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Jurado J.,Institute Universitari dInvestigacio en Atencio Primaria Jordi Gol | Ybarra J.,Centro Medico Teknon | Romeo J.H.,Baldwin Wallace College | Garcia M.,IDIAP Jordi Gol. | Zabaleta-Del-Olmo E.,IDIAP Jordi Gol.
Journal of Diabetes and its Complications

Background: Identifying patients at risk of developing diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is of paramount importance in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to provide and anticipate secondary prevention measures as well as intensify action on risk factors, particularly so in primary care. Noteworthy, the incidence of DPN remains unknown in our environment. Aims: (i) To analyze a single angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism (D/I) as a genetic marker of risk of developing DPN, and (ii) to determine the incidence of DPN in our environment. Research design and methods: Longitudinal study with annual follow-up for 3 years involving a group of T2DM (N = 283) randomly selected. ACE gene polymorphism distribution (I = insertion; D = deletion) was determined. DPN was diagnosed using clinical and neurophysiology evaluation. Results: Baseline DPN prevalence was 28.97% (95% CI, 23.65-34.20). ACE polymorphism heterozygous genotype D/I presence was 60.77% (95% CI, 55.05-66.5) and was independently associated with a decreased risk of DPN (RR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.30-0.86). DPN correlated with age (P < 0.001) but not with gender (P = 0.466) or time of evolution of T2DM (P = 0.555). Regarding end point, DPN prevalence was 36.4% (95% CI, 30.76-42.04), and accumulated incidence was 10.4% 3 years thereafter. In the final Poisson regression analysis, the presence of heterozygous genotype remained independently associated with a decreased risk of DPN (RR, 0.71; (95% CI, 0.53-0.96). DPN presence remained correlated with age (P = 0.002), but not with gender (P = 0.490) or time of evolution (P = 0.630). Conclusions: In our series, heterozygous ACE polymorphism (D/I) stands as a protective factor for DPN development. Accumulated incidence of DPN was relevant. Further prospective studies are warranted. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Wolf F.,Nova Southeastern University | Pickler L.,Baldwin Wallace College
International Journal of Information Systems and Supply Chain Management

This paper examines how supply chain conflicts across domestic and international jurisdictions arise and become resolved given that conventional conflict resolution tribunals cannot effectively settle fast enough to serve the needs of supply chain partners. Observations from the field should guide practitioners, and in combination with information technology, may lead to best practice rules in dispute resolution. For this study, the Delphi Method was selected, in which a panel of 14 experts participated in three rounds of successive surveys over a one-year period. Survey data was collected by mail as well as via telephone conversations and interviews, while under the Delphi method, the content of the second questionnaire was derived from the responses of the first questionnaire. All participants were supply chain experts in the United States from eight different industrial sectors, and none of the participants interacted with one another. End results show that supply chain's relationships are very private trade arrangements and that disputes arise, predictably, from common performance criteria such as quality, timely delivery and payment issues. Copyright © 2010, IGI Global. Source

Thomas B.L.,Baldwin Wallace College | Cutler M.,Baldwin Wallace College | Novak C.,Baldwin Wallace College
Learning and Motivation

Two studies using an ABA design examined the Extinction and renewal of conditioned barpress suppression. Following lights-off and foot shock pairings in Context A, rats were placed in Context B and were given either a standard counterconditioning procedure where the lights-off CS was paired with a novel food US delivered freely or a modified counterconditioning procedure where CS-US pairings only occurred if the rat earned the US by performing a required behavior during the CS. Results indicated that the modified counterconditioning procedure thwarted ABA renewal but the conventional counterconditioning procedure did not reduce ABA renewal any more than nonreinforced exposure to the CS alone. Furthermore, the response required during the modified counterconditioning procedure could be one used as a baseline response during Acquisition of fear or it could be a novel response. Implications of the results for theories of Extinction and renewal of fear are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

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