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Blackford D.,Fluid Measurement Technologies Inc. | Ackermann A.,Microfier Inc. | Mildermuth G.,Microfier Inc. | Schoen S.,Balazs NanoAnalysis
Ultrapure Water | Year: 2010

A new ultrapure water (UPW) metrology device, called the nano-Particle Collection Device (nPCD), has been developed for collection and elemental identification of sub-50-nm particles in (UPW). The new device uses an agglomeration technique to create particles that are large for elemental analysis with a X-ray diffraction technique. The device significantly reduces the particles collection time, as they are agglomerated to larger size, enabling the established EDS technique to be used to identify the agglomeration process. The new device is an analytical adaptation of patented Microfiber Technology that has been developed and tested in the laboratory earlier. It captures, concentrates, and presents nanoparticle agglomerates for analysis using a traditional technique. Source


Schoen S.,Balazs NanoAnalysis | Neither A.,Applied Materials | Libman S.,MW Group
Ultrapure Water | Year: 2010

One of the biggest challenges facing the PV industry is achieving production cost targets for equivalent competitive manufacturing wattage output. Lower cost can be reached in anumberof ways, such as via manufacturing cost improvements of the PV wafer, cell, and module production. Similarly to the semiconductor industry, this is expected to occur via more energy efficient PV cells coupled with lower cost PV manufacturing. Both factors are expected to require a higher manufacturing complexity of the PV products in the future and, as a result, cleaner manufacturing environments and potentially improved UPW quality. Current state-of-the-art UPW technology provides solutions for any UPW quality anticipated in the future. However, the challenge is related to cost versus quality optimization of the UPW design. Incremental UPW investments may not translate proportionally to improved water quality. Given the relatively shorthistory of the PV industry, the PV UPW design and water quality requirements are yet to be standardized. Thiscan create a risk of both insufficient quality and excessively high cost of the facility systems. Diversity of the PV processes makes thetask even more complicated. SEMI, under the direction of their PV Group, formed a task force that has taken on the challenge to provide the industry with the UPW quality standards that could be used for new system designs as well as a guide for existing systems. The large number of different PV technologies increases the complexity to the task of standardizing the water quality requirements, thus resulting in the need to introduce a tiered approach. Since the time that the original work began on this article, the proposed HPW specification mentioned within was balloted to the PV industry and published by SEMI, Uncertainty of the effect of water quality to PV production will require proper ongoing process control. Source


Pennington B.,Balazs NanoAnalysis | Schoen S.,Balazs NanoAnalysis
Ultrapure Water | Year: 2010

Accurate sample collection is the key to obtaining accurate analytical data. This is especially true as semiconductor geometries continue to shrink and UPW guidelines continue to push quality requirements and analytical methods to lower levels. The goal is to minimize contamination introduced during sample collection, and to ensure accurate analytical data is obtained. Sub-ppt analytical analysis is only achievable by continually refining and improving our basic knowledge and understanding of sample collection. Sample valve type, design, installation, and technique each play a critical role in proper sample collection. By designing specific sampling protocols at each si te, many hindrances to obtaining clean samples will be eliminated. Improved productivity and cost savings will be realized as analytical data will not have to be questioned or resampled. Expanding the number of sampling ports and monitoring locations throughout the water system, distribution system, and point of use (POU), will allow water quality changes to be detected before they are out of compliance. Troubleshooting will also be much quicker and more comprehensive. Any outlier data points should always be verified by resample before major operational changes are made. Source

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