Ball State University, commonly referred to as Ball State or BSU, is a public coeducational research university in Muncie, Indiana, United States. On July 25, 1917, the Ball Brothers, industrialists and founders of the Ball Corporation, acquired the foreclosed Indiana Normal Institute for $35,100 and gave the school and surrounding land to Indiana. The Indiana General Assembly accepted it in the spring of 1918, with an initial 235 students enrolling at the Indiana State Normal School–Eastern Division on June 17, 1918.Ball State is classified by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education as a high research activity university and a member of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities. The university is composed of seven academic colleges, including the College of Architecture and Planning, the College of Communication, Information, and Media, the Miller College of Business, and Teachers College. Other institutions include Burris Laboratory School, the Indiana Academy for Science, Mathematics, and Humanities, and the Center for Business and Economic Research.Total 2013 enrollment consists of 21,053 students, 16,652 undergraduate students and 4,401 graduate students. Ball State University students hail from 48 states, two U.S. territories, 43 countries, and every one of Indiana's 92 counties. The university offers about 180 undergraduate majors and 130 minor areas of study, 175 bachelor's, 103 master's, and 17 doctoral degrees. There are 381 active student organizations and clubs on campus, including 34 fraternities and sororities. Ball State athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are known as the Ball State Cardinals. The university is a member of the Mid-American Conference and the Midwestern Intercollegiate Volleyball Association. Wikipedia.
Gonzalez G.,Ball State University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014
We report the results of our analysis of new high-resolution spectra of 37 late-F to early-G dwarf stars for the purpose of deriving their Li abundances. Most of the stars were selected from the large Valenti and Fischer compilation and had unknown Li abundances prior to the present study. When the new data are combined with data from our previous studies on this topic and analysed in a similar way, we find, again, that stars with planets near the solar temperature are deficient in Li relative to a comparison set of stars. A similar result is obtained when we combine our data with a large data base of stellar Li abundances from the literature. © 2014 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.
Airriess C.A.,Ball State University
Habitat International | Year: 2014
This research critiques the concept of moral hazard to explain boat squatter toleration by the post-World War II Hong Kong colonial government. The normative nature of moral hazard discourse in neoliberal policy and practice is examined through the use of archived colonial administrative memoranda as a form of ethnography. Perceiving spatial mobility of boat squatters occupying the liminal space of typhoon shelters over which the government did not possess complete jurisdictional control evoked a host of situational moral hazard truth claims to exclude them from public housing. Conflicting narratives of government actors in administrative memoranda provide evidence of the dubious use of moral hazard logic to justify neoliberal government indifference to the housing needs of a marginalized population. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Florea L.J.,Ball State University
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2013
This paper considers the variation of δ18O and δ2H (VSMOW) in precipitation and shallow groundwater from carbonate aquifers that lend insight into the source and timing of recharge within temperate, epigenic karst. The shallow groundwater collected during 2010 and 2011 at Stream Cave (SC) and Natural Bridge Caverns (NBC) represent one input to and the primary output from the Redmond Creek karst aquifer in the Cumberland Plateau of southeast Kentucky, respectively. These data are compared with the isotopic composition of concurrent samples of precipitation from the same watershed that covers some 1900ha. Values of δ18O and δ2H at SC and NBC are statistically similar and cluster at the midpoint of the local meteoric water line. These values remain surprisingly constant despite seasonal changes in temperature regimens and discharge. Samples in 2012 from regional springs that include Redmond Creek are more depleted in the heavier isotope and similarly stable despite coming from aquifers of a range of sizes and physical characteristics. Applying a Priestly-Taylor model for daily values of potential evapotranspiration, only 43% of the 1.10m of precipitation in the 2010-2011 dataset remains as potential recharge, primarily during cooler months with lower solar insolation. Weighting δ18O and δ2H values of precipitation by potential recharge creates a better match with the isotopic composition of shallow groundwater than by weighting by precipitation amount. The isotopic composition and deuterium excess of precipitation samples are directly and inversely proportional to temperature, respectively. Deuterium excess in this study and displays intra- and inter-annual variation that ranges from a minimum of +11.1‰ to a maximum of +29.5‰ that demonstrate the higher-than-average deuterium excess in greater Appalachia and the shifting latitude of moisture sources, including a significant winter component of re-evaporated, continental moisture. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Montoye A.H.K.,Ball State University
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2014
RESULTS: The ANNs for all 4 accelerometers achieved high measurement accuracy, with correlations of r>0.80 for predicting energy expenditure. The thigh accelerometer provided the highest overall accuracy (r=0.90) and lowest root mean square error (1.04 METs), and the differences between the thigh and the other monitors was more pronounced when fewer input variables were used in the predictive models. None of the predictive models had an overall bias for prediction of energy expenditure.CONCLUSION: A single accelerometer placed on the thigh provided the highest accuracy for energy expenditure prediction, although monitors worn on the wrists or hip can also be used with high measurement accuracy.PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop, validate, and compare energy expenditure prediction models for accelerometers placed on the hip, thigh, and wrists using simple accelerometer features as input variables in energy expenditure prediction models.METHODS: Forty four healthy adults participated in a 90-minute semi-structured, simulated free-living activity protocol. During the protocol, participants engaged in a total of 14 different sedentary, ambulatory, lifestyle, and exercise activities for 3–10 minutes each. Participants chose the order, duration, and intensity of activities. Four accelerometers were worn ( right hip, right thigh, and right and left wrists) in order to predict energy expenditure compared to that measured by the criterion measure (portable metabolic analyzer). Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were created to predict energy expenditure from each accelerometer using a leave-one-out cross-validation approach. Accuracy of the ANNs was evaluated using Pearson correlations, root mean square error, and bias. Several ANNs were developed using different input features in order to determine those most relevant for use in the models. © 2014 American College of Sports Medicine
Chen R.,Ball State University
Decision Support Systems | Year: 2013
In this research the authors examine members' voluntary use of social networking sites. Site use leads to the growth of social relationships, increased volume of site visits and traffic, and an accumulation of user generated contents; hence it is imperative to the success of social networking sites. Drawing upon Social Exchange Theory (SET), we develop a research model that examines the major determinants of member site use behavior through a cost-benefit framework. This model also investigates the key antecedents to site use that stem from website designs, personal traits, and personal beliefs in the environment. The research model has been validated through survey data collected from 222 social networking site users, and the analysis results provide strong support to the hypothesized relationships. The current study generates new knowledge on the literature of SET and social networking sites; it also sheds lights on site management for networking service providers. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.