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Itoi T.,Tokyo Medical University | Ishii K.,Tokyo Medical University | Ikeuchi N.,Tokyo Medical University | Sofuni A.,Tokyo Medical University | And 5 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2016

Surgical gastrojejunostomy (GJ), which has been the standard palliative treatment for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (MGOO), is associated with good functional outcome and the long-term relief of symptoms. Endoscopic placement of a metal stent for MGOO treatment has been gaining popularity as an alternative to surgical GJ because of its high technical success rates and less invasiveness. Interestingly, several investigators have attempted endoscopic GJ as 'endoscopic bypass' for longer efficacy while maintaining a less invasive procedure.1 We previously reported on the feasibility and safety of EUS-guided GJ (EUS-GJ) using a lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS)2 3 and a special double-balloon enteric tube in an animal model and a pilot clinical study.3 Herein, we describe the first prospective clinical study of EUS-guided double-balloon-occluded gastrojejunostomy bypass (EPASS) using a LAMS (figure 1). We performed EPASS in 20 patients with MGOO. The double-balloon tube (figure 2) was correctly inserted into the jejunum across from the stomach in all cases. The technical success rate of stent placement was 90%.

Ramchandani M.,Asian Institute of Gastroenterology | Reddy D.N.,Asian Institute of Gastroenterology | Lakhtakia S.,Asian Institute of Gastroenterology | Tandan M.,Asian Institute of Gastroenterology | And 7 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

AIM: To provide consensus statements on the use of per-oral cholangiopancreatoscopy (POCPS). METHODS: A workgroup of experts in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), endosonography, and POCPS generated consensus statements summarizing the utility of POCPS in pancreaticobiliary disease. Recommendation grades used validated evidence ratings of publications from an extensive literature review. RESULTS: Six consensus statements were generated: (1) POCPS is now an important additional tool during ERCP; (2) in patients with indeterminate biliary strictures, POCS and POCS-guided targeted biopsy are useful for establishing a definitive diagnosis; (3) POCS and POCS-guided lithotripsy are recommended for treatment of difficult common bile duct stones when standard techniques fail; (4) in patients with main duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) POPS may be used to assess extent of tumor to assist surgical resection; (5) in difficult pancreatic ductal stones, POPS-guided lithotripsy may be useful in fragmentation and extraction of stones; and (6) additional indications for POCPS include selective guidewire placement, unexplained hemobilia, assessing intraductal biliary ablation therapy, and extracting migrated stents. CONCLUSION: POCPS is important in association with ERCP, particularly for diagnosis of indeterminate biliary strictures and for intra-ductal lithotripsy when other techniques failed, and may be useful for preoperative assessment of extent of main duct IPMN, for extraction of difficult pancreatic stones, and for unusual indications involving selective guidewire placement, assessing unexplained hemobilia or intraductal biliary ablation therapy, and extracting migrated stents. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

Kwek A.B.E.,Changi General Hospital | Ang T.L.,Changi General Hospital | Maydeo A.,Baldota Institute of Digestive science
Singapore Medical Journal | Year: 2014

Chronic pancreatitis is associated with varied morphological complications, including intraductal stones, main pancreatic ductal strictures, distal biliary strictures and pseudocysts. Endoscopic therapy provides a less invasive alternative to surgery. In addition, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy improves the success rate of endoscopic clearance of intraductal stones. However, recent data from randomised trials have shown better long-term outcomes with surgical drainage for obstructive pancreatic ductal disease. In patients with distal biliary strictures, stent insertion leads to good immediate drainage, but after stent removal, recurrent narrowing is common. Endoscopic drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts has excellent outcome and should be accompanied by pancreatic ductal stenting when a ductal communication is evident. In those who remain symptomatic, endoscopic ultrasonography-guided coeliac plexus block may provide effective but short-term pain relief. In this review, we present the current evidence for the role of endotherapy in the management of patients with chronic pancreatitis. © 2014. Singapore Medical Association (SMA). All Rights Reserved.

Bhandari S.,Baldota Institute of Digestive science | Maydeo A.,Baldota Institute of Digestive science
Indian Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

Background: Majority of the bile duct stones (BDS) are radiolucent (RL) and are amenable to conventional endoscopic extraction techniques. There is no publication that specifically discusses the optimal management of radio-opaque (RO) BDS and makes a distinction from the strategy followed for RL BDS. Methods: Data of patients with BDS managed endoscopically from January 2009 till June 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Diagnosis of RO stone was established during initial fluoroscopy, just prior to obtaining a cholangiogram. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was done using therapeutic duodenoscope. Stone extraction was attempted initially using conventional techniques. Balloon sphincteroplasty or mechanical lithotripsy (ML) or both were done if conventional techniques failed. Cholangioscopy-guided intracorporeal holmium laser lithotripsy (LL) was done when all the above techniques failed. Results: Fifteen patients were found to have RO stones in the bile duct during the study period. ERCP was successful in all patients. Discrepancy of the stone size in relation to the lower CBD diameter was seen in eight patients (53.34 %). Stone extraction with conventional techniques was successful in 2/15 patients (13 %). Successful controlled radial expansion (CRE) balloon sphincteroplasty/ML was possible in 5/15 patients (33 %). Cholangioscopy guided LL was done in eight patients (53.34 %) with successful pulverization of RO BDS (100 %). Conclusions: RO bile duct stones provide unique challenges for endoscopic management with success of conventional techniques in only about half of them (46 %). RO stones detected on fluoroscopy are extremely hard and difficult to crush with lithotripsy basket probably due to high calcium content. Cholangioscopy guided LL provides an excellent alternative management strategy. © 2015, Indian Society of Gastroenterology.

Dhir V.,Baldota Institute of Digestive science | Itoi T.,Tokyo Medical University | Khashab M.A.,Johns Hopkins Hospital | Park D.H.,Asan Medical Center | And 5 more authors.
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy | Year: 2015

Background A single session of EUS-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) may be a viable alternative to ERCP in patients with malignant distal common bile duct (CBD) obstruction. There is no study comparing EUS-BD and ERCP for the relief of distal malignant biliary obstruction. Objective To compare the outcomes of self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement for malignant distal biliary obstruction by using ERCP and EUS-BD. Study Design Multicenter, retrospective analysis. Setting Tertiary referral centers. Patients Patients with malignant distal CBD obstruction requiring SEMS placement. Interventions Patients in the EUS-BD group underwent EUS-guided choledochoduodenostomy (EUS-CDS) or EUS-guided antegrade (EUS-AG) procedures after 1 or more failed ERCP attempts. Patients in the ERCP group underwent retrograde SEMS placement. Main Outcome Measurements Composite success (the ability to complete the intended therapeutic procedure in a single session and resulting in a greater than 50% decrease in bilirubin over 2 weeks). Results The study included 208 patients, 104 treated with ERCP and 104 treated with EUS-BD (68 EUS-CDS, 36 EUS-AG). SEMS placement was successful in 98 patients in the ERCP group and 97 in the EUS-BD group (94.23% vs 93.26%, P = 1.00). The frequency of adverse events in the ERCP and EUS-BD groups was 8.65% and 8.65%, respectively. Postprocedure pancreatitis rates were higher in the ERCP group (4.8% vs 0, P =.059). The mean procedure times in the ERCP and EUS-BD groups were similar (30.10 and 35.95 minutes, P =.05). Limitations Retrospective analysis. Conclusions In patients with malignant distal CBD obstruction requiring SEMS placement, the short-term outcome of EUS-BD is comparable to that of ERCP. © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

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