Castello A.,Institute Salud Carlos III |
Castello A.,CIBER ISCIII |
Castello A.,Cancer Epidemiology Research Group |
Prieto L.,Institute Salud Carlos III |
And 21 more authors.
Introduction Mammographic density (MD) is considered a strong predictor of Breast Cancer (BC). The objective of the present study is to explore the association between MD and the compliance with the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations for cancer prevention. Methods Data of 3584 women attending screening from a population-based multicenter cross-sectional study (DDM-Spain) collected from October 7, 2007 through July 14, 2008, was used to calculate a score that measures the level of compliance with the WCRF/AICR recommendations: R1)Maintain adequate body weight; R2)Be physically active; 3R)Limit the intake of high density foods; R4)Eat mostly plant foods; R5)Limit the intake of animal foods; R6)Limit alcohol intake; R7)Limit salt and salt preserved food intake; R8)Meet nutritional needs through diet. The association between the score and MD (assessed by a single radiologist using a semi-quantitative scale) was evaluated using ordinal logistic models with random center-specific intercepts adjusted for the main determinants of MD. Stratified analyses by menopausal status and smoking status were also carried out. Results A higher compliance with the WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated with lower MD (OR1-unit increase = 0.93 95%CI:0.86;0.99). The association was stronger in postmenopausal women (OR = 0.91 95%CI:0.84;0.99) and nonsmokers (OR = 0.87;95%CI:0.80;0.96 for nonsmokers, OR = 1.01 95%CI:0.91;1.12 for smokers, P-interaction = 0.042). Among nonsmokers, maintaining adequate body weight (OR = 0.81 95%CI:0.65;1.01), practicing physical activity (OR = 0.68 95%CI:0.48;0.96) and moderating the intake of high-density foods (OR = 0.58 95%CI:0.40;0.86) and alcoholic beverages (OR = 0.76 95%CI:0.55;1.05) were the recommendations showing the strongest associations with MD. Conclusions postmenopausal women and non-smokers with greater compliance with theWCRF/AICR guidelines have lower MD. These results may provide guidance to design specific recommendations for screening attendants with high MD and therefore at higher risk of developing BC. Copyright: © 2015 Castelló et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source
Pollan M.,Carlos III Institute of Health |
Pollan M.,CIBER ISCIII |
Lope V.,Carlos III Institute of Health |
Lope V.,CIBER ISCIII |
And 24 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
High mammographic density (MD) is a phenotype risk marker for breast cancer. Body mass index (BMI) is inversely associated with MD, with the breast being a fat storage site. We investigated the influence of abdominal fat distribution and adult weight gain on MD, taking age, BMI and other confounders into account. Because visceral adiposity and BMI are associated with breast cancer only after menopause, differences in pre- and post-menopausal women were also explored. We recruited 3,584 women aged 45-68 years within the Spanish breast cancer screening network. Demographic, reproductive, family and personal history data were collected by purposetrained staff, who measured current weight, height, waist and hip circumferences under the same protocol and with the same tools. MD was assessed in the left craniocaudal view using Boyd's Semiquantitative Scale. Association between waist-to-hip ratio, adult weight gain (difference between current weight and self-reported weight at 18 years) and MD was quantified by ordinal logistic regression, with random center-specific intercepts. Models were adjusted for age, BMI, breast size, time since menopause, parity, family history of breast cancer and hormonal replacement therapy use. Natural splines were used to describe the shape of the relationship between these two variables and MD. Waist-to-hip ratio was inversely associated with MD, and the effect was more pronounced in pre-menopausal (OR = 0.53 per 0.1 units; 95 % CI = 0.42-0.66) than in post-menopausal women (OR = 0.73; 95 % CI = 0.65-0.82) (P of heterogeneity = 0.010). In contrast, adult weight gain displayed a positive association with MD, which was similar in both groups (OR = 1.17 per 6 kg; 95 % CI = 1.11-1.23). Women who had gained more than 24 kg displayed higher MD (OR = 2.05; 95 % CI = 1.53-2.73). MD was also evaluated using Wolfe's and Tabár's classifications, with similar results being obtained. Once BMI, fat distribution and other confounders were considered, our results showed a clear dose-response gradient between the number of kg gained during adulthood and the proportion of dense tissue in the breast. © The Author(s) 2012. Source