has the potential to enhance N use efficiency and minimize N losses associated with ammonia volatilization from surface-applied urea. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Beukes P.C.,DairyNZ Ltd. | Scarsbrook M.R.,DairyNZ Ltd. | Gregorini P.,DairyNZ Ltd. | Romera A.J.,DairyNZ Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2012

As the scope and scale of New Zealand (NZ) dairy farming increases, farmers and the industry are being challenged by Government and the New Zealand public to address growing environmental concerns. Dairying has come under increasing scrutiny from local authorities tasked with sustainable resource management. Despite recent efforts of farmers and industry to improve resource use efficiency, there is increasing likelihood of further regulatory constraints on water use and nutrient management. This study uses available data on farm-gate nitrogen (N) surpluses and milk production from the Waikato, New Zealand's largest dairying region, together with a farm scale modeling exercise, to provide a perspective on the current situation compared to dairy farms in Europe. It also aims to provide relevant guidelines for N surpluses and efficiencies under NZ conditions. Waikato dairy farms compare favorably with farms in Europe in terms of N use efficiency expressed as L. milk/kg farm-gate N surplus. Achievable and realistic good practice objectives for Waikato dairy farmers could be 15,000. L. milk/ha (1200. kg milk fat plus protein/ha) with a farm-gate N surplus of 100. kg/ha giving an eco-efficiency (L. milk/kg N surplus) of 150, and long-term average nitrate leaching losses of approximately 25-30. kg/ha/yr. This can be achieved by increasing the N conversion efficiency through lower replacement rates (16 versus 22%), lower stocked (<3 cows/ha) high genetic merit cows (30. L. milk/day at peak) milked for longer (277 versus 240 days), feeding effluent-irrigated, home-grown, low-protein supplements to cows on high-protein, grass-clover pastures to dilute N concentration in the diet, removing some of the urinary N from the paddocks during critical times by standing cows on a loafing pad for part of the day, and through lower N fertilizer rates (50-70. kg/ha/yr compared to the norm of 170-200. kg/ha/yr) and using a nitrification inhibitor and gibberellins to boost pasture growth and the former to reduce N leaching. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Khan I.,Gomal University | Zaman M.,Ballance Agri Nutrients Ltd | Khan M.J.,Gomal University | Iqbal M.,Gomal University | Babar M.N.,Gomal University
Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition | Year: 2014

A field experiment was conducted to assess the efficiency of urea applied with urease inhibitor [N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT- trade-name Agrotain®), and organic compound (Cytozyme) in minimizing abiotic plant stress in a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan in 2010-2011. The nine treatments of control (no N or Cytozyme), urea applied at 200 and 300 kg N ha-1, Agrotain treated urea applied at 200 and 300 kg N ha-1, urea-200+Cytozyme, urea-300+Cytozyme, Agrotain treated urea-200+Cytozyme, and Agrotain treated urea-300+Cytozyme, were replicated 5 times. Potato growth, yield and quality were significantly influenced by urea applied with Agrotain and Cytozyme. Agrotain treated-urea-200 with Cytozyme resulted in maximum plant survival (91%), plant height (48 cm), plant canopy (61 cm) and the number of stems per plant (3.9 stems) compared to urea alone. Agrotain-treated urea applied at 200 and 300 kg N ha-1 increased potato yield by 46% and 42%, respectively, compared to urea alone. Cytozyme with urea @ 200 and 300 kg N ha-1 increased potato yield by 53% and 35%, respectively, comparing to potato crops receiving urea at the two N rates. Tuber yield improved by 14% when Cytozyme was applied with Agrotain-treated urea at 200 kg N ha-1. Cytozyme and urea applied with Agrotain treated urea-300+Cytozyme produced 33% of large tubers, followed by 31% of medium tubers with urea-200 and Agrotain treated urea-200+Cytozyme. Our results demonstrate that urea applied at 200 kg N ha-1 with either Agrotain or with Cytozyme have the most potential to enhance potato yield.

Ballance Agri Nutrients Ltd | Date: 2014-11-21

The present invention provides fertiliser compositions comprising granules of one or more plant hormones, such as auxin or gibberellic acid or a salt thereof, in addition to methods of manufacturing and using such compositions and granules, for example for improving plant health and production, such as treating the soil of pastoral land to increase pasture production.

BALLANCE AGRI NUTRIENTS Ltd | Date: 2013-11-21

The present invention provides fertiliser compositions comprising granules of urea and plant hormone, such as gibberellic acid or a salt thereof, in addition to methods of manufacturing and using such compositions and granules, for example for improving plant health and production, such as treating the soil of pastoral land to increase pasture production.

Ballance Agri Nutrients Ltd | Date: 2015-11-25

Particulate compositions of reverted superphosphate substantially free of free acid containing at least one nitrification inhibitor and their methods of preparation and use

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